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Chiny (2002)

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Chiny 2002 roku

 Chiny
Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 24.3% (male 163,821,081; female 148,855,387)


15-64 years: 68.4% (male 452,354,428; female 426,055,713)


65 years and over: 7.3% (male 43,834,528; female 49,382,568) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Lotniska 489 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 324


over 3,047 m: 27


2,438 to 3,047 m: 88


1,524 to 2,437 m: 147


914 to 1,523 m: 30


under 914 m: 32 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 165


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 29


914 to 1,523 m: 56


under 914 m: 78 (2002)
Terytorium total: 9,596,960 sq km


land: 9,326,410 sq km


water: 270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences. But w the 19th and early 20th centuries, Chiny was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making, and output quadrupled by 2000. Political controls remain tight even while economic controls continue to be relaxed.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 15.85 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $161.8 billion


expenditures: $191.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Stolica Beijing
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny


conventional short form: Chiny


local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo


local short form: Zhong Guo


abbreviation: PRC
Waluta yuan (CNY)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.77 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $149.4 billion (2002 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.


embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3431


FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929


consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi


chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje in 2000, Chiny joined ASEAN discussions towards creating a South Chiny Sea "code of conduct" - a non-legally binding, confidence-building measure; much of the rugged, militarized boundary z Indie is w dispute, but talks to resolve the least contested middle sector resumed w 2001; ongoing talks z Tadzykistan have failed to resolve the longstanding dispute over the indefinite boundary; Kazachstan is working rapidly z Chiny to delimit its large open borders to control population migration, illegal activities, and trade; 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation commits Rosja and Chiny to seek peaceable unanimity over disputed alluvial islands at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun; involved w a complex dispute over the Wyspy Spratly z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary agreement z Wietnam w the Gulf of Tonkin awaits ratification; Wyspy Paracelskie occupied by Chiny, but claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; claims Japoniaese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Tajwan; demarcation of the land boundary z Wietnam has commenced, but details of the alignment have not been made public; 33-km section of boundary z North Korea w the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $NA
Ekonomia In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing. The authorities have switched to a system of household and village responsibility w agriculture w place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers w industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise w services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. In 2002, z its 1.28 billion people but a Produkt krajowy brutto of just $4,600 per capita, Chiny stood as the second largest economy w the world after the US (measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agriculture and industry have posted major gains, especially w coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Tajwan, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often experienced w its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and growing income disparities). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises many of which had been shielded from competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes w central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened Chiny's population control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth w living standards. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration w the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially w the north. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Beijing will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure - such as water control and power grids - and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies on farmers. Access to the Swiat Trade Organization strengthens Chiny's ability to maintain sturdy growth rates, and at the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong political controls and growing market influences. Although Beijing has claimed 7%-8% annual growth w recent years, many observers believe the rate, while strong, is more like 5%.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1.206 trillion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 10.25 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 400 million kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.308 trillion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 82%


hydro: 17%


nuclear: 1%


other: 0% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 8.2767 (styczen 2002), 8.2771 (2001), 8.2785 (2000), 8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Hu Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 marzec 1993), LI Lanqing (29 marzec 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 marzec 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18 marzec 1998)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 marzec 1998 (next to be held NA marzec 2003); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth National People's Congress z a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress z a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39 abstained, and 32 did not vote)
Eksport 10.25 billion kWh (2000)
Eksport $312.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels
Eksport - partnerzy US 20.4%, Hong Kong 17.5%, Japonia 16.9%, South Korea 4.7%, Niemcy 3.7%, Holandia 2.7%, UK 2.6%, Singapur 2.2%, Tajwan (2001)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $6 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 18%


industry: 49%


services: 33% (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8% (official estimate) (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth-largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal, is the world's tallest peak; soybean, one of the oldest of cultivated crops, is believed to have originated w Chiny
Autostrady total: 1.4 million km


paved: 271,300 km (with at least 16,000 km of expressways)


unpaved: 1,128,700 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%


highest 10%: 30% (1998)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Import 400 million kWh (2000)
Import $268.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Japonia 17.6%, Tajwan 11.2%, US 10.8%, South Korea 9.6%, Niemcy 5.7%, Hong Kong 3.9%, Rosja 3.3%, Malezja 2.5% (2001)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 luty 1912; People's Republic established 1 pazdziernik 1949)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 13.5% (2002 est.)
Przemysl iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 27.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja -0.8% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CCC, CDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 3 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 525,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Sila robocza 706 million (2000 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 50%, industry 23%, services 27% (2001 est.)
Granica total: 22,147.34 km


border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Makau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.31%


permanent crops: 1.2%


other: 85.49% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code w effect since 1 styczen 1987; new legal codes w effect since 1 styczen 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held NA grudzien 1997-NA luty 1998 (next to be held late 2002-NA marzec 2003)


election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 71.86 years


male: 70.02 years


female: 73.86 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 81.5%


male: 89.9%


female: 72.7% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary contiguous zone: 24 NM


continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin


territorial sea: 12 NM


exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Flota handlowa total: 1,764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,915,047 GRT/25,366,296 DWT


ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 328, cargo 822, chemical tanker 25, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 134, liquefied gas 26, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 45, petroleum tanker 263, refrigerated cargo 26, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 42, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1


note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chorwacja 1, Niemcy 1, Hong Kong 16, Japonia 2, Panama 2, South Korea 1, Hiszpania 1, Tajwan 9, Tanzania 1, Turcja 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground forces, Navy (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force, and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA), militia
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $20.048 billion (2002); note - this is the officially announced figure, but actual defense spending more likely ranges from $45 billion to $65 billion dla 2002
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.6% (2002); note - this is the officially announced figure, but actual defense spending is more likely between 3.5% to 5.0% of Produkt krajowy brutto dla 2002
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 370,087,489 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 203,003,036 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 10,089,458 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun: Chinese (singular and plural)


adjective: Chinese
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas 9,383 km (1998)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong sect and the Chiny Democracy Party as potential rivals
Ludnosc 1,284,303,705 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 10% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.87% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang (2001)
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Radia 417 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 67,524 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)


standard gauge: 63,924 km 1.435-m gauge (13,362 km electrified; 20,250 km double-track)


narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m and 1.000-m gauge local industrial lines (1999 est.)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%


note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 135 million (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 65 million (styczen 2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.82 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 110,000 km (1999)
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