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Chiny (2005)

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Chiny 2005 roku

 Chiny
Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)

provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang

autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Xizang (Tibet)

municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin


note: Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 21.4% (male 148,134,928/female 131,045,415)


15-64 years: 71% (male 477,182,072/female 450,664,933)


65 years and over: 7.6% (male 47,400,282/female 51,886,182) (2005 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish
Lotniska 472 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 383


over 3,047 m: 53


2,438 to 3,047 m: 116


1,524 to 2,437 m: 141


914 to 1,523 m: 23


under 914 m: 50 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 89


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 32


under 914 m: 35 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 9,596,960 sq km


land: 9,326,410 sq km


water: 270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences, but w the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room dla personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 13.14 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budzet revenues: $317.9 billion


expenditures: $348.9 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Stolica Beijing
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny


conventional short form: Chiny


local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo


local short form: Zhong Guo


abbreviation: PRC
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.94 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $233.3 billion (3rd quarter 2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.


embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831


FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929


consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi


chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco


consulate(s): Los Angeles
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje in 2005, Chiny and Indie initiate drafting principles to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes together z a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; about 90,000 ethnic Tibetan exiles reside primarily w Indie as well as Nepal and Bhutan; Chiny asserts sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions w the Spratlys but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; Chiny and Tajwan have become more vocal w rejecting both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands w the Yalu and Tumen rivers are w an uncontested dispute z North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is considered indefinite; Chiny seeks to stem illegal migration of tens of thousands of North Koreans; w 2004, Chiny and Rosja divided up the islands w the Amur, Ussuri, and Argun Rivers, ending a century-old border dispute; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation has been delayed; environmentalists w Birma and Tajlandia remain concerned about Chiny's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the Nujiang/Salween River w Yunnan Province
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie NA
Ekonomia In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish, inefficient, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of household and village responsibility w agriculture w place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers w industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprises w services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, Chiny w 2004 stood as the second-largest economy w the world after the US, although w per capita terms the country is still poor. Agriculture and industry have posted major gains especially w coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Tajwan and w Shanghai, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (growing income disparities and rising unemployment). Chiny thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) sustain adequate jobs growth dla tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, many of which had been shielded from competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 100 to 150 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes w central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened Chiny's population control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth w living standards. At the same time, one demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that Chiny is now one of the most rapidly aging countries w the world. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration w the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially w the north. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. As part of its effort to gradually slow the rapid economic growth seen w 2004, Beijing says it will reduce somewhat its spending on infrastructure w 2005, while continuing to focus on poverty relief and through rural tax reform. Accession to the Swiat Trade Organization helps strengthen its ability to maintain strong growth rates but at the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong political controls and growing market influences. Chiny has benefited from a huge expansion w computer Internet use, z 94 million users at the end of 2004. Foreign investment remains a strong element w Chiny's remarkable economic growth. Shortages of electric power and raw materials may affect industrial output w 2005. More power generating capacity is scheduled to come on line w 2006. In its rivalry z Indie as an economic power, Chiny has a lead w the absorption of technology, the rising prominence w world trade, and the alleviation of poverty; Indie has one important advantage w its relative mastery of the English language, but the number of competent Chinese English-speakers is growing rapidly.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1.63 trillion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 10.38 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.3 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.91 trillion kWh (2003)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 8.2768 (2004), 8.277 (2003), 8.277 (2002), 8.2771 (2001), 8.2785 (2000)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 marzec 2003), WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla five-year terms; elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (four delegates voted against him, four abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); two seats were vacant
Eksport 10.38 billion kWh (2002)
Eksport $583.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2002 est.)
Eksport 427,800 bbl/day (2002)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment, plastics, optical and medical equipment, iron and steel
Eksport - partnerzy US 21.1%, Hong Kong 17%, Japonia 12.4%, South Korea 4.7%, Niemcy 4% (2004)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 13.8%


industry and construction: 52.9%


services: 33.3% (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,600 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 9.1% (official data) (2004 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak
Ladowiska helikopterow 15 (2004 est.)
Autostrady total: 1,765,222 km


paved: 395,410 km (with at least 25,130 km of expressways)


unpaved: 1,369,812 km (2002 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.4%


highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Import 2.3 billion kWh (2002)
Import $552.4 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2002 est.)
Import 2.414 million bbl/day (2002)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel
Import - partnerzy Japonia 16.8%, Tajwan 11.4%, South Korea 11.1%, US 8%, Niemcy 5.4% (2004)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 styczen 1912 (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 pazdziernik 1949 (People's Republic established)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 17.1% (2004 est.)
Przemysl mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals; coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles and satellites
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 24.18 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 21.21 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflacja 4.1% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, PCA, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 525,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Sila robocza 760.8 million (2003)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 22,117 km


border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km


regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Makau 0.34 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 15.4%


permanent crops: 1.25%


other: 83.35% (2001)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code w effect since 1 styczen 1987; new legal codes w effect since 1 styczen 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held grudzien 2002-luty 2003 (next to be held late 2007-luty 2008)


election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 72.27 years


male: 70.65 years


female: 74.09 years (2005 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.9%


male: 95.1%


female: 86.5% (2002)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 1,649 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,724,653 GRT/27,749,784 DWT


by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 362, cargo 696, chemical tanker 38, combination ore/oil 1, container 135, liquefied gas 30, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 81, petroleum tanker 246, refrigerated cargo 30, roll on/roll off 11, vehicle carrier 10


foreign-owned: 9 (Hong Kong 4, Japonia 2, South Korea 2, Stany Zjednoczone 1)


registered w other countries: 872 (2005)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes Airborne Forces), and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police Force (internal security troops considered to be an adjunct to the PLA); Militia (2003)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $67.49 billion (2004)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.3% (2004)
Swieto narodowe Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun: Chinese (singular and plural)


adjective: Chinese
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Rurociagi gas 15,890 km; oil 14,478 km; refined products 3,280 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups
Ludnosc 1,306,313,812 (lipiec 2005 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 10% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.58% (2005 est.)
Porty i stocznie Dalian, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 71,898 km


standard gauge: 71,898 km 1.435-m gauge (18,115 km electrified)


dual gauge: 23,945 km (multiple track not included w total) (2002)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%


note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 263 million (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 269 million (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.72 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.8% w urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) dla 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)
Drogi wodne 121,557 km (2002)
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