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Fraza:

Wladza wykonawcza (2008)

Wladza wykonawcza - wybierz rok:
- Wladza wykonawcza (2001) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2002) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2003) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2004) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2005) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2006) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2007) (porownaj)


Informacje o Wladza wykonawcza w 2008 rok

AfganistanAfganistan chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 grudzien 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 grudzien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former King ZAHIR Shah held the honorific, "Father of the Country," and presided symbolically over certain occasions but lacked any governing authority; the honorific is not hereditary; King Zahir Shah died on 23 lipiec 2007


head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 grudzien 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: 25 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly


elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by direct vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); if no candidate receives 50% or more of the vote w the first round of voting, the two candidates z the most votes will participate w a second round; a president can only be elected dla two terms; election last held 9 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote - Hamid KARZAI 55.4%, Yunus QANUNI 16.3%, Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ 11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM 1.4%, Masooda JALAL 1.2%
AkrotiriAkrotiri chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Richard LACEY (since 26 kwiecien 2006); note - reports to the British Ministry of Defense


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is appointed by the monarch
AlbaniaAlbania chief of state: President of the Republic Bamir TOPI (since 24 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 wrzesien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament


elections: president elected by the People's Assembly dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); four election rounds held between 8 and 20 lipiec 2007 (next election to be held w 2012); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Bamir TOPI elected president; People's Assembly vote, fourth round (three-fifths majority (84 votes) required): Bamir TOPI 85 votes, Neritan CEKA 5 votes
AlgieriaAlgieria chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 kwiecien 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Abdelaziz BELKHADEM


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 8 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held w kwiecien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president dla second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS 6.4%, Abdellah DJABALLAH 5%
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 kwiecien 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet made up of 12 department directors


elections: under the US Konstytucja, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Samoa Amerykanskie, do not vote w elections dla US president and vice president; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 2 and 16 listopad 2004 (next to be held w listopad 2008)


election results: Togiola TULAFONO elected governor; percent of vote - Togiola TULAFONO 55.7%, Afoa Moega LUTU 44.3%
AndoraAndora chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007); represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 lipiec 2002) and Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 maj 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since 30 lipiec 2003)


head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA (since 27 maj 2005)


cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president


elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces dla a four-year term; election last held 24 kwiecien 2005 (next to be held w kwiecien-maj 2009)


election results: Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA
AngolaAngola chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 wrzesien 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 wrzesien 1979); Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed prime minister on 6 grudzien 2002


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by universal ballot dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood dla reelection w Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 wrzesien 1992 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held because SAVIMBI's National Union dla the Total Niepodleglosc of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed leaving DOS SANTOS w his current position as the president
AnguillaAnguilla chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor Andrew N. GEORGE (since 10 lipiec 2006)


head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 marzec 2000)


cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
ArgentynaArgentyna chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 grudzien 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 grudzien 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 grudzien 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 28 pazdziernik 2007 (next election to be held w 2011)


election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER elected president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 45%, Elisa CARRIO 23%, Roberto LAVAGNA 17%, Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%
ArmeniaArmenia chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 marzec 1998)


head of government: Prime Minister Serzh SARGSYAN (since 4 kwiecien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 19 luty 2008 (next to be held luty 2013); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority or plurality support w parliament; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program


election results: Serzh SARGSYAN elected president; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSYAN 52.9%, Levon TER-PETROSSIAN 21.5%, Artur BAGHDASARIAN 16.7%; note - president elect Serzh SARGSYAN is due to take office 9 kwiecien 2008
ArubaAruba chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Holandia (since 30 kwiecien 1980); represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 maj 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30 pazdziernik 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten


elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed dla a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten dla four-year terms; election last held w 2005 (next to be held by 2009)


election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA
AustraliaAustralia chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael JEFFERY (since 11 sierpien 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Kevin RUDD (since 3 grudzien 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Julia GILLARD (since 3 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn w by the governor general to serve as government ministers


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn w as prime minister by the governor general
AustriaAustria chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) (since 8 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Chancellor Alfred GUSENBAUER (SPOe) (since 11 styczen 2007); Vice Chancellor Wilhelm MOLTERER (OeVP) (since 11 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor


elections: president elected by direct popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); presidential election last held 25 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held w kwiecien 2010); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor


election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER 47.6%


note: government coalition - SPOe and OeVP
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 pazdziernik 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 listopad 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since czerwiec 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 15 pazdziernik 2003 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2008); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly


election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%
BahamyBahamy chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Arthur D. HANNA (since 1 luty 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Hubert A. INGRAHAM (since 4 maj 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
BahrajnBahrajn chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa (since 6 marzec 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 pazdziernik 1969)


head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman al-Khalifa (since 1971); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak al-Khalifa, Jawad al-ARAIDH


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
BangladeszBangladesz chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 wrzesien 2002)


note: the country has a caretaker government until a general election is held; Iajuddin AHMED remains as President and Minister of Defense, and all other Cabinet portfolios are held by Caretaker Advisers (CAs); the Chief CA, Fakhruddin AHMED, is roughly equivalent to a prime minister


elections: president elected by National Parliament dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election scheduled dla 16 wrzesien 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn w on 6 wrzesien 2002 (next election NA); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president


election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared president-elect by the Election Commission; he ran unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA
BarbadosBarbados chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 czerwiec 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister David THOMPSON (since 16 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
BialorusBialorus chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 lipiec 1994)


head of government: Prime Minister Sergey SIDORSKIY (since 19 grudzien 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since grudzien 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; first election took place 23 czerwiec and 10 lipiec 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held w 1999, however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a listopad 1996 referendum; subsequent election held 9 wrzesien 2001; an pazdziernik 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run w a third election, which was held on 19 marzec 2006; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 82.6%, Aleksandr MILINKEVICH 6%, Aleksandr KOZULIN 2.3%; note - election marred by electoral fraud
BelgiaBelgia chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 sierpien 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch


head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 lipiec 1999); note - is head of an interim government until the end of marzec when it is hoped a new government will be formed


cabinet: Council of Ministers are formally appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary and constitutional; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and then approved by parliament


note: government formation talks have been prolonged, but the current interim goverment consists of French and Flemish Christian Democrats or CD&V and CDh, Liberals or Open VLD and MR, and French Socialists or PS
BelizeBelize chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 listopad 1993)


head of government: Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since 8 luty 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Gaspar VEGA (since 12 luty 2008)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
BeninBenin chief of state: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 kwiecien 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 kwiecien 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); runoff election held 19 marzec 2006 (next to be held w marzec 2011)


election results: Thomas YAYI Boni elected president; percent of vote - Thomas YAYI Boni 74.5%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI 25.5%
BermudyBermudy chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor Sir Richard GOZNEY (since 12 grudzien 2007)


head of government: Premier Ewart BROWN (since 30 pazdziernik 2006); Deputy Premier Paula COX


cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
BhutanBhutan chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 grudzien 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 grudzien 2006 and his son immediately succeeded him


head of government: Prime Minister Kinzang DORJI (since sierpien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms w lipiec 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch z two-thirds vote; election of a new National Assembly is expected w 2008
BoliwiaBoliwia chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 styczen 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 styczen 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 styczen 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 styczen 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a single five-year term; election last held 18 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma elected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 53.7%; Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez 28.6%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 7.8%; Michiaki NAGATANI Morishit 6.5%; Felipe QUISPE Huanca 2.2%; Guildo ANGULA Cabrera 0.7%
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Zeljko KOMSIC (chairman since 6 lipiec 2007; and presidency member since 1 pazdziernik 2006 - Croat); other members of the three-member presidency rotating (every eight months): Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (presidency member since 1 pazdziernik 2006 - Serb); and Haris SILAJDZIC (presidency member since 1 pazdziernik 2006 - Bosniak)


head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola SPIRIC (since 11 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives


elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term, but then ineligible dla four years); the chairmanship rotates every eight months and resumes where it left off following each national election; election last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w 2010); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives


election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC z 53.3% of the votes dla the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC received 39.6% of the votes dla the Croat seat; Haris SILAJDZIC received 62.8% of the votes dla the Bosniak seat


note: President of the Federation of Bosnia i Hercegowina: Borjana KRISTO (since 21 luty 2007); Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC (since NA 2007) and Mirsad KEBO (since NA 2007); President of the Republika Srpska: Rajko KUSMANOVIC (since 28 grudzien 2007)
BotswanaBotswana chief of state: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 kwiecien 1998); Vice President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 13 lipiec 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 kwiecien 1998); Vice President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 13 lipiec 1998);


