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Chiny (2006)

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Chiny 2006 roku

 Chiny
Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)


provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Tajwan)


autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Xizang (Tibet)


municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin


note: Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 20.8% (male 145,461,833/female 128,445,739)


15-64 years: 71.4% (male 482,439,115/female 455,960,489)


65 years and over: 7.7% (male 48,562,635/female 53,103,902) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Lotniska 486 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 403


over 3,047 m: 56


2,438 to 3,047 m: 127


1,524 to 2,437 m: 138


914 to 1,523 m: 22


under 914 m: 60 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 83


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 25


under 914 m: 39 (2006)
Terytorium total: 9,596,960 sq km


land: 9,326,410 sq km


water: 270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences, but w the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room dla personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 13.25 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $392.1 billion


expenditures: $424.3 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Stolica name: Beijing


geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 116 24 E


time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: despite its size, all of Chiny falls within one time zone
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny


conventional short form: Chiny


local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo


local short form: Zhongguo


abbreviation: PRC
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $252.8 billion (2005 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.


embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831


FAX: [86] (10) 6532-3178


consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Makau, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador ZHOU Wenzhong


chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje in 2005, Chiny and Indie began drafting principles to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes together z a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; about 90,000 ethnic Tibetan exiles reside primarily w Indie as well as Nepal and Bhutan; Chiny asserts sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions w the Spratlys but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Wietnam and Chiny continue to expand construction of facilities w the Spratlys and w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; Chiny and Tajwan have become more vocal w rejecting both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared equidistance line w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands w the Yalu and Tumen rivers are w an uncontested dispute z North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is considered indefinite; Chiny seeks to stem illegal migration of tens of thousands of North Koreans; Chiny and Rosja prepare to demarcate the boundary agreed to w pazdziernik 2004 between the long-disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation has been delayed; environmentalists w Birma and Tajlandia remain concerned about Chiny's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the Nujiang/Salween River w Yunnan Province
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $NA
Ekonomia Chiny's economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player w the global economy. Reforms started w the late 1970s z the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy dla state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. Chiny has generally implemented reforms w a gradualist or piecemeal fashion. The process continues z key moves w 2005 including the sale of equity w Chiny's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements w foreign exchange and bond markets. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase w Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, Chiny w 2005 stood as the second-largest economy w the world after the US, although w per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income and 150 million Chinese fall below international poverty lines. Economic development has generally been more rapid w coastal provinces than w the interior, and there are large disparities w per capita income between regions. The government has struggled to: (a) sustain adequate job growth dla tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. From 100 to 150 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that Chiny is now one of the most rapidly aging countries w the world. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration w the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially w the north. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Chiny has benefited from a huge expansion w computer Internet use, z more than 100 million users at the end of 2005. Foreign investment remains a strong element w Chiny's remarkable expansion w world trade and has been an important factor w the growth of urban jobs. In lipiec 2005, Chiny revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Reports of shortages of electric power w the summer of 2005 w southern Chiny receded by wrzesien-pazdziernik and did not have a substantial impact on Chiny's economy. More power generating capacity is scheduled to come on line w 2006 as large scale investments are completed. Thirteen years w construction at a cost of $24 billion, the immense Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River will be essentially completed w 2006 and will revolutionize electrification and flood control w the area. The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party w pazdziernik 2005 approved the draft 11th Five-Rok Plan and the National People's Congress is expected to give final approval w marzec 2006. The plan calls dla a 20% reduction w energy consumption per unit of Produkt krajowy brutto by 2010 and an estimated 45% increase w Produkt krajowy brutto by 2010. The plan states that conserving resources and protecting the environment are basic goals, but it lacks details on the policies and reforms necessary to achieve these goals.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.17 trillion kWh (2004)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 10.6 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.546 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.19 trillion kWh (2004)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004), 8.277 (2003), 8.277 (2002), 8.2771 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Executive Vice Premier HUANG Ju (since 17 marzec 2003), Vice Premiers WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (four delegates voted against him, four abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); two seats were vacant
Eksport 10.6 billion kWh (2003)
Eksport $752.2 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Eksport 2.79 billion cu m (2004)
Eksport 340,300 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment, plastics, optical and medical equipment, iron and steel
Eksport - partnerzy US 21.4%, Hong Kong 16.3%, Japonia 11%, South Korea 4.6%, Niemcy 4.3% (2005)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 12.5%


industry: 47.3%


services: 40.3%


note: industry includes construction (2005 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 10.2% (official data) (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak
Ladowiska helikopterow 32 (2006)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.4%


highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Import 1.546 billion kWh (2003)
Import $631.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2004)
Import 3.226 million bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel
Import - partnerzy Japonia 15.2%, South Korea 11.6%, Tajwan 11.2%, US 7.4%, Niemcy 4.6% (2005)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 styczen 1912 (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 pazdziernik 1949 (People's Republic established)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 29.5% (2005 est.)
Przemysl mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 23.12 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 20.6 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 25.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 1.8% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BCIE, BIS, CDB, EAS, FAO, G-24 (observer), G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 545,960 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Sila robocza 791.4 million (2005 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 49%


industry: 22%


services: 29% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 22,117 km


border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km


regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Makau 0.34 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 14.86%


permanent crops: 1.27%


other: 83.87% (2005)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held grudzien 2002-luty 2003 (next to be held late 2007-luty 2008)


election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 72.58 years


male: 70.89 years


female: 74.46 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.9%


male: 95.1%


female: 86.5% (2002)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 1,723 ships (1000 GRT or over) 21,405,633 GRT/32,411,260 DWT


by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 387, cargo 695, chemical tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 152, liquefied gas 31, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 83, petroleum tanker 261, refrigerated cargo 30, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 14


foreign-owned: 13 (Hong Kong 7, Japonia 3, South Korea 2, Norwegia 1)


registered w other countries: 1,191 (Bahamas 3, Bangladesz 1, Belize 103, Boliwia 1, Kambodza 128, Cypr 11, Georgia 2, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 274, Indie 2, North Korea 1, Liberia 35, Malezja 1, Malta 14, Mongolia 4, Norwegia 3, Panama 420, Saint Vincent i Grenadyny 103, Sierra Leone 2, Singapur 23, Tajlandia 1, Tuvalu 23, unknown 33) (2006)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes airborne forces), and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (PAP); Reserve and Militia Forces (2006)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $81.48 billion (2005 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.3% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun: Chinese (singular and plural)


adjective: Chinese
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Rurociagi gas 22,664 km; oil 15,256 km; refined products 6,106 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups
Ludnosc 1,313,973,713 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 10% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.59% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 74,408 km


standard gauge: 74,408 km 1.435-m gauge (19,303 km electrified) (2004)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%


note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 350.433 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 393.428 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations, and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.73 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9% official registered unemployment w urban areas w 2004; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) dla 2003 at 20% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne 123,964 km (2003)
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