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Chiny (2004)

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Chiny 2004 roku

 Chiny
Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)

provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang

autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Xizang (Tibet)

municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin


note: Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 22.3% (male 153,401,051; female 135,812,993)


15-64 years: 70.3% (male 469,328,664; female 443,248,860)


65 years and over: 7.5% (male 46,308,923; female 50,747,133) (2004 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish
Lotniska 507 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 332


over 3,047 m: 49


2,438 to 3,047 m: 97


1,524 to 2,437 m: 129


914 to 1,523 m: 22


under 914 m: 35 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 175


over 3,047 m: 23


2,438 to 3,047 m: 10


1,524 to 2,437 m: 36


914 to 1,523 m: 40


under 914 m: 66 (2003 est.)
Terytorium total: 9,596,960 sq km


land: 9,326,410 sq km


water: 270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences, but w the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room dla personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 12.98 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budzet revenues: $265.8 billion


expenditures: $300.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003)
Stolica Beijing
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny


conventional short form: Chiny


local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo


local short form: Zhong Guo


abbreviation: PRC
Waluta yuan (CNY)


note:: also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.92 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $197.8 billion (2003 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.


embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831


FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929


consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi


chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje involved w complex dispute z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; most of the rugged, militarized boundary z Indie is w dispute, but the two sides are committed to begin resolution z discussions on the least disputed Middle Sector; Kashmir remains the world's largest and highly militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums), but recent discussion and confidence-building measures among parties are beginning to defuse tensions, Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to Chiny w a 1964 boundary agreement; Chiny and Tajwan continue to assert their claims to the Japoniaese-administered Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) z increased media coverage and protest actions; certain islands w Yalu and Tumen rivers are w an uncontested dispute z North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is indefinite - Chiny has been attempting to manage illegal migration of North Koreans into northern Chiny; Chiny and Rosja w 2004 resolved their last border dispute over islands w the Amur and Argun Rivers, but details on demarcation have not yet been worked-out; boundary delimitation agreements signed w 2002 z Tadzykistan cedes 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to Chiny w return dla Chiny's relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km, but demarcation has not commenced; agreements z Wietnam demarcating maritime boundaries and fisheries cooperation w the Gulf of Tonkin were ratified w czerwiec, and demarcation of the land boundary continues; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; w response to groups w Birma and Tajlandia expressing concern over Chiny's plans to construct 13 hydroelectric dams on the Nu River w Yunnan Province (Salween River w Birma), Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao suspended the project to conduct an environmental impact assessment, a smaller scale version of only 4 dams is now scheduled to move forward
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie NA
Ekonomia In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish, inefficient, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of household and village responsibility w agriculture w place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers w industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprises w services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, Chiny w 2003 stood as the second-largest economy w the world after the US, although w per capita terms the country is still poor. Agriculture and industry have posted major gains especially w coastal areas near Hong Kong, opposite Tajwan, and w Shanghai, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (growing income disparities and rising unemployment). Chiny thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) sustain adequate jobs growth dla tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, many of which had been shielded from competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes w central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened Chiny's population control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth w living standards. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration w the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially w the north. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Beijing says it will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure - such as water supply and power grids - and poverty relief and through rural tax reform. Accession to the Swiat Trade Organization helps strengthen its ability to maintain strong growth rates but at the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong political controls and growing market influences. Chiny has benefited from a huge expansion w computer internet use. Foreign investment remains a strong element w Chiny's remarkable economic growth. Growing shortages of electric power and raw materials will hold back the expansion of industrial output w 2004.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1.312 trillion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 10.3 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.8 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.42 trillion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 8.277 (2003), 8.277 (2002), 8.2771 (2001), 8.2785 (2000), 8.2783 (1999)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 marzec 2003), WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla five-year terms; elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
Eksport 10.3 billion kWh (2001)
Eksport $436.1 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport 151,200 bbl/day (2001)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods, mineral fuels
Eksport - partnerzy US 21.1%, Hong Kong 17.4%, Japonia 13.6%, South Korea 4.6%, Niemcy 4% (2003)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $6.449 trillion (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 14.8%


industry and construction: 52.9%


services: 32.3% (2003)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 9.1% (official data) (2003 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak;
Ladowiska helikopterow 15 (2003 est.)
Autostrady total: 1,402,698 km


paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)


unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.4%


highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Import 1.8 billion kWh (2001)
Import $397.4 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import 1.207 million bbl/day (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Japonia 18%, Tajwan 11.9%, South Korea 10.4%, US 8.2%, Niemcy 5.9% (2003)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 styczen 1912 (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 pazdziernik 1949 (People's Republic established)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 30.4% (2003 est.)
Przemysl iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 25.28 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 21.84 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 29.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflacja 1.2% (2003 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, PCA, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 525,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Sila robocza 778.1 million (2003 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 50%, industry 22%, services 28% (2001 est.)
Granica total: 22,117 km


border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km


regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Makau 0.34 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 15.4%


permanent crops: 1.25%


other: 83.36% (2001)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code w effect since 1 styczen 1987; new legal codes w effect since 1 styczen 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held grudzien 2002-luty 2003 (next to be held late 2007-luty 2008)


election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 71.96 years


male: 70.4 years


female: 73.72 years (2004 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.9%


male: 95.1%


female: 86.5% (2002)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 1,850 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,724,653 GRT/27,749,784 DWT


by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 355, cargo 822, chemical tanker 28, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 165, liquefied gas 28, multi-functional large load carrier 8, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 46, petroleum tanker 272, rail car carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 27, roll on/roll off 25, short-sea/passenger 39, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 4


foreign-owned: Kambodza 1, Grecja 2, Hong Kong 12, Japonia 1, South Korea 2, Liberia 1, Malezja 1, Panama 1, Tajwan 2, Tanzania 1


registered w other countries: 790 (2004 est.)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground forces, Navy (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force, and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA), militia
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $60 billion (2003 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.5-5.0% (FY03 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 379,524,688 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 208,143,352 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 12,494,201 (2004 est.)
Swieto narodowe Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun: Chinese (singular and plural)


adjective: Chinese
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Rurociagi gas 15,890 km; oil 14,478 km; refined products 3,280 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups
Ludnosc 1,298,847,624 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 10% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.57% (2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang (2001)
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 70,058 km


standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (18,668 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines


dual gauge: 22,640 km (not included w total) (2003)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%


note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 263 million (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 269 million (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.69 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 10.1% urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2003 est.)
Drogi wodne 121,557 km (2002)
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