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president indirectly elected dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 20 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w 2009); vice president appointed by the president


election results: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52%
BrazyliaBrazylia chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 styczen 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 styczen 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 styczen 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 styczen 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a single four-year term; election last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 z runoff 29 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held 3 pazdziernik 2010 and, if necessary, 31 pazdziernik 2010)


election results: Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) reelected president - 60.83%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 39.17%
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu IndyjskiegoBrytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Commissioner Leigh TURNER (since lipiec 2006); Administrator Tony HUMPHRIES (since luty 2005); note - both reside w the UK and are represented by the officer commanding British Forces on Diego Garcia


cabinet: NA


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and administrator appointed by the monarch
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor David PEAREY (since 18 kwiecien 2006)


head of government: Premier Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 23 sierpien 2007)


cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of the House of Assembly


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
BruneiBrunei chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 pazdziernik 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 pazdziernik 1967)


cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals z executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals z constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
BulgariaBulgaria chief of state: President Georgi PARVANOV (since 22 styczen 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 styczen 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Sergei STANISHEV (since 16 sierpien 2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivaylo KALFIN, Daniel VULCHEV, and Emel ETEM (since 16 sierpien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 22 and 29 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w 2011); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president and elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly


election results: Georgi PARVANOV reelected president; percent of vote - Georgi PARVANOV 77.3%, Volen SIDEROV 22.7%; Sergei STANISHEV elected prime minister, result of legislative vote - 168 to 67
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 pazdziernik 1987)


head of government: Prime Minister Tertius ZONGO (since 4 czerwiec 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 13 listopad 2005 (next to be held w 2010); w kwiecien 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005; prime minister appointed by the president z the consent of the legislature


election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president; percent of popular vote - Blaise COMPAORE 80.3%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 4.9%
BirmaBirma chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 kwiecien 1992)


head of government: Prime Minister, Lt. Gen THEIN SEIN (since 24 pazdziernik 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet is overseen by SPDC; military junta assumed power 18 wrzesien 1988 under name State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)


elections: none
BurundiBurundi chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 sierpien 2005); First Vice President Yves SAVINGUVU - Tutsi (since 9 listopad 2007); Second Vice President Gabriel NTISEZERANA - Hutu (since 9 luty 2007)


head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 sierpien 2005); First Vice President Yves SAVINGUVU - Tutsi (since 9 listopad 2007); Second Vice President Gabriel NTISEZERANA - Hutu (since 9 luty 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president


elections: the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); note - the constitution adopted w luty 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by a two-thirds majority of the parliament; vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament


election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president by the parliament by a vote of 151 to 9; note - the constitution adopted w luty 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by a two-thirds majority of the legislature
KambodzaKambodza chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 pazdziernik 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 styczen 1985) [co-prime minister from 1993 to 1997]; Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 luty 1992); SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 lipiec 2004); KEV PUT REAKSMEI (since 24 pazdziernik 2006), BIN CHHIN (since 5 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers w theory appointed by the monarch; w practice named by the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
KamerunKamerun chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 listopad 1982)


head of government: Prime Minister Ephraim INONI (since 8 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 11 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held by pazdziernik 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 70.9%, John FRU NDI 17.4%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.7%
KanadaKanada chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 wrzesien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 luty 2006)


cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting w Parliament


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister dla a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition w the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka chief of state: President Pedro Verona PIRES (since 22 marzec 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 luty 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 12 luty 2006 (next to be held w luty 2011); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president


election results: Pedro PIRES reelected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 51.2%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 48.8%
KajmanyKajmany chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor Stuart JACK (since 23 listopad 2005)


head of government: Leader of Government Business Kurt TIBBETTS (since 18 maj 2005)


cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor, four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or coalition is appointed by the governor Leader of Government Business
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie chief of state: President Francois BOZIZE (since 15 marzec 2003 coup)


head of government: Prime Minister Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (since 22 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: under the new constitution, the president elected to a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 13 marzec and 8 maj 2005 (next to be held w 2010); prime minister appointed by the political party z a parliamentary majority


election results: Francois BOZIZE elected president; percent of second round balloting - Francois BOZIZE (KNK) 64.6%, Martin ZIGUELE (MLPC) 35.4%
CzadCzad chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 grudzien 1990)


head of government: Prime Minister Nouradine Delwa KASSIRE Koumakoye (since 26 luty 2007)


cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand dla a second round of voting; last held 3 maj 2006 (next to be held by maj 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a czerwiec 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run dla reelection
ChileChile chief of state: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 marzec 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 marzec 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a single four-year term; election last held 11 grudzien 2005, z runoff election held 15 styczen 2006 (next to be held w grudzien 2009)


election results: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent of vote - Michelle BACHELET Jeria 53.5%; Sebastian PINERA Echenique 46.5%
ChinyChiny chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003); Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premier WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), Vice Premier ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held w mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by the Australian governor general


head of government: Administrator Neil LUCAS (since 30 styczen 2006)


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by the Australian governor general


head of government: Administrator (nonresident) Neil LUCAS (since 30 styczen 2006)


cabinet: NA


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
KolumbiaKolumbia chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 sierpien 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 sierpien 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 sierpien 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 sierpien 2002)


cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the three largest parties that supported President URIBE's reelection - the PSUN, PC, and CR - and independents


elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 28 maj 2006 (next to be held w maj 2010)


election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez reelected president; percent of vote - Alvaro URIBE Velez 62%, Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz 22%, Horacio SERPA Uribe 12%, other 4%
KomoryKomory chief of state: President Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI (since 26 maj 2006)


head of government: President Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI (since 26 maj 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three main islands w the Union; election last held 14 maj 2006 (next to be held by maj 2010); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the post of prime minister has been vacant since maj 2002


election results: Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI elected president; percent of vote - Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI 58.0%, Ibrahim HALIDI 28.3%, Mohamed DJAANFAMI 13.7%
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 17 styczen 2001); note - following the assassination of his father, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the presidency which he retained through the 2003-2006 transition; he was subsequently elected president w pazdziernik 2006


head of government: Prime Minister Antoine GIZENGA (since 30 grudzien 2006);


cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president


elections: under the new constitution the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 30 lipiec 2006 z a second round held on 29 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: results of 29 pazdziernik 2006 elections (second round); Joseph KABILA 58%, Jean-Pierre BEMBA Gombo 42%


note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, following the latter's assassination w styczen 2001; negotiations z rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional government w lipiec 2003 z free elections held on 30 lipiec 2006 and 29 pazdziernik 2006 confirming Joseph KABILA as president
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 pazdziernik 1997, following the civil war w which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA);


head of government: Prime Minister Isidore MVOUBA (since 7 styczen 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 10 marzec 2002 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Frederick GOODWIN (since 9 luty 2001); Nowa Zelandia High Commissioner Brian DONNELLY (since 21 luty 2008), representative of Nowa Zelandia


head of government: Prime Minister Jim MARURAI (since 14 grudzien 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Terepai MAOATE (since 9 sierpien 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively responsible to Parliament


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is appointed by the monarch; the Nowa Zelandia high commissioner is appointed by the Nowa Zelandia Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes prime minister
Wyspy Morza KoralowegoWyspy Morza Koralowego administered from Canberra by the Australian Attorney-General's Department
KostarykaKostaryka chief of state: President Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (since 8 maj 2006); First Vice President Laura CHINCHILLA (since 8 maj 2006); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (since 8 maj 2006); First Vice President Laura CHINCHILLA (since 8 maj 2006); Second Vice President (vacant)


cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president


elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a single four-year term; election last held 5 luty 2006 (next to be held w luty 2010)


election results: Oscar ARIAS Sanchez elected president; percent of vote - Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (PLN) 40.9%; Otton SOLIS (PAC) 39.8%, Otto GUEVARA Guth (PML) 8%, Ricardo TOLEDO (PUSC) 3%
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire chief of state: President Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 pazdziernik 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Guillaume SORO (since 4 kwiecien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the current power-sharing agreement the prime minister and the president share the authority to appoint ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 26 pazdziernik 2000 (next to be held by czerwiec 2008; election were to be held w 2005 but have been repeatedly postponed by the government; the UN Security Council has extended the government's mandate); prime minister appointed by the president (current Prime Minister BANNY was appointed by African Union mediators as part of the existing power-sharing agreement)


election results: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other 2.2%
ChorwacjaChorwacja chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 luty 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Ivo SANADER (since 9 grudzien 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Jadranka KOSOR (since 23 grudzien 2003) and Damir POLANCEC (since 15 luty 2005), Djurdja ADLESIC (since 12 styczen 2008), Slobodan UZELAC (since 12 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 16 styczen 2005 (next to be held w styczen 2010); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the Assembly


