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Czech Republic (2004)

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Czech Republic 2004 year

 Czech Republic
Administrative divisions 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj, Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha*, Stredocesky Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj
Age structure 0-14 years: 15% (male 789,987; female 748,476)

15-64 years: 70.9% (male 3,643,574; female 3,622,276)

65 years and over: 14.1% (male 557,496; female 884,369) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Airports 120 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 44

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 17 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 76

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 27

under 914 m: 48 (2004 est.)
Area total: 78,866 sq km

land: 77,276 sq km

water: 1,590 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Carolina
Background Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
Birth rate 9.1 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $33.25 billion

expenditures: $38.88 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Prague
Climate temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Country name conventional long form: Czech Republic

conventional short form: Czech Republic

local long form: Ceska Republika

local short form: Ceska Republika
Currency Czech koruna (CZK)
Death rate 10.54 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $28 billion (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William J. CABANISS

embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [420] (2) 5753-0663

FAX: [420] (2) 5753-0583
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Martin PALOUS

chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918; individual Sudeten Germans seek restitution for property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor dispute with Czech Republic over the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant
Economic aid - recipient $108 million; EU structural adjustment funds (2002)
Economy - overview One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-03 was supported by exports to the EU, primarily to Germany, and a near doubling of foreign direct investment. Domestic demand is playing an ever more important role in underpinning growth as interest rates drop and the availability of credit cards and mortgages increases. High current account deficits - averaging around 5% of GDP in the last several years - could be a persistent problem. Inflation is under control. The EU put the Czech Republic just behind Poland and Hungary in preparations for accession, which will give further impetus and direction to structural reform. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications, and energy privatization will encourage additional foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks, and improvements in the financial sector, should strengthen output growth. Nonetheless, revival in the European economies remains essential to stepped-up growth.
Electricity - consumption 55.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 18.92 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 9.38 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 70.04 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Elbe River 115 m

highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Ethnic groups Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5% (1991)
Exchange rates koruny per US dollar - 28.209 (2003), 32.7385 (2002), 38.0353 (2001), 38.5984 (2000), 34.5692 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)

note: the Czech Republic's first president Vaclav HAVEL stepped down from office on 2 February 2003 having served exactly 10 years; parliament finally elected a successor on 28 February 2003 after two inconclusive elections in January 2003

head of government: Prime Minister Stanislav GROSS (since 26 July 2004), Deputy Prime Ministers Zdenek SKROMACH (since 4 August 2004), Martin JAHN (since 4 August 2004), Pavel NEMEC (since 4 August 2004); Milan SIMONOVSKY (since 4 August 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; last successful election held 28 February 2003 (after earlier elections held 15 and 24 January 2003 were inconclusive; next election to be held NA January 2008); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Vaclav KLAUS elected president on 28 February 2003; Vaclav KLAUS 142 votes, Jan SOKOL 124 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
Exports 18.92 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $46.77 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 1 million cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 26,670 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 44%, intermediate manufactures 25%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7% (2000)
Exports - partners Germany 37.1%, Slovakia 8%, Austria 6.3%, UK 5.4%, Poland 4.8%, France 4.7%, Italy 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)
GDP purchasing power parity - $161.1 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.1%

industry: 35.5%

services: 61.4% (2003)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $15,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.9% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 49 45 N, 15 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
Heliports 2 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 55,408 km

paved: 55,408 km (including 499 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.3%

highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime
Imports 9.38 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $50.4 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 9.521 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 192,300 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 40%, intermediate manufactures 21%, raw materials and fuels 13%, chemicals 11% (2000)
Imports - partners Germany 32.6%, Italy 5.3%, China 5.2%, Slovakia 5.2%, France 4.9%, Russia 4.6%, Austria 4.3%, Poland 4.2% (2003)
Independence 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Industrial production growth rate 3.3% (2003)
Industries metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
Infant mortality rate total: 3.97 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.32 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.1% (2003 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 240 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
Labor force 5.25 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 5%, industry 35%, services 60% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,881 km

border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km
Land use arable land: 39.8%

permanent crops: 3.05%

other: 57.15% (2001)
Languages Czech
Legal system civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held in two rounds 5-6 November and 12-13 November 2004 (next to be held NA November 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14-15 June 2002 (next to be held by NA June 2006)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ODS 26, KDU-CSL 15, Open Democracy 15, CSSD 9, Caucus "Independent" 5, US-DEU 1, European Democrats 1, Greens 1, KSCM 1, independents 7; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 30.2%, ODS 24.5%, KSCM 18.5%, KDU-CSL & US-DEU coalition 14.3%, other minor 12.5%; seats by party - CSSD 70, ODS 58, KSCM 41, KDU-CSL 21, US-DEU 10
Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.78 years

male: 72.52 years

female: 79.24 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)

male: NA

female: NA
Location Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Czech Army: Ground Forces, Air Forces, Special Forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1,190.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.1% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,623,386 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,003,748 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 67,195 (2004 est.)
National holiday Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Nationality noun: Czech(s)

adjective: Czech
Natural hazards flooding
Natural resources hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Net migration rate 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 7,020 km; oil 547 km; refined products 94 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Miroslav KALOUSEK, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Jirina NOVAKOVA, chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jaroslav ROVNY, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Stanislav GROSS, acting chairman]; European Democrats [Jan KASL]; Freedom Union-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Pavel NEMEC, chairman]; Green Party; Open Democracy
Political pressure groups and leaders Bohemian and Moravian Trade Union Confederation [Milan STECH]
Population 10,246,178 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate -0.05% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem
Radio broadcast stations AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)
Railways total: 9,520 km

standard gauge: 9,421 km 1.435-m gauge (2,893 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 99 km 0.760-m gauge (2003)
Religions Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%, atheist 39.8%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous

domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar
Telephones - main lines in use 3.626 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 9,708,700 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)
Terrain Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Total fertility rate 1.18 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.9% (2003)
Waterways 664 km (on Elbe, Vlatava, and Oder rivers) (2004)
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