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Burkina Faso (2001)

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 Burkina Faso
Administrative divisions 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

a new electoral code was approved by the National Assembly in January 1997; the number of administrative provinces was increased from 30 to 45 (Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala, Naumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondomo, Zoundweogo), however, this change has not yet been confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names
Age structure 0-14 years:
47.5% (male 2,937,285; female 2,892,107)

15-64 years:
49.59% (male 2,903,153; female 3,183,121)

65 years and over:
2.91% (male 150,688; female 205,935) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Airports 33 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
16 (2000 est.)
Area total:
274,200 sq km

273,800 sq km

400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Colorado
Background Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) in 1960. Governmental instability during the 1970s and 1980s was followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Several hundred thousand farm workers migrate south every year to Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana.
Birth rate 44.79 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$277 million

$492 million, including capital expenditures of $233 million (1995 est.)
Capital Ouagadougou
Climate tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991 formally adopted
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:
Burkina Faso

Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Death rate 17.05 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.3 billion (1997)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Jimmy J. KOLKER

602 Avenue Raoul Follerau, Koulouba, Secteur 4, Ouagadougou

mailing address:
B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01

[226] 306723

[226] 303890
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Bruno ZIDOUEMBA

2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 332-5577

[1] (202) 667-1882
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $484.1 million (1995)
Economy - overview One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural resources, and a fragile soil. About 90% of the population is engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture which is highly vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased. Maintenance of its macroeconomic progress in 2001-02 depends on continued low inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to encourage private investment.
Electricity - consumption 265.1 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 285 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m

highest point:
Tena Kourou 749 m
Environment - current issues recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Executive branch chief of state:
President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

head of government:
Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6 November 2000)

Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; the president may serve unlimited terms; election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature

election results:
Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5% percent of the vote, 56% of voter turnout

President COMPAORE faces an increasingly well-coordinated opposition; recent charges against a former member of his Presidential Guard in the 1998 assassination of a newspaper editor signify an attempt to defuse chronic areas of dissatisfaction
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $220 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities cotton, animal products, gold
Exports - partners Italy 13%, France 10%, Indonesia 8%, Thailand 7% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $12 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


47% (1998)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 2 00 W
Geography - note landlocked
Highways total:
12,506 km

2,001 km

10,505 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
39.5% (1994)
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $610 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery, food products, petroleum
Imports - partners Cote d'Ivoire 30%, France 28%, Spain 3%, Benelux 3% (1999)
Independence 5 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 4.2% (1995)
Industries cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Infant mortality rate 106.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.5% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 200 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Appeals Court
Labor force 5 million (1999)

a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 90% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total:
3,192 km

border countries:
Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 548 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

15% (1993 est.)
Languages French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law
Legislative branch bicameral; consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (111 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the purely consultative Chamber of Representations or Chambre des Representants (178 seats; members are appointed to serve three-year terms)

National Assembly election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CDP 101, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2
Life expectancy at birth total population:
46.41 years

45.86 years

46.98 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


9.2% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, north of Ghana
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's Militia
Military expenditures - dollar figure $66 million (FY96)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (FY96)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,592,974 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,329,995 (2001 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 11 December (1958)
Nationality noun:
Burkinabe (singular and plural)

Natural hazards recurring droughts
Natural resources manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Net migration rate -0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Noyabtigungu Congo KABORE]; Party for African Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or HBDHP; Group of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Population 12,272,289

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.68% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 370,000 (1997)
Railways total:
622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and 105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)

narrow gauge:
622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)
Religions indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.73 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage universal
Telephone system general assessment:
all services only fair

microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communication stations

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 36,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,503 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Terrain mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Total fertility rate 6.35 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways none
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