election results: Stjepan MESIC reelected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC 66%, Jadranka KOSOR 34% w the second round
KubaKuba chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 luty 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura (since 24 luty 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 luty 2008); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura (since 24 luty 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State and appointed by the National Assembly or the 31-member Council of State, elected by the Assembly to act on its behalf when it is not w session


elections: president and vice presidents elected by the National Assembly dla a term of five years; election last held 24 luty 2008 (next to be held w 2013)


election results: Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%
CyprCypr chief of state: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 luty 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved dla a Turkish Cypriot


head of government: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 luty 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 17 and 24 luty 2008 (next to be held w luty 2013)


election results: Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS elected president; percent of vote (first round) - Ioannis KASOULIDIS 33.5%, Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 33.3%, Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 31.8%; (second round) Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 53.4%, Ioannis KASOULIDIS 46.6%


note: Mehmet Ali TALAT became "president" of the "TRNC", 24 kwiecien 2005, after "presidential" elections on 17 kwiecien 2005; results - Mehmet Ali TALAT 55.6%, Dervis EROGLU 22.7%; Ferdi Sabit SOYER is "TRNC prime minister" and heads the Council of Ministers (cabinet) w coalition z "Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister" Turgay AVCI
CzechyCzechy chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 marzec 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Mirek TOPOLANEK (since 9 styczen 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Petr NECAS (since 9 styczen 2007), Martin BURSIK (since 9 styczen 2007), and Alexandr VONDRA (since 9 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); last successful election held 15 luty 2008 (after earlier elections held 8 and 9 luty 2008 were inconclusive; next election to be held w luty 2013); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Vaclav KLAUS reelected president on 15 luty 2008; Vaclav KLAUS 141 votes, Jan SVEJNAR 111 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
DaniaDania chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 styczen 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 maj 1968)


head of government: Prime Minister Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN (since 27 listopad 2001)


cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
DhekeliaDhekelia chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Richard LACEY (since 26 kwiecien 2006); note - reports to the British Ministry of Defense


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is appointed by the monarch
DzibutiDzibuti chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 maj 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Dileita DILEITA (since 4 marzec 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 8 kwiecien 2005 (next to be held by kwiecien 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 100%
DominikaDominika chief of state: President Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (since pazdziernik 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Roosevelt SKERRIT (since 8 styczen 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister


elections: president elected by the House of Assembly dla a five-year term; election last held 1 pazdziernik 2003 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2008); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Nicholas LIVERPOOL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 sierpien 2004); Vice President Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 sierpien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 sierpien 2004); Vice President Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 sierpien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second consecutive term); election last held 16 maj 2004 (next to be held w maj 2008)


election results: Leonel FERNANDEZ elected president; percent of vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ 57.1%, Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez 33.7%, Eduardo ESTRELLA 8.7%
EkwadorEkwador chief of state: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 styczen 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 styczen 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 styczen 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 pazdziernik 2006 z a runoff election on 26 listopad 2006 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2010)


election results: Rafael CORREA Delgado elected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 56.7%; Alvaro NOBOA 43.3%
EgiptEgipt chief of state: President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 pazdziernik 1981)


head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed NAZIF (since 9 lipiec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum w maj 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People's Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 wrzesien 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 wrzesien 2005; next election scheduled dla 2011


election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
SalwadorSalwador chief of state: President Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 czerwiec 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma Albanez DE ESCOBAR (since 1 czerwiec 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 czerwiec 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma Albanez DE ESCOBAR (since 1 czerwiec 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a single five-year term; election last held 21 marzec 2004 (next to be held w marzec 2009)


election results: Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez elected president; percent of vote - Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez 57.7%, Schafik HANDAL 35.6%, Hector SILVA 3.9%, other 2.8%
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 sierpien 1979 when he seized power w a military coup)


head of government: Prime Minister Ricardo Mangue Obama NFUBEA (since 14 sierpien 2006); First Deputy Prime Minister Mercelino Oyono NTUTUMU (since 15 czerwiec 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 15 grudzien 2002 (next to be held w grudzien 2009); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO 97.1%, Celestino Bonifacio BACALE 2.2%; elections marred by widespread fraud
ErytreaErytrea chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 czerwiec 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly


head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 czerwiec 1993)


cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority; members appointed by the president


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); the most recent and only election held 8 czerwiec 1993 (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly did not hold a presidential election w grudzien 2001 as anticipated)


election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%, other 5%
EstoniaEstonia chief of state: President Toomas Hendrik ILVES (since 9 pazdziernik 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 kwiecien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting w the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates z the largest percentage of votes; election last held 23 wrzesien 2006 (next to be held w the fall of 2011); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament


election results: Toomas Hendrik ILVES elected president on 23 wrzesien 2006 by a 345-member electoral assembly; ILVES received 174 votes to incumbent Arnold RUUTEL's 162; remaining 9 ballots left blank or invalid
EtiopiaEtiopia chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 pazdziernik 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since sierpien 1995)


cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided dla w the grudzien 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives


elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 9 pazdziernik 2007 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2013); prime minister designated by the party w power following legislative elections


election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 79%
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska chief of union: President of the European Commission Jose Manuel DURAO BARROSO (since 22 listopad 2004)


cabinet: European Commission (composed of 27 members, one from each member country; each commissioner responsible dla one or more policy areas)


elections: the president of the European Commission is designated by member governments and is confirmed by the European Parliament; working from member state recommendations, the Commission president then assembles a "college" of Commission members; the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission dla a five-year term; the last confirmation process was held 18 listopad 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: European Parliament approved the European Commission by an approval vote of 449 to 149 z 82 abstentions


note: the European Council brings together heads of state and government and the president of the European Commission and meets at least four times a year; its aim is to provide the impetus dla the major political issues relating to European integration and to issue general policy guidelines
FalklandyFalklandy chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Governor Alan HUCKLE (since 25 sierpien 2006); Chief Executive Chris SIMPKINS (since marzec 2003); note - Dr. Tim THOROGOOD will assume the position of Chief Executive w styczen 2008


cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Dania (since 14 styczen 1972), represented by High Commissioner Birgit KLEIS, chief administrative officer (since 1 listopad 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Joannes EIDESGAARD (since 3 luty 2004)


cabinet: Landsstyri appointed by the prime minister


elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held 20 styczen 2004 (next to be held no later than styczen 2008)


election results: Joannes EIDESGAARD elected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - NA
FidziFidzi chief of state: President Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda (since 18 lipiec 2000); note - ILOILOVATU was reaffirmed as president by the Great Council of Chiefs w a statement issued on 22 grudzien, and reappointed by the coup leader Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA w styczen 2007


head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since 10 wrzesien 2000); note - although QARASE is still the legal prime minister, he has been confined to his home island; the president appointed Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA interim prime minister under the military regime


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament; note - coup leader Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA has appointed an interim cabinet


elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); prime minister appointed by the president; election last held 8 marzec 2006


election results: Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs; percent of vote - NA
FinlandiaFinlandia chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 marzec 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 czerwiec 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 19 kwiecien 2007)


cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 15 styczen 2006 (next to be held w styczen 2012); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after parliamentary elections and the parliament must approve the appointment; Prime Minister VANHANEN reelected 17 kwiecien 2007


election results: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN and NIINISTO was held 29 styczen 2006 - HALONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2%; Matti VANHANEN relected prime minister; election results 121-71


note: government coalition - Kesk, SDP, and SFP
FrancjaFrancja chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Francois FILLON (since 17 maj 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (changed from seven-year term w pazdziernik 2000); election last held 22 kwiecien and 6 maj 2007 (next to be held spring 2012); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and appointed by the president


election results: Nicolas SARKOZY wins the election; First Round: percent of vote - Nicolas SARKOZY 31.18%, Segolene ROYAL 25.87%, Francois BAYROU 18.57%, Jean-Marie LE PEN 10.44%, others 13.94%; Second Round: SARKOZY 53.1% and ROYAL 46.9%
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Anne BOQUET (since wrzesien 2005)


head of government: President of Polinezja Francuska Oscar TEMARU (since 13 wrzesien 2007); note - President TEMARU resigned on 27 styczen 2008; President of the Territorial Assembly Antony GEROS (since 9 maj 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of the Territorial Assembly dla approval by them to serve as ministers


