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Congo, Republic of the (2001)

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Congo, Republic of the 2001 year

 Congo, Republic of the
Administrative divisions 9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha
Age structure 0-14 years:
42.43% (male 618,411; female 609,633)

15-64 years:
54.23% (male 765,501; female 804,125)

65 years and over:
3.34% (male 38,772; female 57,894) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
Airports 33 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
10 (2000 est.)
Area total:
342,000 sq km

341,500 sq km

500 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Montana
Background Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO.
Birth rate 38.24 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$870 million

$970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Capital Brazzaville
Climate tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Coastline 169 km
Constitution Draft constitution approved by transitional parliament in September 2000
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of the Congo

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republique du Congo

local short form:

Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Death rate 16.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $5 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador David H. KAEUPER


mailing address:

[243] (88) 43608

[243] (88) 41036

the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim Serge MOMBOULI

4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011

[1] (202) 726-5500

[1] (202) 726-1860
Disputes - international most of the Congo river boundary with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite (no agreement has been reached on the division of the river or its islands, except in the Stanley Pool/Pool Malebo area)
Economic aid - recipient $159.1 million (1995)
Economy - overview The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. Moreover, the government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to the government's shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994, but inflation has subsided since. Economic reform efforts continued with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF. The reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions. However, economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the Republic of the Congo's budget deficit. Even with the IMF's renewed confidence and high world oil prices, Congo is unlikely to realize growth of more than 5% in 2001-02. With the return to fragile peace, the IMF approved a $14 million credit in November 2000 to aid post-conflict reconstruction.
Electricity - consumption 406.9 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 126 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 302 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Mount Berongou 903 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans NA%; note - Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French, before the 1997 civil war; may be half that of 1998, following the widespread destruction of foreign businesses in 1997
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro
Executive branch chief of state:
President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Council of Ministers appointed by the president

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 August 1992 (next was to be held 27 July 1997 but will be delayed for several years pending the drafting of a new constitution)

election results:
Pascal LISSOUBA elected president in 1992; percent of vote - Pascal LISSOUBA 61.3%, Bernard KOLELAS 38.7%; note - LISSOUBA was deposed in 1997, replaced by Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities petroleum 50%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
Exports - partners US 23%, Benelux 14%, Germany, Italy, Taiwan, China (1998)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $3.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


42% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,100 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 00 S, 15 00 E
Geography - note about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
Highways total:
12,800 km

1,242 km

11,558 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 126 million kWh (1999)
Imports $870 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities petroleum products, capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
Imports - partners France 23%, US 9%, Belgium 8%, UK 7%, Italy (1997 est.)
Independence 15 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarette making
Infant mortality rate 99.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.5% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 10 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force NA
Land boundaries total:
5,504 km

border countries:
Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

9% (1993 est.)
Languages French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo has the most users)
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law
Legislative branch unicameral National Transitional Council (75 seats, members elected by reconciliation forum of 1,420 delegates on NA January 1998); note - the National Transitional Council replaced the bicameral Parliament

National Transitional Council - last held NA January 1998 (next to be held NA 2001); note - at that election the National Transitional Council is to be replaced by a bicameral assembly

election results:
National Transitional Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
Life expectancy at birth total population:
47.57 years

44.38 years

50.85 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


67.2% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea:
200 NM
Military branches Army, Air Force, Navy, Gendarmerie
Military expenditures - dollar figure $110 million (FY93)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.8% (FY93)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
684,922 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
347,946 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
32,350 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
Nationality noun:
Congolese (singular and plural)

Congolese or Congo
Natural hazards seasonal flooding
Natural resources petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas, hydropower
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 25 km
Political parties and leaders the most important of the many parties are the Democratic and Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance of Convention for Alternative Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or PCT, Liberal Republican Party, National Union for Democracy and Progress, Patriotic Union for the National Reconstruction, and Union for the National Renewal) [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Association for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Population 2,894,336

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.2% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1999)
Radios 341,000 (1997)
Railways total:
894 km

narrow gauge:
894 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)
Religions Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.67 male(s)/female

total population:
0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out-of-order

primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 22,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,000 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 1 (1999)
Terrain coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Total fertility rate 5 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 1,120 km

the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for local traffic only
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