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Cape Verde (2001)

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 Cape Verde
Administrative divisions 14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal; note - there may be a new administrative structure of 16 districts (Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Nicolau, Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal)
Age structure 0-14 years:
42.79% (male 87,458; female 85,895)

15-64 years:
50.76% (male 97,812; female 107,834)

65 years and over:
6.45% (male 10,204; female 15,960) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
Airports 8 (2000)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
7 (2000)
Area total:
4,033 sq km

4,033 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Rhode Island
Background The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading center for African slaves. Most Cape Verdeans descend from both groups. Independence was achieved in 1975.
Birth rate 28.71 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$188 million

$228 million, including capital expenditures of $116 million (1996)
Capital Praia
Climate temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Coastline 965 km
Constitution new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the powers of the president
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Cape Verde

conventional short form:
Cape Verde

local long form:
Republica de Cabo Verde

local short form:
Cabo Verde
Currency Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)
Death rate 7.19 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $260 million (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael D. METELITS

Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia

mailing address:
C. P. 201, Praia

[238] 61 56 16

[238] 61 13 55
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Ferdinand Amilcar Spencer LOPES

3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

[1] (202) 965-6820

[1] (202) 965-1207

consulate(s) general:
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $111.3 million (1995)
Economy - overview Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for almost 70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 1998 was only 13%, of which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances constitute a supplement to GDP of more than 20%. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in 1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 2001 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.
Electricity - consumption 37.2 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 40 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
Environment - current issues overgrazing of livestock and improper land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Exchange rates Cape Verdean escudos per US dollar - 123.080 (December 2000), 115.877 (2000), 102.700 (1999), 98.158 (1998), 93.177 (1997), 82.591 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March 2001)

head of government:
Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 1991)

Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister from among the members of the National Assembly

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

election results:
Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note: the election was won by only twelve votes
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $40 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities fuel, shoes, garments, fish, bananas, hides
Exports - partners Portugal, UK, Germany, Spain, France, Malaysia
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands
GDP purchasing power parity - $670 million (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


68% (1998)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 24 00 W
Geography - note strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
Highways total:
1,100 km

858 km

242 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $250 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
Imports - partners Portugal, Netherlands, France, UK, Spain, US
Independence 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Infant mortality rate 53.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2000)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,500 to 2,000 hectares (1999)
Judicial branch Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
Labor force NA
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

83% (1993 est.)
Languages Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
Legal system derived from the legal system of Portugal
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005)

election results:
percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD 39.8%, ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2
Life expectancy at birth total population:
69.21 years

65.93 years

72.6 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


63.8% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
Map references World
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone:
24 NM

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,523 GRT/11,798 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 4, chemical tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Coast Guard/Marines
Military expenditures - dollar figure $4 million (FY96)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY96)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
89,543 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
50,615 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Nationality noun:
Cape Verdean(s)

Cape Verdean
Natural hazards prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active
Natural resources salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin, fish
Net migration rate -12.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Antonio Gualberto do ROSARIO, president]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Dr. Oresimo SILVEIRA, president]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]; Union for an Independent Democratic Cape Verde or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 405,163 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.92% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 11 (and 14 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 73,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.64 male(s)/female

total population:
0.93 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
effective system, being improved

interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic cable system which was scheduled for completion in 1998

2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 45,644 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 19,729 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Terrain steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Total fertility rate 4.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 24% (1999 est.)
Waterways none
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