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the territorial government and the president of the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly dla five-year terms (no term limits)
Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i AntarktyczneFrancuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007), represented by Senior Administrator Eric PILLOTON (10 kwiecien 2007)
GabonGabon chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba (since 2 grudzien 1967)


head of government: Prime Minister Jean Eyeghe NDONG (since 20 styczen 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister w consultation z the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 27 listopad 2005 (next to be held w 2012); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba reelected; percent of vote - El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba 79.2%, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU 13.6%, Zacharie MYBOTO 6.6%
GambiaGambia chief of state: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 pazdziernik 1996); note - from 1994 to 1996 he was chairman of the Junta; Vice President Isatou NJIE-SAIDY (since 20 marzec 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 pazdziernik 1996); Vice President Isatou NJIE-SAIDY (since 20 marzec 1997)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 22 wrzesien 2006 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH reelected president; percent of vote - Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH 67.3%, Ousainou DARBOE 26.6%, Halifa SALLAH 6.0%
GeorgiaGeorgia chief of state: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 styczen 2004); the president is both the chief of state and head of government dla the power ministries: state security (includes interior) and defense


head of government: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 styczen 2004); Prime Minister Lado GURGENIDZE (since 19 listopad 2007); the president is both the chief of state and head of government dla the power ministries: state security (includes interior) and defense; the prime minister is head of the remaining ministries of government


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 5 styczen 2008 (next to be held styczen 2013)


election results: Mikheil SAAKASHVILI reelected president; percent of vote - Mikheil SAAKASHVILI 53.5%, Levan GACHECHILADZE 25.7%, Badri PATARKATSISHVILI 7.1%
NiemcyNiemcy chief of state: President Horst KOEHLER (since 1 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 listopad 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor


elections: president elected dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 maj 2004 (next scheduled dla 23 maj 2009); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly dla a four-year term; Bundestag vote dla Chancellor last held 22 listopad 2005 (next will follow the national elections to be held by autumn 2009)


election results: Horst KOEHLER elected president; received 604 votes of the Federal Convention against 589 dla Gesine SCHWAN; Angela MERKEL elected chancellor; vote by Federal Assembly 397 to 202 z 12 abstentions
GhanaGhana chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 styczen 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 styczen 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 styczen 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 styczen 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 7 grudzien 2004 (next to be held w grudzien 2008)


election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president w election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 52.4%, John ATTA-MILLS 44.6%
GibraltarGibraltar chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor Sir Robert FULTON (since 27 pazdziernik 2006)


head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 maj 1996)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor w consultation z the chief minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
GrecjaGrecja chief of state: President Karolos PAPOULIAS (since 12 marzec 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Konstandinos (Kostas) KARAMANLIS (since 7 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by parliament dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 8 luty 2005 (next to be held by luty 2010); according to the Greek Konstytucja, presidents may only serve two terms; president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote w election to become prime minister and form a government


election results: Karolos PAPOULIAS elected president; number of parliamentary votes, 279 out of 300
GrenlandiaGrenlandia chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Dania (since 14 styczen 1972), represented by High Commissioner Soren MOLLER (since kwiecien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Hans ENOKSEN (since 14 grudzien 2002)


cabinet: Home Rule Government is elected by the parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties


elections: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by parliament (usually the leader of the majority party);


election results: Hans ENOKSEN reelected prime minister


note: government coalition - Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit
GrenadaGrenada chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Daniel WILLIAMS (since 9 sierpien 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 22 czerwiec 1995)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
GuamGuam chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Felix P. CAMACHO (since 6 styczen 2003); Lieutenant Governor Dr. Michael W. CRUZ (since 1 styczen 2007)


cabinet: heads of executive departments; appointed by the governor z the consent of the Guam legislature


elections: under the US Konstytucja, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Guam, do not vote w elections dla US president and vice president; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year term (can serve two consecutive terms, then must wait a full term before running again); election last held 7 listopad 2006 (next to be held w listopad 2010)


election results: Felix P. CAMACHO reelected governor; Dr. Michael W. CRUZ elected lieutenant governor; percent of vote - NA
GwatemalaGwatemala chief of state: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 styczen 2008); Vice President Rafael ESPADA (since 14 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 styczen 2008); Vice President Rafael ESPADA (since 14 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 wrzesien 2007; runoff held 4 listopad 2007 (next to be held wrzesien 2011)


election results: Alvaro COLOM Caballeros elected president; percent of vote - Alvaro COLOM Caballeros 52.8%, Otto PEREZ Molina 47.2%
GuernseyGuernsey chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Fabian MALBON (since 28 pazdziernik 2005)


head of government: Chief Minister Michael W. TORODE (since 5 marzec 2007)


cabinet: Policy Council elected by the States of Deliberation


elections: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister is elected by States of Deliberation


election results: Laurie MORGAN elected chief minister, percent of vote of the States of Deliberation NA
GwineaGwinea chief of state: President Lansana CONTE (head of military government since 5 kwiecien 1984, elected president 19 grudzien 1993)


head of government: Prime Minister Lansana KOUYATE (since 26 luty 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (no term limits); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held 21 grudzien 2003 (next to be held w grudzien 2010); the prime minister is appointed by the president


election results: Lansana CONTE reelected president; percent of vote - Lansana CONTE 95.3%, Mamadou Bhoye BARRY 4.6%
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau chief of state: President Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA (since 1 pazdziernik 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Martinho N'Dafa CABI (since 9 kwiecien 2007)


cabinet: NA


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 lipiec 2005 (next to be held w 2010); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation z party leaders w the legislature


election results: Joao Bernardo VIEIRA elected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Joao Bernardo VIEIRA 52.4%, Malam Bacai SANHA 47.6%
GujanaGujana chief of state: President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 11 sierpien 1999); note - assumed presidency after resignation of President Janet JAGAN and reelected w 2001, and again w 2006


head of government: Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since pazdziernik 1992, except dla a period as chief of state after the death of President Cheddi JAGAN on 6 marzec 1997)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature


elections: president elected by popular vote as leader of a party list w parliamentary elections, which must be held at least every five years (no term limits); elections last held 28 sierpien 2006 (next to be held by sierpien 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Bharrat JAGDEO reelected; percent of vote 54.6%
HaitiHaiti chief of state: President Rene PREVAL (since 14 maj 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS (since 30 maj 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 7 luty 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly


election results: Rene PREVAL elected president; percent of vote - Rene PREVAL 51%
WatykanWatykan chief of state: Pope BENEDICT XVI (since 19 kwiecien 2005)


head of government: Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio BERTONE (since 15 wrzesien 2006)


cabinet: Pontifical Commission dla the State of Vatican City appointed by the pope


elections: pope elected dla life by the College of Cardinals; election last held 19 kwiecien 2005 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope


election results: Joseph RATZINGER elected Pope BENEDICT XVI
HondurasHonduras chief of state: President Manuel ZELAYA Rosales (since 27 styczen 2006); Vice President Elvin Ernesto SANTOS Ordonez (since 27 styczen 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Manuel ZELAYA Rosales (since 27 styczen 2006); Vice President Elvin Ernesto SANTOS Ordonez (since 27 styczen 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 27 listopad 2005 (next to be held w listopad 2009)


election results: Manuel ZELAYA Rosales elected president - 49.8%, Porfirio "Pepe" LOBO Sosa 46.1%, other 4.1%
Hong KongHong Kong chief of state: President of Chiny HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Chief Executive Donald TSANG (since 24 czerwiec 2005)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of 15 official members and 16 non-official members


elections: chief executive elected dla five-year term by 800-member electoral committee; last held on 25 marzec 2007 (next to be held w 2012)


election results: Donald TSANG elected chief executive receiving 84.1% of the vote of the election committee; Alan LEONG received 15.9%
WegryWegry chief of state: Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 sierpien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 wrzesien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed and relieved of their duties by the president


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 6-7 czerwiec 2005 (next to be held by czerwiec 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 wrzesien 2004


election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority w the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12


note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote w the first two rounds or a simple majority w the third round
IslandiaIslandia chief of state: President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 sierpien 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Geir H. HAARDE (since 7 czerwiec 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: president, largely a ceremonial post, is elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 26 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held w czerwiec 2008); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister


election results: Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON 85.6%, Baldur AGUSTSSON 12.5%, Astthor MAGNUSSON 1.9%
IndieIndie chief of state: President Pratibha PATIL (since 25 lipiec 2007); Vice President Hamid ANSARI (since 11 sierpien 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 maj 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 21 lipiec 2007 (next to be held w lipiec 2012); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 12 sierpien 2002 (next to be held sierpien 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held kwiecien - maj 2004 (next to be held maj 2009)


election results: Pratibha PATIL elected president; percent of vote - 65.8%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT - 34.2%
IndonezjaIndonezja chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 pazdziernik 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 pazdziernik 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 pazdziernik 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 pazdziernik 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president were elected dla five-year terms (eligible dla a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 wrzesien 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%
IranIran chief of state: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 czerwiec 1989)


head of government: President Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD (since 3 sierpien 2005); First Vice President Parviz DAVUDI (since 11 wrzesien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president z legislative approval; the Supreme Leader has some control over appointments to the more sensitive ministries


