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Czech Republic (2001)

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Czech Republic 2001 year

 Czech Republic
Administrative divisions 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Brnensky, Budejovicky, Jihlavsky, Karlovarsky, Kralovehradecky, Liberecky, Olomoucky, Ostravsky, Pardubicky, Plzensky, Praha*, Stredocesky, Ustecky, Zlinsky
Age structure 0-14 years:
16.09% (male 847,219; female 804,731)

15-64 years:
69.99% (male 3,592,984; female 3,590,802)

65 years and over:
13.92% (male 549,538; female 878,938) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Airports 114 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
16 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
42 (2000 est.)
Area total:
78,866 sq km

77,276 sq km

1,590 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Carolina
Background After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO, the Czech Republic has moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities and risks.
Birth rate 9.11 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$16.7 billion

$18 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Prague
Climate temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Country name conventional long form:
Czech Republic

conventional short form:
Czech Republic

local long form:
Ceska Republika

local short form:
Ceska Republika
Currency Czech koruna (CZK)
Death rate 10.81 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $21.3 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven J. COFFEY

Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[420] (2) 5753-0663

[420] (2) 5753-0583
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Alexsandr VONDRA

3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 274-9100

[1] (202) 966-8540

consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918; individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor dispute with Czech Republic over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Basically one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. The economy grew about 2.5% in 2000 and should achieve somewhat higher growth in 2001. Growth is led by exports to the EU, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving. Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could be future problems. Unemployment is down to 8.7% as job creation continues in the rebounding economy; inflation is up to 3.8% but still moderate. The EU put the Czech Republic just behind Poland and Hungary in preparations for accession, which will give further impetus and direction to structural reform. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications and energy privatization will add to foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector should strengthen output growth.
Electricity - consumption 52.898 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 18.744 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 8.735 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 67.642 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Elbe River 115 m

highest point:
Snezka 1,602 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5% (1991)
Exchange rates koruny per US dollar - 37.425 (January 2001), 38.598 (2000), 34.569 (1999), 32.281 (1998), 31.698 (1997), 27.145 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2 February 1993)

head of government:
Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17 July 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 22 July 1998), Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 22 July 1998), Jan KAVAN (since 8 December 1999)

Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Vaclav HAVEL reelected president; Vaclav HAVEL received 47 of 81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the Chamber of Deputies (second round of voting)
Exports 18.744 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $28.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 44%, other manufactured goods 40%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7% (1999)
Exports - partners Germany 43%, Slovakia 8.4%, Austria 6.6%, Poland 5.6%, France 4% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)
GDP purchasing power parity - $132.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


54.5% (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $12,900 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 49 45 N, 15 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
55,432 km

55,432 km (including 499 km of expressways)

0 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
22.4% (1996)
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; domestic consumption - especially of locally produced synthetic drugs - on the rise
Imports 8.735 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $31.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 42%, other manufactured goods 33%, chemicals 12%, raw materials and fuels 10% (1999)
Imports - partners Germany 37.5%, Slovakia 6.7%, Austria 6.2%, Italy 5.9%, France 5.4% (1999)
Independence 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Industrial production growth rate 7.6% (2000)
Industries metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
Infant mortality rate 5.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) more than 300 (2000)
Irrigated land 240 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
Labor force 5.203 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 5%, industry 40%, services 55% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total:
1,881 km

border countries:
Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

12% (1993 est.)
Languages Czech
Legal system civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Senate - last held 12 and 19 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 19-20 June 1998 (next to be held by NA June 2002)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - KDU-CSL 28, ODS 22, CSSD 15, ODA 7, US 4, KSCM 3, independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 32.3%, ODS 27.7%, KSCM 11%, KDU-CSL 9.0%, US 8.6%; seats by party - CSSD 74, ODS 63, KSCM 24, KDU-CSL 20, US 18, CSNS 1
Life expectancy at birth total population:
74.73 years

71.23 years

78.43 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:

total population:
99.9% (1999 est.)


Location Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial Defense, Railroad Units
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.2 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.2% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,653,456 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
2,024,070 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
69,393 (2001 est.)
National holiday Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards flooding
Natural resources hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Net migration rate 0.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 3,550 km (2000)
Political parties and leaders Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Jan KASAL, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Daniel KROUPA, chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jan SULA, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Milos ZEMAN, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman]; Freedom Union or US [Karel KUEHNL, chairman]; Quad Coalition [Cyril SVOBODA, chairman] (includes KDU-CSL, US, ODA, DEU); Republicans of Miroslav SLADEK or RMS [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions [Richard FALBR]
Population 10,264,212 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate -0.07% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem
Radio broadcast stations AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)
Radios 3,159,134 (December 2000)
Railways total:
9,444 km

standard gauge:
9,350 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2,843 km electrified; 1,929 km double track)

narrow gauge:
94 km 0.760-m narrow gauge (2000)
Religions atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.63 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous

86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar
Telephones - main lines in use 3.869 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4.346 million (2000)
Television broadcast stations 150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)
Terrain Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Total fertility rate 1.18 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 8.7% (2000 est.)
Waterways 303 km

(the Labe (Elbe) is the principal river) (2000)
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