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Burkina Faso (2006)

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 Burkina Faso
Administrative divisions 45 provinces; Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala, Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondoma, Zoundweogo
Age structure 0-14 years: 46.8% (male 3,267,202/female 3,235,190)

15-64 years: 50.7% (male 3,513,559/female 3,538,623)

65 years and over: 2.5% (male 140,083/female 208,315) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Airports 34 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 32

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 18 (2006)
Area total: 274,200 sq km

land: 273,800 sq km

water: 400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Colorado
Background Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Burkina Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens. Recent unrest in Cote d'Ivoire and northern Ghana has hindered the ability of several hundred thousand seasonal Burkinabe farm workers to find employment in neighboring countries.
Birth rate 45.62 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.033 billion

expenditures: $1.382 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Ouagadougou

geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 2 June 1991 approved by referendum, 11 June 1991 formally adopted; amended April 2000
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Burkina Faso

local long form: none

local short form: Burkina Faso

former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
Death rate 15.6 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $1.85 billion (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jeanine E. JACKSON

embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4

mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440

telephone: [226] 50-30-67-23

FAX: [226] 50-30-38-90, 50-31-23-68
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO

chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577

FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
Disputes - international two villages are in dispute along the border with Benin; Benin accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; Burkina Faso border regions remain a staging area for Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire rebels and an asylum for refugees caught in local fighting; the Ivoirian Government accuses Burkina Faso of sheltering Ivoirian rebels
Economic aid - recipient $468.4 million (2003)
Economy - overview One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso has few natural resources and a weak industrial base. About 90% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture, which is vulnerable to harsh climatic conditions. Cotton is the key crop and the government has joined with other cotton producing countries in the region to lobby for improved access to Western markets. GDP growth has largely been driven by increases in world cotton prices. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the CFA franc currency devaluation in January 1994, the government updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies; exports and economic growth have increased. The government devolved macroeconomic policy and inflation targeting to the West African regional central bank (BCEAO), but maintains control over fiscal and microeconomic policies, including implementing reforms to encourage private investment. The bitter internal crisis in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire continues to hurt trade and industrial prospects and deepens the need for international assistance.
Electricity - consumption 349.3 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 375.6 million kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m

highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m
Environment - current issues recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

head of government: Prime Minister Paramanga Ernest YONLI (since 6 November 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 November 2005 (next to be held in 2010); in April 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005; prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature

election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president; percent of popular vote - Blaise COMPAORE 80.3%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 4.9%
Exports 0 kWh (2003)
Exports $395 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities cotton, livestock, gold
Exports - partners China 38.3%, Singapore 12.6%, Thailand 5.7%, Ghana 5.2%, Taiwan 4.4% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 32.2%

industry: 19.6%

services: 48.2% (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.5% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 2 00 W
Geography - note landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 46.8% (1994)
Imports 0 kWh (2003)
Imports $992 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
Imports - partners France 24.2%, Cote d'Ivoire 23.7%, Togo 6.8% (2005)
Independence 5 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 14% (2001 est.)
Industries cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Infant mortality rate total: 91.35 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 99.17 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 83.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.4% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 250 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Appeals Court
Labor force 5 million

note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 90%

industry and services: 10% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 3,193 km

border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Land use arable land: 17.66%

permanent crops: 0.22%

other: 82.12% (2005)
Languages French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to be held May 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, other 17
Life expectancy at birth total population: 48.85 years

male: 47.33 years

female: 50.42 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 26.6%

male: 36.9%

female: 16.6% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, north of Ghana
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso), National Gendarmerie (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $74.83 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.3% (2005 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 11 December (1958)
Nationality noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)

adjective: Burkinabe
Natural hazards recurring droughts
Natural resources manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates, pumice, salt
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Political parties and leaders African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation for Federation and Democracy or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Socialist Party or PS; Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Population 13,902,972

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 45% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 3% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)
Railways total: 622 km

narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge

note:: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote D'Ivoire (2005)
Religions Muslim 50%, indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage universal
Telephone system general assessment: all services only fair

domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations

international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 97,400 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 572,200 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2002)
Terrain mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Total fertility rate 6.47 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
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