note: also considered part of the Wladza wykonawcza of government are three oversight bodies: 1) Assembly of Experts (Majles-Khebregan), a popularly elected body of 86 religious scholars constitutionally charged z determining the succession of the Supreme Leader (based on his qualifications w the field of jurisprudence and commitment to the principles of the revolution), reviewing his performance, and deposing him if deemed necessary; 2) Expediency Council or the Council dla the Discernment of Expediency (Majma-e-Tashkise-Maslahat-e-Nezam), is a policy advisory and implementation board consisting of over 40 permanent members representing all major government factions and includes the heads of the three branches of government, and the clerical members of the Council of Guardians (see next); permanent members are appointed by the Supreme Leader dla five-year terms; temporary members, including Cabinet members and Majles committee chairmen, are selected when issues under their jurisdiction come before the Expediency Council; the Expediency Council exerts supervisory authority over the executive, judicial, and legislative branches and resolves legislative issues on which the Majles and the Council of Guardians disagree and since 1989 has been used to advise national religious leaders on matters of national policy; w 2005 the Council's powers were expanded, at least on paper, to act as a supervisory body dla the government; 3) Council of Guardians of the Konstytucja or Council of Guardians or Guardians Council (Shora-ye Negaban-e Qanun-e Assassi) is a 12-member board made up of six clerics chosen by the Supreme Leader and six jurists recommended by the judiciary (which is controlled by the Supreme Leader) and approved by the Majles from a list of candidates recommended by the judiciary (which w turn is controlled by the Supreme Leader) dla six-year terms; this Council determines whether proposed legislation is both constitutional and faithful to Islamic law, vets candidates dla suitability, and supervises national elections


elections: Supreme Leader appointed dla life by the Assembly of Experts; Assembly of Experts elected by popular vote dla an eight-year term; last election held 15 grudzien 2006 concurrently z municipal elections; Hojjat ol-Eslam Ali Akbar RAFSANJANI was elected Speaker w wrzesien 2007, following the lipiec death of former Speaker Ayatollah Ali Akbar Meshkini-Qomi; president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term and third nonconsecutive term); last held 17 czerwiec 2005 z a two-candidate runoff on 24 czerwiec 2005 (next presidential election slated dla 2009)


election results: Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD elected president; percent of vote - Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD 62%, Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI 36%
IrakIrak chief of state: President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 kwiecien 2005); Vice Presidents Adil ABD AL-MAHDI and Tariq al-HASHIMI (since 22 kwiecien 2006); note - the president and vice presidents comprise the Presidency Council)


head of government: Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 maj 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Barham SALIH (since 20 maj 2006); second deputy prime minister positon vacant


cabinet: 34 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI, and Deputy Prime Minister Barham SALIH; second deputy prime minister position vacant


elections: held 15 grudzien 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives
IrlandiaIrlandia chief of state: President Mary MCALEESE (since 11 listopad 1997)


head of government: Prime Minister Bertie AHERN (since 26 czerwiec 1997)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president z previous nomination by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 31 pazdziernik 1997 (next scheduled dla pazdziernik 2011); note - Mary MCALEESE appointed to a second term when no other candidate qualified dla the 2004 presidential election; prime minister (taoiseach) nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president


election results: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of vote - Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%


note: government coalition - Fianna Fail, the Green Party, the Progressive Democrats, and independent members of Parliament
Wyspa ManWyspa Man chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Paul K. HADDACKS (since 17 pazdziernik 2005)


head of government: Chief Minister Tony BROWN (since 14 grudzien 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch dla a five-year term; the chief minister is elected by the Tynwald; election last held 14 grudzien 2006 (next to be held w grudzien 2008)


election results: House of Keys speaker Tony BROWN elected chief minister by the Tynwald
IzraelIzrael chief of state: President Shimon PERES (since 15 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Ehud OLMERT (since maj 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Tzipora "Tzipi" LIVNI (since maj 2006); Ehud OLMERT won the right to lead the government when his Kadima Party won 29 seats w elections held on 28 marzec 2006


cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset


elections: president is largely a ceremonial role and is elected by the Knesset dla a seven-year term (one-term limit); election last held 13 czerwiec 2007 (next to be held w 2014 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president assigns a Knesset member - traditionally the leader of the largest party - the task of forming a governing coalition


note: government coalition - Kadima, Labor Party, GIL (Pensioners), SHAS,and Yisrael Beiteinu


election results: Shimon PERES elected president; number of votes w first round - Shimon PERES 58, Reuven RIVLIN 37, Colette AVITAL 21; PERES elected president w second round z 86 votes (unopposed)
WlochyWlochy chief of state: President Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 maj 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister (referred to w Wlochy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Romano PRODI (since 17 maj 2006) note - PRODI resigns after no confidence vote w the Senate on 24 styczen 2008, but retains his office until new prime minister is named; when men named by President NAPOLITANO cannot form a government acceptable to Parliament, NAPOLITANO dissolves parliament and calls dla new elections on kwiecien 13


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives dla a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 10 maj 2006 (next to be held w maj 2013); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament


election results: Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the fourth round of voting; electoral college vote - 543
JamajkaJamajka chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Kenneth O. HALL (since 15 luty 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Bruce GOLDING (since 11 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition w the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is recommended by the prime minister
JaponiaJaponia chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 styczen 1989)


head of government: Prime Minister Yasuo FUKUDA (since 26 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: Diet designates prime minister; constitution requires that prime minister commands parliamentary majority; following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition w House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister; monarch is hereditary


election results: FUKUDA elected prime minister z 338 of 477 votes cast w the House of Representatives; he received 106 of 240 votes cast w the House of Councillors; vote of House of Representatives prevailed
JerseyJersey chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Andrew RIDGEWAY (since 14 czerwiec 2006)


head of government: Chief Minister Frank WALKER (since grudzien 2005); Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since luty 1995)


cabinet: Cabinet (since grudzien 2005)


elections: ministers of the Cabinet including the chief minister are elected by the Assembly of States; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch
JordaniaJordania chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 luty 1999); Prince HUSSEIN (born 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II, is considered to be first w line to inherit the throne


head of government: Prime Minister Nader al-DAHABI (since 25 listopad 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister w consultation z the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
KazachstanKazachstan chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 luty 1990, elected president 1 grudzien 1991)


head of government: Prime Minister Karim MASIMOV (since 10 styczen 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Umirzak SHUKEYEV (since 27 sierpien 2007) and Yerbol ORYNBAYEV (since 29 pazdziernik 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 4 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w 2012); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 91.1%, Zharmakhan A. TUYAKBAI 6.6%, Alikhan M. BAIMENOV 1.6%


note: President NAZARBAYEV arranged a referendum w 1995 that extended his term of office and expanded his presidential powers: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities
KeniaKenia chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 grudzien 2002); Vice President Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 grudzien 2002); Vice President Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); w addition to receiving the largest number of votes w absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote w at least five of Kenia's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w grudzien 2012); vice president appointed by the president


election results: President Mwai KIBAKI reelected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 46%, Raila ODINGA 44%, Kalonzo MUSYOKA 9%
KiribatiKiribati chief of state: President Anote TONG (since 10 lipiec 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Anote TONG (since 10 lipiec 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO


cabinet: 12-member cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Parliament


elections: the House of Parliament chooses the presidential candidates from among its members and then those candidates compete w a general election; president is elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla two more terms); election last held 17 pazdziernik 2007 (next to be held w 2011); vice president appointed by the president


election results: Anote TONG 63.7%, Nabuti MWEMWENIKARAWA 32.9%
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea chief of state: KIM Jong Il (since lipiec 1994); note - on 3 wrzesien 2003, rubberstamp Supreme People's Assembly (SPA) reelected KIM Jong Il chairman of the National Defense Commission, a position accorded nation's "highest administrative authority"; SPA reelected KIM Yong Nam president of its Presidium also z responsibility of representing state and receiving diplomatic credentials


head of government: Premier KIM Yong Il (since 11 kwiecien 2007); Vice Premiers KWAK Pom Gi (since 5 wrzesien 1998), JON Sung Hun (since 3 wrzesien 2003), RO Tu Chol (since 3 wrzesien 2003), THAE Jong Su (since 16 pazdziernik 2007)


cabinet: Naegak (cabinet) members, except dla Minister of People's Armed Forces, are appointed by SPA


elections: last held w wrzesien 2003 (next to be held w wrzesien 2008)


election results: KIM Jong Il and KIM Yong Nam were only nominees dla positions and ran unopposed
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea chief of state: President LEE Myung-bak (since 25 luty 2008)


head of government: Prime Minister HAN Seung-soo (since 29 luty 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers KIM Woo-sik (since 10 luty 2006); KWON O-kyu (since 18 lipiec 2006); KIM Shin-il (since 20 wrzesien 2006)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a single five-year term; election last held 19 grudzien 2007 (next to be held on w grudzien 2012); prime minister appointed by president z consent of National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by president on prime minister's recommendation


