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Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001)

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Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001 year

 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Administrative divisions there are two first-order administrative divisions - the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko in northeastern Bosnia is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it is not part of either the Federation or Republika Srpska
Age structure 0-14 years:
20.13% (male 405,713; female 383,850)

15-64 years:
70.78% (male 1,422,796; female 1,353,410)

65 years and over:
9.09% (male 150,802; female 205,634) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Airports 28 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

under 914 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
11 (2000 est.)
Area total:
51,129 sq km

51,129 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Background Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a referendum for independence from the former Yugoslavia in February 1992. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government is charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place at a level of approximately 21,000 troops.
Birth rate 12.86 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1.9 billion

$2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Sarajevo
Climate hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Coastline 20 km
Constitution the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:
Bosnia and Herzegovina

local long form:

local short form:
Bosna i Hercegovina
Currency marka (BAM)
Death rate 7.99 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $3.4 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Thomas J. MILLER

Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo

mailing address:
use street address

[387] (33) 445-700

[387] (33) 659-722

branch office(s):
Banja Luka, Mostar
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC

2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

[1] (202) 337-1500

[1] (202) 337-1502

consulate(s) general:
New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $1 billion (1999 est.)
Economy - overview Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-98 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed appreciably in 1999 and 2000, and GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use because, although both entities issue figures, national-level statistics are not available. Moreover, official data do not capture the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. The marka - the national currency introduced in 1998 - has gained wide acceptance, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slower than anticipated. Banking reform accelerated in early 2001 as all the communist-era payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.
Electricity - consumption 2.684 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 150 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 430 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 2.585 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point:
Maglic 2,386 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%, Yugoslav 5.5%, other 2.5% (1991)

Bosniak has replaced muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Exchange rates marka per US dollar - 2.086 (January 2001), 2.124 (2000), 1.837 (1999), 1.760 (1998), 1.734 (1997), 0.015 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
Chairman of the Presidency Jozo KRIZANOVI (chairman since 14 June 2001, presidency member since NA March 2001 - Croat); other members of the three-member rotating (every 8 months) presidency: Zivko RADISIC (since 13 October 1998 - Serb) and Beriz BELKIC (since NA March 2001 - Bosniak); note - Ante JELAVIC was dismissed from his post by the UN High Representative in March 2001

head of government:
Chairman of the Council of Ministers Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA (since 18 July 2001)

Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives

the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election; election last held 12-13 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives

election results:
percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first 8 months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed RADISIC in the rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the highest number of votes in the election but was ineligible to serve a second term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each served a first term as Chairman of the Presidency; IZETBEGOVIC retired from the presidency 14 October 2000 and was temporarily replaced by Halid GENJAC; Ante JELAVIC was replaced by Jozo KRIZANOVIC in March 2001

President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Karlo FILIPOVIC (since 27 February 2001); Vice President Safet HALILOVIC (since 27 February 2001); note - president and vice president rotate every year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since 11 November 2000)
Exports 150 million kWh (1999)
Exports $950 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities NA
Exports - partners Croatia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle
GDP purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


58% (1996 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 44 00 N, 18 00 E
Geography - note within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority
Heliports 4 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
21,846 km

14,020 km

7,826 km

road system is in need of maintenance and repair (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to Western Europe
Imports 430 million kWh (1999)
Imports $2.45 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities NA
Imports - partners Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Italy
Independence 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia)
Industrial production growth rate 10% (2000 est.)
Industries steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining
Infant mortality rate 24.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation BIS, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2000)
Irrigated land 20 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights)

a new state court, established in November 1999, has jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are ten cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
Labor force 1.026 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total:
1,459 km

border countries:
Croatia 932 km, Yugoslavia 527 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

22% (1993 est.)
Languages Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak; members elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve two-year terms); note - as of 1 January 2001, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have a permanent election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000 were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002

National House of Representatives - elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2002); House of Peoples - last constituted after the 11 November 2000 elections (next to be constituted in the fall of 2002)

election results:
National House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDP 9, SDA 8, SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI 1, BPS 1, DPS 1, SNS 1, SNSD-DSP 1, DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA

the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH 25, SBH 21, DNZ 3, NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS 2, BOSS 2, GDS 1, RP 1, HSS 1, LDS 1, Pensioners' Party of FBiH 1, SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and a House of Peoples (74 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 14 others); last constituted November 2000; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD 11, SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS 4, SBH 4, DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS 1, Pensioners' Party 1; as of 1 January 2001, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have a permanent election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000 were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002
Life expectancy at birth total population:
71.75 years

69.04 years

74.65 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:

total population:


Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Map references Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe
Maritime claims NA
Merchant marine none (2000 est.)
Military branches Federation Army or VF (composed of both Croatian and Bosniak elements), Republika Srpska Army or VRS (composed of Bosnian Serb elements); note - within both of these forces air and air defense are subordinate commands
Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,127,146 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
895,780 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
29,757 (2001 est.)
National holiday National Day, 25 November (1943)
Nationality noun:
Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Natural hazards destructive earthquakes
Natural resources coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower
Net migration rate 8.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party of BiH or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union or HKDU BiH [Ante PASALIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [leader vacant]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian Peasants Party of BiH or HSS-BiH [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Democratic National Alliance or DNS [Dragan KOSTIC]; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DPS [Alojz KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Party of RS or DSRS [Dragomir DUMIC]; Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Democratic Socialist Party or DSP [Nebojsa RADMANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croatian Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Party of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Pensioners' Party of FBiH [Husein VOJNIKOVIC]; Pensioners' Party of SR [Stojan BOGOSAVAC]; Republican Party of BiH or RP [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Democratic Party or Serb Lands or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance (Serb People's Alliance) or SNS [Biljana PLAVSIC]; Social Democratic Party BIH or SDP-BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 3,922,205

all data dealing with population are subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.38% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje
Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 940,000 (1997)
Railways total:
1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam until grids are repaired)

standard gauge:
1,021 km 1.435-m gauge; note - many segments still need repair and/or reconstruction (2000)
Religions Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.73 male(s)/female

total population:
1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Telephone system general assessment:
telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics


no satellite earth stations
Telephones - main lines in use 303,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 9,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)
Terrain mountains and valleys
Total fertility rate 1.71 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 35%-40% (1999 est.)
Waterways NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris
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