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Chiny (2003)

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Chiny 2003 roku

Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 23.1% (male 155,473,656; female 141,737,406)

15-64 years: 69.5% (male 461,223,219; female 433,154,970)

65 years and over: 7.4% (male 44,954,643; female 50,431,574) (2003 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Lotniska 500 (2002)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 351

over 3,047 m: 32

2,438 to 3,047 m: 108

1,524 to 2,437 m: 143

914 to 1,523 m: 29

under 914 m: 39 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 149

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 25

914 to 1,523 m: 48

under 914 m: 71 (2002)
Terytorium total: 9,596,960 sq km

land: 9,326,410 sq km

water: 270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences. But w the 19th and early 20th centuries, Chiny was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision-making. Output quadrupled by 2000. Political controls remain tight while economic controls continue to be relaxed.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 12.96 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budzet revenues: $224.8 billion

expenditures: $267.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Stolica Beijing
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny

conventional short form: Chiny

local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo

local short form: Zhong Guo

abbreviation: PRC
Waluta yuan (CNY)

note:: also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $149.4 billion (2002 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.

embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831

FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929

consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi

chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500

FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje involved w complex dispute over the Wyspy Spratly z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; claimants w listopad 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea", a mechanism to ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; much of the rugged, militarized boundary z Indie is w dispute, but the two sides have participated w more than 13 rounds of joint working group sessions on this issue; Indie objects to Pakistan ceding lands to Chiny w 1965 boundary agreement that Indie believes are part of disputed Kashmir; Chiny, as well as Tajwan, claims Japoniaese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) islands; negotiations z Tadzykistan resolved the longstanding boundary dispute; Chiny and Kazachstan have resolved their border dispute and are working to delimit their large open borders to control population migration, illegal activities, and trade; Kirgistan's constitutional court rules that 1,270 sq km ceded to Chiny w 2000 delimitation agreement were legally transferred; certain islands w Yalu and Tumen rivers are w uncontested dispute z North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is indefinite - Chiny objects to illegal migration of North Koreans into northern Chiny; Chiny continues to seek a mutually acceptable solution to the disputed alluvial islands z Rosja at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun river as part of the 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation; boundary agreements signed w 2002 z Tadzykistan cedes 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to Chiny w return dla Chiny's relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km; demarcation of land boundary z Wietnam continues but maritime boundary and joint fishing zone agreement remains unratified; Chiny occupies Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $NA
Ekonomia In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of household and village responsibility w agriculture w place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers w industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprises w services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. In 2003, z its 1.3 billion people but a Produkt krajowy brutto of just $5,000 per capita, Chiny stood as the second-largest economy w the world after the US (measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agriculture and industry have posted major gains, especially w coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Tajwan, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and growing income disparities). Chiny thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, many of which had been shielded from competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes w central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened Chiny's population control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth w living standards. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration w the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially w the north. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Beijing says it will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure - such as water control and power grids - and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies on farmers. Accession to the Swiat Trade Organization helps strengthen Chiny's ability to maintain strong growth rates but at the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong political controls and growing market influences. Chiny has benefited from a huge expansion w computer internet use. Foreign investment remains a strong element w Chiny's remarkable economic growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1.312 trillion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 10.3 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.55 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.42 trillion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 80.2%

hydro: 18.5%

nuclear: 1.2%

other: 0.1% (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m

highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 8.28 (2002), 8.28 (2001), 8.28 (2000), 8.28 (1999), 8.28 (1998)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)

head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 marzec 2003), WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)

elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla five-year terms; elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress

election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
Eksport 10.3 billion kWh (2001)
Eksport $325.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels
Eksport - partnerzy US 21.5%, Hong Kong 18%, Japonia 14.9%, South Korea 4.8% (2002)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $5.989 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 15.2%

industry and construction: 51.2%

services: 33.6% (2001)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,700 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8% (official data) (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth-largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak;
Autostrady total: 1,402,698 km

paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)

unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Import 1.55 billion kWh (2001)
Import $295.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Japonia 18.1%, Tajwan 10.5%, South Korea 9.7%, US 9.2%, Niemcy 5.6% (2002)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 luty 1912; People's Republic established 1 pazdziernik 1949)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 12.6% (2002 est.)
Przemysl iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 25.26 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.91 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 25.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflacja -0.8% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, IFC, UNHCR, UNIDO, AfDB, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 3 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 525,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Sila robocza 744 million (2001 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 50%, industry 22%, services 28% (2001 est.)
Granica total: 22,147.34 km

border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Makau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.31%

permanent crops: 1.2%

other: 85.49% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code w effect since 1 styczen 1987; new legal codes w effect since 1 styczen 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held NA grudzien 2002-NA luty 2003 (next to be held late 2007-NA luty 2008)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 72.22 years

male: 70.33 years

female: 74.28 years (2003 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86%

male: 92.9%

female: 78.8% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

territorial sea: 12 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Flota handlowa total: 1,817 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,047,962 GRT/27,035,740 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 348, cargo 824, chemical tanker 28, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 150, liquefied gas 28, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 47, petroleum tanker 267, refrigerated cargo 26, roll on/roll off 21, short-sea passenger 42, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chorwacja 1, Niemcy 1, Hong Kong 16, Japonia 2, Panama 2, South Korea 1, Hiszpania 1, Tajwan 9, Tanzania 1, Turcja 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground forces, Navy (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force, and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA), militia
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $55.91 billion (FY02)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.3% (FY02)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 375,520,255 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 206 million (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 10,973,761 (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun: Chinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Chinese
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Rurociagi gas 13,845 km; oil 15,143 km; refined products 3,280 km (2003)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong sect and the Chiny Democracy Party as potential rivals
Ludnosc 1,286,975,468 (lipiec 2003 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 10% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.6% (2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang (2001)
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 71,600 km

standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (14,600 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (2002)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%

note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns

domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place

international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 135 million (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 65 million (styczen 2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.7 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 110,000 km (1999)
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