election results: ROH Moo-hyun elected president on 19 grudzien 2002; percent of vote - ROH Moo-hyun (MDP) 48.9%; LEE Hoi-chang (GNP) 46.6%; others 4.5%; LEE Myung-bak elected president on 19 grudzien 2007; percent of vote - LEE Myung-bak (GNP) 48.7%; CHUNG Dong-young (UNDP) 26.1%); LEE Hoi-chang (independent) 15.1; others 10.1%
KosowoKosowo chief of state: President Fatmir SEJDIU (since 10 luty 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Hashim THACI (since 9 styczen 2008)


cabinet: ministers; elected by the Kosowo Assembly


elections: the president is elected dla a 5-year term by the Kosowo Assembly; the prime minister is elected by the Kosowo Assembly


election results: Fatmir SEJDIU and Hashim THACI elected to be president and prime minister respectively by the Assembly
KuwejtKuwejt chief of state: Amir SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah (since 29 styczen 2006); Crown Prince NAWAF al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah


head of government: Prime Minister NASIR MUHAMMAD al-Ahmad al-Sabah (since 3 kwiecien 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister JABIR Mubarak al-Hamad al-Sabah (since 9 luty 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim al-Sabah (since 9 luty 2006) and Faysal al-HAJJI (since 5 kwiecien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister and approved by the amir


elections: none; the amir is hereditary; the amir appoints the prime minister and deputy prime ministers
KirgistanKirgistan chief of state: President Kurmanbek BAKIYEV (since 14 sierpien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Igor CHUDINOV (since 24 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers w charge of defense and security, appointed solely by the president


elections: Kurmanbek BAKIYEV elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 10 lipiec 2005 (next scheduled dla 2010); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will nominate a prime minister


election results: Kurmanbek BAKIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Kurmanbek BAKIYEV 88.6%, Tursunbai BAKIR-UULU 3.9%, other candidates 7.5%
LaosLaos chief of state: President Lt. Gen. CHOUMMALI Saignason (since 8 czerwiec 2006); Vice President BOUN-GNANG Volachit (since 8 czerwiec 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister BOUASONE Bouphavanh (since 8 czerwiec 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Maj. Gen. ASANG Laoli (since maj 2002), Maj. Gen. DOUANGCHAI Phichit (since 8 czerwiec 2006), SOMSAVAT Lengsavat (since 26 luty 1998), and THONGLOUN Sisoulit (since 27 marzec 2001)


cabinet: Ministers appointed by president, approved by National Assembly


elections: president and vice president elected by National Assembly dla five-year terms; election last held 8 czerwiec 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister nominated by president and elected by National Assembly dla five-year term


election results: CHOUMMALI Saignason elected president; BOUN-GNANG Volachit elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%; BOUASONE Bouphavanh elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 97%
LotwaLotwa chief of state: President Valdis ZATLERS (since 8 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Ivars GODMANIS (since 20 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and appointed by Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 31 maj 2007 (next to be held 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by Parliament


election results: Valdis ZATLERS elected president; parliamentary vote - Valdis ZATLERS 58, Aivars ENDZINS 39
LibanLiban chief of state: vacant (as of 24 listopad 2007); note - former President Emile LAHUD's term expired on 23 listopad 2007, and the Cabinet temporarily assumed presidential powers


head of government: Prime Minister Fuad SINIORA (since 30 czerwiec 2005); Deputy Prime Minister Elias MURR (since kwiecien 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president and members of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 pazdziernik 1998 (next election orginally scheduled dla fall 2004 but was postponed beyond the constitutionally mandated 23 listopad deadline; under Syrian pressure, Parliament extended Lahoud's term dla three years); the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president w consultation z the National Assembly; by agreement, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the National Assembly is a Shi'a Muslim


election results: dla 15 pazdziernik 1998 election: Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes w favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions
LesothoLesotho chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 luty 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from listopad 1990 to luty 1995 while his father was w exile


head of government: Prime Minister Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 maj 1998)


cabinet: Cabinet


elections: none - according to the constitution, the leader of the majority party w the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarch is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution, that came into effect after the marzec 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" z no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to depose the monarch, determine who is next w the line of succession, or who shall serve as regent w the event that the successor is not of mature age
LiberiaLiberia chief of state: President Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF (since 16 styczen 2006); note - the President is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF (since 16 styczen 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 8 listopad 2005 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF elected president; percent of vote, second round - Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF 59.6%, George WEAH 40.4%
LibiaLibia chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 wrzesien 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state


head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) al-Baghdadi Ali al-MAHMUDI (since 5 marzec 2006)


cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress


elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held marzec 2006 (next to be held NA)


election results: NA
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 listopad 1989, assumed executive powers 26 sierpien 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 czerwiec 1968); note - on 15 sierpien 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state


head of government: Head of Government Otmar HASLER (since 5 kwiecien 2001); Deputy Head of Government Klaus TSCHUETSCHER (since 21 kwiecien 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party w the Landtag is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party w the Landtag is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government
LitwaLitwa chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Gediminas KIRKILAS (since 4 lipiec 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 13 and 27 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held czerwiec 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament


election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Gediminas KIRKILAS approved by Parliament 85-13, z five abstentions
LuksemburgLuksemburg chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 pazdziernik 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch)


head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 styczen 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 lipiec 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies


note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP
MakauMakau chief of state: President of Chiny HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 grudzien 1999)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of one government secretary, three legislators, four businessmen, one pro-Beijing unionist, and one pro-Beijing educator


elections: chief executive chosen by a 300-member Election Committee dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 29 sierpien 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Edmund HO Hau-wah reelected received 296 votes; three members submitted blank ballots; one member was absent
MacedoniaMacedonia chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 maj 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 sierpien 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies w the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, and several small parties


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); two-round election last held 14 kwiecien and 28 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held by kwiecien 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections


election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
MadagaskarMadagaskar chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 maj 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Charles RABEMANANJARA (25 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 3 grudzien 2006 (next to be held w grudzien 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: percent of vote - Marc RAVALOMANANA 54.8%, Jean LAHINIRIKO 11.7%, Roland RATSIRAKA 10.1%, Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO 9.1%, Norbert RATSIRAHONANA 4.2%, Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO 4.2%, Elia RAVELOMANANTSOA 2.6%, Pety RAKOTONIAINA 1.7%, other 1.6%
MalawiMalawi chief of state: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 maj 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 maj 2004)


cabinet: 46-member Cabinet named by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 20 maj 2004 (next to be held w maj 2009)


election results: Bingu wa MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Bingu wa MUTHARIKA 35.9%, John TEMBO 27.1%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA 25.7%, Brown MPINGANJIRA 8.7%, Justin MALEWEZI 2.5%
MalezjaMalezja chief of state: Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin (since 13 grudzien 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 31 pazdziernik 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (since 7 styczen 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament z consent of the paramount ruler


elections: paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states dla five-year terms; election last held on 3 listopad 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats w the House of Representatives becomes prime minister


election results: Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin elected paramount ruler


note: position of paramount ruler is primarily ceremonial; w practice, selection is based on principle of rotation among rulers of states
MalediwyMalediwy chief of state: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 listopad 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 listopad 1978)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president nominated by the Majlis; nomination must be ratified by a national referendum (at least a 51% approval margin is required); president elected dla a five-year term; election last held 17 pazdziernik 2003 (next to be held w 2008)


election results: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected w referendum held 17 pazdziernik 2003; percent of popular vote - Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 90.3%
MaliMali chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 czerwiec 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Modibo SIDIBE (since 28 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 29 kwiecien 2007 (next to be held kwiecien w 2012); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
MaltaMalta chief of state: President Edward FENECH ADAMI (since 4 kwiecien 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Lawrence GONZI (since 23 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister


elections: president elected by the House of Representatives dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 29 marzec 2004 (next to be held by kwiecien 2009); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president dla a five-year term; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister


election results: Eddie FENECH ADAMI elected president; House of Representatives vote - 33 out of 65 votes
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla chief of state: President Litokwa TOMEING (since 7 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Litokwa TOMEING (since 7 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of the legislature


elections: president elected by Parliament from among its members dla a four-year term; election last held 7 styczen 2008 (next to be held w 2012)


election results: Litokwa TOMEING elected president; TOMEING received 18 votes to 15 dla incumbent NOTE
MauretaniaMauretania chief of state: Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDELLAHI (since 19 kwiecien 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Zeine Ould ZEIDANE (since 20 kwiecien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second consecutive term); election last held 11 marzec 2007 z a runoff between the two leading candidates held on 25 marzec 2007 (next to be held 2012); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: percent of vote - (second round) Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDELLAHI 52.8%, Ahmed Ould DADDAH 47.2%
MauritiusMauritius chief of state: President Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 7 pazdziernik 2003); Vice President Abdool Raouf BUNDHUN (since 25 luty 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM (since 5 lipiec 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly dla five-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 25 luty 2002 (next to be held w 2007); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly


