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Birma (2008)

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Birma 2008 roku

 Birma
Podzial administracyjny 7 divisions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne)


divisions: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi, Yangon


states: Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine, Shan
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 26.1% (male 6,277,073/female 6,084,001)


15-64 years: 68.6% (male 16,089,764/female 16,425,299)


65 years and over: 5.3% (male 1,075,868/female 1,421,953) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood; fish and fish products
Lotniska 86 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 25


over 3,047 m: 8


2,438 to 3,047 m: 10


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 61


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 14


914 to 1,523 m: 14


under 914 m: 32 (2007)
Terytorium total: 678,500 sq km


land: 657,740 sq km


water: 20,760 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Texas
Tlo historyczne Britain conquered Birma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and incorporated it into its Indien Empire. Birma was administered as a province of Indie until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; independence from the Commonwealth was attained w 1948. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and later as political kingpin. Despite multiparty legislative elections w 1990 that resulted w the main opposition party - the National League dla Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory, the ruling junta refused to hand over power. NLD leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, who was under house arrest from 1989 to 1995 and 2000 to 2002, was imprisoned w maj 2003 and subsequently transferred to house arrest. After Birma's ruling junta w sierpien 2007 unexpectedly increased fuel prices, tens of thousands of Burmese marched w protest, led by prodemocracy activists and Buddhist monks. In late wrzesien 2007, the government brutally suppressed the protests, killing at least 13 people and arresting thousands dla participating w the demonstrations. Since then, the regime has continued to raid homes and monasteries and arrest persons suspected of participating w the pro-democracy protests. The junta appointed Labor Minister AUNG KYI w pazdziernik 2007 as liaison to AUNG SAN SUU KYI, who remains under house arrest and virtually incommunicado z her party and supporters.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 17.48 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: NA


expenditures: NA (2006 est.)
Stolica name: Rangoon (Yangon)


geographic coordinates: 16 48 N, 96 09 E


time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: Nay Pyi Taw is administrative capital
Klimat tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, czerwiec to wrzesien); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, grudzien to kwiecien)
Linia brzegowa 1,930 km
Konstytucja 3 styczen 1974; suspended since 18 wrzesien 1988; national convention convened w 1993 to establish principles to guide w the drafting of a new constitution concluded w 2007; it did not include participation of major democratic and ethnic majority representatives; a constitutional drafting committee appointed by the junta began meeting w grudzien 2007
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Union of Birma


conventional short form: Birma


local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)


local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw


former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Birma


note: since 1989 the military authorities w Birma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name dla their state; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature w Birma, and the US Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.33 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $6.914 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Shari VILLAROSA


embassy: 110 University Avenue, Kamayut Township, Rangoon


mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546


telephone: [95] (1) 556-509, 535-756


FAX: [95] (1) 650-306
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires MYINT LWIN


chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 332-3344


FAX: [1] (202) 332-4351


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje over half of Birma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin w neighboring countries; Tajlandia must deal z Karen and other ethnic rebels, illegal cross-border activities, Karen and other refugees, and asylum seekers from Birma; Tajlandia is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween River near the border z Birma; w 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted Chiny to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River which flows through Chiny, Birma, and Tajlandia; Indie seeks cooperation from Birma to keep Indien Nagaland separatists, such as the United Liberation Front of Assam, from hiding w remote Burmese Uplands; Burmese Rohingya Muslim refugees reside w two camps w Bangladesz
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $144.7 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Birma, a resource-rich country, suffers from pervasive government controls, inefficient economic policies, and rural poverty. The junta took steps w the early 1990s to liberalize the economy after decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism," but those efforts stalled, and some of the liberalization measures were rescinded. Despite Birma's increasing oil and gas revenue, socio-economic conditions have deteriorated due to the regime's mismanagement of the economy. Lacking monetary or fiscal stability, the economy suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including rising inflation, fiscal deficits, multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the Burmese kyat, a distorted interest rate regime, unreliable statistics, and an inability to reconcile national accounts to determine a realistic Produkt krajowy brutto figure. Most overseas development assistance ceased after the junta began to suppress the democracy movement w 1988 and subsequently refused to honor the results of the 1990 legislative elections. In response to the government of Birma's attack w maj 2003 on AUNG SAN SUU KYI and her convoy, the US imposed new economic sanctions w sierpien 2003 including a ban on imports of Burmese products and a ban on provision of financial services by US persons. Further, a poor investment climate hampers attracting outside investment slowing the inflow of foreign exchange. The most productive sectors will continue to be w extractive industries, especially oil and gas, mining, and timber z the latter especially causing environmental degradation. Other areas, such as manufacturing and services, are struggling z inadequate infrastructure, unpredictable import/export policies, deteriorating health and education systems, and endemic corruption. A major banking crisis w 2003 shuttered the country's 20 private banks and disrupted the economy. As of 2007, the largest private banks operated under tight restrictions limiting the private sector's access to formal credit. Moreover, the wrzesien 2007 crackdown on prodemocracy demonstrators, including thousands of monks, further strained the economy as the tourism industry, which directly employs about 500,000 people, suffered dramatic declines w foreign visitor levels. In listopad 2007, the Unia Europejska announced new sanctions banning investment and trade w Burmese gems, timber and precious stones, while the Stany Zjednoczone expanded its sanctions list to include more Burmese government and military officials and their family members, as well as prominent regime business cronies, their family members, and associated companies. Official statistics are inaccurate. Published statistics on foreign trade are greatly understated because of the size of the black market and unofficial border trade - often estimated to be as large as the official economy. Though the Burmese government has good economic relations z its neighbors, better investment and business climates and an improved political situation are needed to promote serious foreign investment, exports, and tourism.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 3.744 billion kWh (FY06)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 6.154 billion kWh (FY06)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m


highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Birman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indien 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%
Kurs waluty kyats per US dollar - 1,296 (2007), 1,280 (2006), 5.761 (2005), 5.7459 (2004), 6.0764 (2003)


note: unofficial exchange rates ranged w 2004 from 815 kyat/US dollar to nearly 970 kyat/US dollar, and by yearend 2005, the unofficial exchange rate was 1,075 kyat/US dollar; data shown dla 2003-05 are official exchange rates
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 kwiecien 1992)


head of government: Prime Minister, Lt. Gen THEIN SEIN (since 24 pazdziernik 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet is overseen by SPDC; military junta assumed power 18 wrzesien 1988 under name State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)


elections: none
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $6.6 billion f.o.b.


note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Tajlandia, Chiny, and Bangladesz (2007 est.)
Eksport 460 billion cu m (FY06 est.)
Eksport 5,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Eksport - towary gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice, clothing, jade and gems
Eksport - partnerzy Tajlandia 48.8%, Indie 12.7%, Chiny 5.2%, Japonia 5.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi red z a blue rectangle w the upper hoist-side corner bearing 14, white, five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the seven administrative divisions and seven states
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 53.9%


industry: 10.6%


services: 35.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 22 00 N, 98 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location near major Ocean Indyjski shipping lanes
Ladowiska helikopterow 4 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.8%


highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)
Narkotyki remains world's second largest producer of illicit opium z an estimated production w 2005 of 380 metric tons, up 13% from 2004 and cultivation w 2005 was 40,000 hectares, a 10% increase from 2004; the decline w opium production w the United Wa State Army's areas of greatest control was more than offset by increases w south and east Shan state; lack of government will to take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin dla regional consumption; currently under Financial Action Task Force countermeasures due to continued failure to address its inadequate money-laundering controls
(2005)
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $2.642 billion f.o.b.


note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled w from Tajlandia, Chiny, Malezja, and Indie (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 19,180 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary fabric, petroleum products, fertilizer, plastics, machinery, transport equipment; cement, construction materials, crude oil; food products, edible oil
Import - partnerzy Chiny 35.1%, Tajlandia 22.1%, Singapur 16.4%, Malezja 4.8% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 4 styczen 1948 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3.9% (2007 est.)
Przemysl agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; natural gas; garments, jade and gems
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 50.68 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 57.33 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 43.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 39.5% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 18,700 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo remnants of the British-era legal system are w place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive
Sila robocza 29.26 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 70%


industry: 7%


services: 23% (2001 est.)
Granica total: 5,876 km


border countries: Bangladesz 193 km, Chiny 2,185 km, Indie 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Tajlandia 1,800 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 14.92%


permanent crops: 1.31%


other: 83.77% (2005)
Jezyki Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages
System prawny based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 27 maj 1990, but Assembly never allowed by junta to convene (junta has anounced plans to hold elections w 2010)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NLD 392 (opposition), SNLD 23 (opposition), NUP 10 (pro-government), other 60
Zywotnosc total population: 62.49 years


male: 60.29 years


female: 64.83 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 89.9%


male: 93.9%


female: 86.4% (2000 est.)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesz and Tajlandia
Lokalizacja na mapie Southeast Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 33 ships (1000 GRT or over) 364,447 GRT/549,310 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 20, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 3, specialized tanker 1


foreign-owned: 8 (Niemcy 5, Japonia 3) (2007)
Wojsko Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army, Navy, Air Force (Tatmadaw Lay) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.1% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 4 styczen (1948); Union Day, 12 luty (1947)
Narodowosc noun: Burmese (singular and plural)


adjective: Burmese
Naturalne zagrozenia destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (czerwiec to wrzesien); periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 2,790 km; oil 558 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy National League dla Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, AUNG SAN SUU KYI]; National Unity Party or NUP (pro-regime) [TUN YE]; Shan Nationalities League dla Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; and other smaller parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC (based w Tajlandia); Federation of Trade Unions-Birma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates); National Coalition Government of the Union of Birma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government w exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly w 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents w grudzien 1990 to form parallel government w exile); Kachin Niepodleglosc Organization or KIO; Karen National Union or KNU; Karenni National People's Party or KNPP; National Council-Union of Birma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (pro-regime, a social and political mass-member organization) [HTAY OO, general secretary]; 88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement) [MIN KO NAING]
Ludnosc 47,373,958


note: estimates dla this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 32.7% (2007 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.815% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 3 (2007)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,955 km


narrow gauge: 3,955 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religie Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.032 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.757 male(s)/female


total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: meets minimum requirements dla local and intercity service dla business and government; international service is good


domestic: system capable of providing basic service; cellular mobile phone system functions more efficiently than traditional lines


international: country code - 95; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2, Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski), and ShinSat (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 503,900 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 214,200 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 4 (2008)
Uksztaltowanie terenu central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.95 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.2% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 12,800 km (2007)
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