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Antigua and Barbuda (2001)

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Antigua and Barbuda 2001 year

 Antigua and Barbuda
Administrative divisions 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Age structure 0-14 years:
27.97% (male 9,527; female 9,203)

15-64 years:
67.15% (male 22,450; female 22,519)

65 years and over:
4.88% (male 1,360; female 1,911) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Airports 3 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Area total:
442 sq km (Antigua 281 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)

442 sq km

0 sq km

includes Redonda
Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background The islands of Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981. Some 3,000 refugees fleeing a volcanic eruption on nearby Montserrat have settled in Antigua and Barbuda since 1995.
Birth rate 19.5 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$122.6 million

$141.2 million, including capital expenditures of $17.3 million (1997 est.)
Capital Saint John's
Climate tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 153 km
Constitution 1 November 1981
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:
Antigua and Barbuda
Currency East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Death rate 5.87 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $357 million (1998)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST

3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

[1] (202) 362-5211

[1] (202) 362-5225

consulate(s) general:
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $2.3 million (1995)
Economy - overview Tourism continues to be the dominant activity in the economy accounting directly or indirectly for more than half of GDP. The budding offshore financial sector has been seriously hurt by financial sanctions imposed by the US and UK as a result of the loosening of its money-laundering controls. The government has made efforts to comply with international demands in order to get the sanctions lifted. Antigua and Barbuda was listed as a tax haven by the OECD in 2000. The dual island nation's agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about one-third of all tourist arrivals.
Electricity - consumption 88.4 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 95 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:
Boggy Peak 402 m
Environment - current issues water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Exchange rates East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)
Executive branch chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)

head of government:
Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994)

Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister appointed by the governor general
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $38 million (1998)
Exports - commodities petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%
Exports - partners OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band
GDP purchasing power parity - $533 million (1999 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


83.5% (1996 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,200 (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.6% (1999 est.)
Geographic coordinates 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Highways total:
1,165 km

384 km

781 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as a drug-money-laundering center
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $330 million (1998)
Imports - commodities food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Imports - partners US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%
Independence 1 November 1981 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 6% (1997 est.)
Industries tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Infant mortality rate 22.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.6% (1999 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 16 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Labor force 30,000
Labor force - by occupation commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

62% (1993 est.)
Languages English (official), local dialects
Legal system based on English common law
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1
Life expectancy at birth total population:
70.74 years

68.45 years

73.14 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling

total population:


88% (1960 est.)
Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
681 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,070,390 GRT/5,289,904 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 15, cargo 424, chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 4, container 176, liquefied gas 4, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 29

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 2, Germany 4, Slovenia 2 (2000 est.)
Military branches Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes Coast Guard)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
National holiday Independence Day, 1 November (1981)
Nationality noun:
Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)

Antiguan, Barbudan
Natural hazards hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Natural resources NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Net migration rate -6.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)
Political pressure groups and leaders Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Population 66,970 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.74% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Saint John's
Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 36,000 (1997)
Railways total:
77 km

narrow gauge:
64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane)
Religions Anglican (predominant), other Protestant, some Roman Catholic
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female

total population:
0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:

good automatic telephone system

1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe
Telephones - main lines in use 28,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,300 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Terrain mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Total fertility rate 2.31 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 7% (1999 est.)
Waterways none
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