election results: Karl OFFMANN elected president and Raouf BUNDHUN elected vice president; percent of vote by the National Assembly - NA%; note - Karl OFFMANN stepped down on 30 wrzesien 2003
MajottaMajotta chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007); represented by Prefect Jean-Paul KIHL (since 17 styczen 2005)


head of government: President of the General Council Said Omar OILI (since 8 kwiecien 2004)


cabinet: NA


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; president of the General Council elected by the members of the General Council dla a six-year term; next election to be held w 2010
MeksykMeksyk chief of state: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 grudzien 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 grudzien 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a single six-year term; election last held on 2 lipiec 2006 (next to be held 1 lipiec 2012)


election results: Felipe CALDERON elected president; percent of vote - Felipe CALDERON 35.89%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR 35.31%, Roberto MADRAZO 22.26%, other 6.54%
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji chief of state: President Emmanuel MORI (since 11 maj 2007); Vice President Alik L. ALIK (11 maj 2007) note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Emmanuel MORI (since 11 maj 2007); Vice President Alik L. ALIK (11 maj 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet includes the vice president and the heads of the eight executive departments


elections: president and vice president elected by Congress from among the four senators at large dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 11 maj 2007 (next to be held maj 2011); note - a proposed constitutional amendment to establish popular elections dla president and vice president failed


election results: Emmanuel MORI elected president; percent of Congress vote - NA; Alik L. ALIK elected vice president; percent of Congress vote - NA
MoldawiaMoldawia chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 kwiecien 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 kwiecien 2001); First Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida GRECIANII (since 10 pazdziernik 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 4 kwiecien 2005 (next to be held w 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation z Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 kwiecien 2001; cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 kwiecien 2001


election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
MonakoMonako chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 kwiecien 2005)


head of government: Minister of State Jean-Paul PROUST (since 1 czerwiec 2005)


cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the monarch


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government
MongoliaMongolia chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 czerwiec 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Sanjaa BAYAR (since 22 listopad 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 6 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister w consultation z the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)


elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented w State Great Hural and elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 22 maj 2005 (next to be held w maj 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural


election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10
CzarnogoraCzarnogora chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 11 maj 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 29 luty 2008)


cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet


elections: president elected by direct vote dla five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 11 maj 2003 (next to be held w 2008); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly


election results: Filip VUJANOVIC elected on the third round; Filip VUJANOVIC 63.3%, Miodrag ZIVKOVIC 30.8%
MontserratMontserrat chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor Peter A. WATERWORTH (since 27 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Chief Minister Lowell LEWIS (since 2 czerwiec 2006)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary


elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister
MarokoMaroko chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 30 lipiec 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Abbas EL FASSI (since 19 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections
MozambikMozambik chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 luty 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 luty 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 1-2 grudzien 2004 (next to be held w grudzien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
NamibiaNamibia chief of state: President Hifikepunye POHAMBA (since 21 marzec 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Nahas ANGULA (since 21 marzec 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 15 listopad 2004 (next to be held w listopad 2009)


election results: Hifikepunye POHAMBA elected president; percent of vote - Hifikepunye POHAMBA 76.4%, Den ULENGA 7.3%, Katuutire KAURA 5.1%, Kuaima RIRUAKO 4.2%, Justus GAROEB 3.8%, other 3.2%
NauruNauru chief of state: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 grudzien 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 grudzien 2007); note - President Ludwig SCOTTY defeated w a no confidence vote w parliament on 19 grudzien 2007


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a three-year term; election last held 19 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: NA
NepalNepal chief of state: Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 30 kwiecien 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 30 kwiecien 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet historically appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; note - the prime minister selected the Cabinet w maj 2006 w consultation z the political parties


elections: following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition historically has been appointed prime minister by the monarch
HolandiaHolandia chief of state: Queen BEATRIX (since 30 kwiecien 1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 kwiecien 1967), son of the monarch


head of government: Prime Minister Jan Peter BALKENENDE (since 22 lipiec 2002); Deputy Prime Ministers Wouter BOS (since 22 luty 2007) and Andre ROUVOET (since 22 luty 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch


note: there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides consultations to the cabinet on legislative and administrative policy
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Holandia (since 30 kwiecien 1980); represented by Governor General Frits GOEDGEDRAG (since 1 lipiec 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Emily de JONGH-ELHAGE (since 26 marzec 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten (legislature)


elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch dla a six-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime minister by the Staten; election last held 27 styczen 2006 (next to be held by 2010)


note: government coalition - PAR, PNP, DP-St. M, UPB, WIPM Saba, DP-St. E
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007); represented by High Commissioner Yves DASSONVILLE (since 9 listopad 2007)


head of government: President of the Government Harold MARTIN (since 7 sierpien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet consisting of 11 members elected from and by the Territorial Congress


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government elected by the members of the Territorial Congress dla a five-year term (no term limits); note - last election held 7 sierpien 2007 when Harold MARTIN was elected following the resignation of Marie-Noelle THEMEREAU as president on 24 lipiec 2007 (next to be held w 2012)
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Anand SATYANAND (since 23 sierpien 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 grudzien 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since lipiec 2002)


cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
NikaraguaNikaragua chief of state: President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 styczen 2007); Vice President Jaime MORALES Carazo (since 10 styczen 2007); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 styczen 2007); Vice President Jaime MORALES Carazo (since 10 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term so long as it is not consecutive); election last held 5 listopad 2006 (next to be held by listopad 2011)


election results: Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra elected president - 38.07%, Eduardo MONTEALEGRE 29%, Jose RIZO 26.21%, Edmundo JARQUIN 6.44%
NigerNiger chief of state: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 grudzien 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Seyni OUMAROU (since 3 czerwiec 2007); appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities z the president


cabinet: 26-member Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); second round of election last held 4 grudzien 2004 (next to be held grudzien 2009)


election results: Mamadou TANDJA reelected president; percent of vote - Mamadou TANDJA 65.5%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 34.5%
NigeriaNigeria chief of state: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 maj 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 maj 2007)


cabinet: Federal Executive Council


elections: president is elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 21 kwiecien 2007 (next to be held w kwiecien 2011)


election results: Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA elected president; percent of vote - official results not yet posted as of wrzesien 2007
NiueNiue chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General of Nowa Zelandia Anand SATYANAND (since 23 sierpien 2006); the UK and Nowa Zelandia are represented by Nowa Zelandia High Commissioner John BRYAN (since maj 2000)


head of government: Premier Young VIVIAN (since 1 maj 2002)


cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers


elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly dla a three-year term; election last held 12 maj 2005 (next to be held w maj 2008)


election results: Young VIVIAN reelected premier; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - Young VIVIAN 85%, O'Love JACOBSEN 15%
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by the Australian governor general


head of government: Administrator Grant TAMBLING (since 1 listopad 2003)


cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the administrator


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Benigno R. FITIAL (since 9 styczen 2006); Lieutenant Governor Timothy P. VILLAGOMEZ (since 9 styczen 2006)


cabinet: the cabinet consists of the heads of the 10 principal departments under the executive branch who are appointed by the governor z the advice and consent of the Senate; other members include Special Assistants to the governor and office heads appointed by and reporting directly to the governor


elections: under the US Konstytucja, residents of unincorporated territories, such as the Commonwealth of the Mariany Polnocne, do not vote w elections dla US president and vice president; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 5 listopad 2005 (next to be held w listopad 2009)


election results: Benigno R. FITIAL elected governor w a four-way race; percent of vote - Benigno R. FITIAL 28.07%, Heinz HOFSCHNEIDER 27.34%, Juan BABAUTA 26.6%, Froilan TENORIO 17.99%
NorwegiaNorwegia chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 styczen 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 lipiec 1973)


head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 pazdziernik 2005)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch z the approval of parliament


