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Chiny (2001)

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Chiny 2001 roku

Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
25.01% (male 166,754,893; female 151,598,117)

15-64 years:
67.88% (male 445,222,858; female 418,959,646)

65 years and over:
7.11% (male 42,547,296; female 48,028,480) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Lotniska 489 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
32 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
78 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
9,596,960 sq km

9,326,410 sq km

270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny has stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences. But w the first half of the 20th century, Chiny was beset by major famines, civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making. Output quadrupled w the next 20 years and Chiny now has the world's second largest Produkt krajowy brutto. Political controls remain tight even while economic controls continue to weaken.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 15.95 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:

$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Stolica Beijing
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
People's Republic of Chiny

conventional short form:

local long form:
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo

local short form:
Zhong Guo

Waluta yuan (CNY)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $162 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph W. PRUEHER

Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing

mailing address:
PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002

[86] (10) 6532-3431

[86] (10) 6532-6422

consulate(s) general:
Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate YANG Jiechi

2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 328-2500

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje most of boundary z Indie w dispute; dispute over at least two small sections of the boundary z Rosja remains to be settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; portions of the boundary z Tadzykistan are indefinite; 33-km section of boundary z North Korea w the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; involved w a complex dispute over the Wyspy Spratly z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary agreement z Wietnam w the Gulf of Tonkin awaits ratification; Wyspy Paracelskie occupied by Chiny, but claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; claims Japoniaese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Tajwan
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $NA
Ekonomia In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state managers and enterprises has been steadily increasing. The authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility w agriculture w place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers w industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise w services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. In 2000, z its 1.26 billion people but a Produkt krajowy brutto of just $3,600 per capita, Chiny stood as the second largest economy w the world after the US (measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agricultural output doubled w the 1980s, and industry also posted major gains, especially w coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Tajwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often experienced w its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises many of which had been shielded from competition by subsides and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes w central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened Chiny's population control program, which is essential to maintaining growth w living standards. Another long-term threat to continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration w the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially w the north. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Weakness w the global economy w 2001 could hamper growth w exports. Beijing will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure--such as water control and power grids--and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies on farmers.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1.084 trillion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 7.2 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 90 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.173 trillion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:



0.01% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Turpan Pendi -154 m

highest point:
Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 8.2776 (styczen 2001), 8.2785 (2000), 8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996)

beginning 1 styczen 1994, the People's Bank of Chiny quotes the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's prevailing rate w the interbank foreign exchange market
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President JIANG Zemin (since 27 marzec 1993) and Vice President HU Jintao (since 16 marzec 1998)

head of government:
Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 marzec 1998); Vice Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 marzec 1993), LI Lanqing (29 marzec 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 marzec 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18 marzec 1998)

State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)

president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 marzec 1998 (next to be held NA marzec 2003); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress

election results:
JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth National People's Congress z a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress z a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39 abstained, and 32 did not vote)
Eksport 7.2 billion kWh (1999)
Eksport $232 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels
Eksport - partnerzy US 21%, Hong Kong 18%, Japonia 17%, South Korea, Niemcy, Holandia, UK, Singapur, Tajwan (2000)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $4.5 trillion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:


35% (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth-largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US)
Autostrady total:
1.4 million km

271,300 km (with at least 16,000 km of expressways)

1,128,700 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
30.4% (1998)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Import 90 million kWh (1999)
Import $197 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Japonia 18%, Tajwan 11%, US 10%, South Korea 10%, Niemcy, Hong Kong, Rosja, Malezja (2000)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 luty 1912; People's Republic established 1 pazdziernik 1949)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 10% (2000 est.)
Przemysl iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 28.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 0.4% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC
Dostawcy internetu 3 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Sila robocza 700 million (1998 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 50%, industry 24%, services 26% (1998)
Granica total:
22,147.24 km

border countries:
Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Makau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,676.9 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

33% (1993 est.)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code w effect since 1 styczen 1987; new legal codes w effect since 1 styczen 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)

last held NA grudzien 1997-NA luty 1998 (next to be held late 2002-NA marzec 2003)

election results:
percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA
Zywotnosc total population:
71.62 years

69.81 years

73.59 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


72.7% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
1,745 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,533,521 GRT/24,746,859 DWT

ships by type:
barge carrier 2, bulk 324, cargo 825, chemical tanker 21, combination bulk 11, combination ore/oil 1, container 132, liquefied gas 24, multi-functional large-load carrier 5, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 45, petroleum tanker 258, refrigerated cargo 22, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 41, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1 (2000 est.)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA) - which includes Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA w wartime)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $12.608 billion (FY99); note - Chiny's real defense spending may be several times higher than the official figure because a number of significant items are funded elsewhere
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.2% (FY99)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
366,306,353 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
200,886,946 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
10,089,458 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun:
Chinese (singular and plural)

Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas 9,383 km (1998)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong sect and the Chiny Democracy Party as potential rivals
Ludnosc 1,273,111,290 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 10% (1999 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.88% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Radia 417 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
67,524 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)

standard gauge:
63,924 km 1.435-m gauge (13,362 km electrified; 20,250 km double track)

narrow gauge:
3,600 km 0.750-m and 1.000-m gauge local industrial lines (1998 est.)

a new total of 68,000 km was estimated dla early 1999 to take new construction programs into account (1999)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.)

officially atheist
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.89 male(s)/female

total population:
1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns

interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place

satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 135 million (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 65 million (styczen 2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 110,000 km (1999)
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