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch z the approval of the parliament
OmanOman chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 lipiec 1970 and prime minister since 23 lipiec 1972); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 lipiec 1970 and prime minister since 23 lipiec 1972)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
PakistanPakistan chief of state: President Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 czerwiec 2001)


note: following an pazdziernik 1999 military coup, General Pervez MUSHARRAF suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; w maj 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court validated the 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority dla three years following the coup; w czerwiec 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself president, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; an kwiecien 2002 referendum extended MUSHARRAF's presidency by five years


head of government: caretaker Prime Minister Mohammedmian SOOMRO (since 16 listopad 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: the president is elected by secret ballot (1,170 votes total) through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies dla a five-year term; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly


election results: MUSHARRAF reelected on 6 pazdziernik 2007 (next election to be held w pazdziernik 2012); MUSHARRAF 671 votes; Wajihuddin AHMED 8 votes; 6 votes invalid
PalauPalau chief of state: President Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. (since 19 styczen 2001); Vice President Camsek CHIN (since 1 styczen 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. (since 19 styczen 2001); Vice President Camsek CHIN (since 1 styczen 2005)


cabinet: NA


elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 2 listopad 2004 (next to be held w listopad 2008)


election results: Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. reelected president; percent of vote - Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. 64%, Polycarp BASILIUS 33%; Elias Camsek CHIN elected vice president; percent of vote - Elias Camsek CHIN 70%, Sandra PIERANTOZZI 29%
PanamaPanama chief of state: President Martin TORRIJOS Espino (since 1 wrzesien 2004); First Vice President Samuel LEWIS Navarro (since 1 wrzesien 2004); Second Vice President Ruben AROSEMENA Valdes (since 1 wrzesien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Martin TORRIJOS Espino (since 1 wrzesien 2004); First Vice President Samuel LEWIS Navarro (since 1 wrzesien 2004); Second Vice President Ruben AROSEMENA Valdes (since 1 wrzesien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms (eligible dla two more terms); election last held 2 maj 2004 (next to be held on 3 maj 2009); note - beginning w 2009, Panama will have only one vice president.


election results: Martin TORRIJOS Espino elected president; percent of vote - Martin TORRIJOS Espino 47.5%, Guillermo ENDARA Galimany 30.6%, Jose Miguel ALEMAN 17%, Ricardo MARTINELLI 4.9%


note: government coalition - PRD (Democratic Revolutionary Party), PP (Popular Party)
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by governor general Sir Paulius MATANE (since 29 czerwiec 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Sir Michael SOMARE (since 2 sierpien 2002); Deputy Prime Minister Puka TEMU (since 29 sierpien 2007)


cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by governor general on recommendation of prime minister


elections: none; monarch is hereditary; governor general nominated by parliament and appointed by chief of state; following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition usually is appointed prime minister by governor general
ParagwajParagwaj chief of state: President Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS (since 15 sierpien 2003); Vice President Francisco OVIEDO Britez (since 21 listopad 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS (since 15 sierpien 2003); Vice President Francisco OVIEDO Britez (since 21 listopad 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a single five-year term; election last held 27 kwiecien 2003 (next to be held w kwiecien 2008)


election results: Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS elected president; percent of vote - Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS 37.1%, Julio Cesar Ramon FRANCO Gomez 23.9%, Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella 21.3%, Guillermo SANCHEZ Guffanti 13.5%, other 4.2%
PeruPeru chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 lipiec 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 lipiec 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 lipiec 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 lipiec 2006)


note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 sierpien 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections held 9 kwiecien 2006 z runoff election held 4 czerwiec 2006; next to be held w kwiecien 2011


election results: Alan GARCIA elected president w runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
FilipinyFilipiny chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 styczen 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 styczen 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president z consent of Commission of Appointments


elections: president and vice president (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO) elected on separate tickets by popular vote dla a single six-year term; election last held on 10 maj 2004 (next to be held w maj 2010)


election results: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%
PitcairnPitcairn chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by UK High Commissioner to Nowa Zelandia and Governor (nonresident) of the Pitcairn George FERGUSSON (since kwiecien 2006); Commissioner (nonresident) Leslie JAQUES (since wrzesien 2003) serves as liaison between the governor and the Island Council


head of government: Governor George FERGUSSON (since kwiecien 2006); major and Chairman of the Island Council Mike WARREN (since 1 styczen 2008)


cabinet: NA


elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor and commissioner appointed by the monarch; island mayor elected by popular vote dla a three-year term; election last held grudzien 2004 (next to be held w grudzien 2007)


election results: Jay WARREN elected mayor and chairman of the Island Council
PolskaPolska chief of state: President Lech KACZYNSKI (since 23 grudzien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Donald TUSK (since 16 listopad 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Waldemar PAWLAK (since 16 listopad 2007) and Grzegorz SCHETYNA (since 16 listopad 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 9 and 23 pazdziernik 2005 (next to be held w the fall 2010); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm


election results: Lech KACZYNSKI elected president; percent of popular vote - Lech KACZYNSKI 54%, Donald Tusk 46%
PortugaliaPortugalia chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 marzec 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (since 12 marzec 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 22 styczen 2006 (next to be held w styczen 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president


election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo DE SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%
PortorykoPortoryko chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA (since 2 styczen 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor z the consent of the legislature


elections: under the US Konstytucja, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Portoryko, do not vote w elections dla US president and vice president; governor elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 2 listopad 2004 (next to be held w listopad 2008)


election results: Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA elected governor; percent of vote - 48.4%
KatarKatar chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani (since 27 czerwiec 1995 when, as heir apparent, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad al-Thani, w a bloodless coup); Heir Apparent TAMIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, fourth son of the monarch (selected Heir Apparent by the monarch on 5 sierpien 2003); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces


head of government: Prime Minister HAMAD bin Jasim bin Jabir al-Thani (since 3 kwiecien 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Abdallah bin Hamad al-ATIYAH (since 3 kwiecien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary


note: w kwiecien 2007, Katar held nationwide elections dla a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has limited consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election dla the CMC was held w marzec 1999
RumuniaRumunia chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 grudzien 2004); note - President Traian BASESCU was suspended by vote of parliament on 19 kwiecien 2007, but resumed his duties on 23 maj 2007 after a popular referendum confirmed that his impeachment should not stand


head of government: Prime Minister Calin Popescu-TARICEANU (since 29 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 28 listopad 2004 z runoff between the top two candidates held 12 grudzien 2004 (next to be held w listopad-grudzien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president z the consent of the Parliament


election results: percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 51.23%, Adrian NASTASE 48.77%
RosjaRosja chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting president 31 grudzien 1999-6 maj 2000, president since 7 maj 2000)


head of government: Premier Viktor Alekseyevich ZUBKOV (since 14 wrzesien 2007); First Deputy Premiers Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 14 listopad 2005) and Sergey Borisovich IVANOV (since 15 luty 2007), Deputy Premiers Aleksandr Dmitriyevich ZHUKOV (since 9 marzec 2004), Sergey Yevgenyevich NARYSHKIN (since 15 luty 2007), and Aleksey Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 24 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president


note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 2 marzec 2008 (next to be held w marzec 2012); note - no vice president; if the president dies w office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president z the approval of the Duma


election results: Dmitry MEDVEDEV elected president; percent of vote - Dmitry MEDVEDEV 70.2%, Gennady ZYUGANOV 17.7%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKY 9.4%; note - MEDVEDEV is to assume office 7 maj 2008
RuandaRuanda chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 kwiecien 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 marzec 2000)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: President elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 25 sierpien 2003 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: Paul KAGAME elected president w first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Saint-BarthelemySaint-Barthelemy chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007), represented by Prefect Dominique LACROIX (since 21 marzec 2007)


head of government: President of the Territorial Council Bruno MAGRAS (since 16 lipiec 2007)


cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory, economic, social, and cultural council


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council is elected by the members of the Council dla a five-year term


election results: Bruno MAGRAS unanimously elected president by the Territorial Council on 16 lipiec 2007
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Governor and Commander w Chief Andrew GURR (since 11 listopad 2007)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, three ex-officio officers, and five elected members of the Legislative Council


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor is appointed by the monarch
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Cuthbert Montraville SEBASTIAN (since 1 styczen 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 lipiec 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Sam CONDOR (since 6 lipiec 1995)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general w consultation z the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Dame Pearlette LOUISY (since wrzesien 1997)


head of government: Prime Minister Stephenson KING (since 9 wrzesien 2007); note - Sir John COMPTON died w office Friday, 7 wrzesien 2007


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Saint MartinSaint Martin chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007), represented by Prefect Dominique LACROIX (since 21 marzec 2007)


head of government: President of the Territorial Council Louis-Constant FLEMING (since 16 lipiec 2007)


cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory economic, social, and cultural council


election: French president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council is elected by the members of the Council dla a five-year term


election results: Louis-Constant FLEMING unanimously elected president by the Territorial Council on 16 lipiec 2007
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007); represented by Prefect Yves FAUQUEUR (since 28 sierpien 2006)


head of government: President of the Territorial Council Stephane ARTANO (since 21 luty 2007)


cabinet: NA


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 21 kwiecien 2002 (first round) and 5 maj 2002 (second round) (next to be held w 2007); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council is elected by the members of the council
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Fredrick Nathaniel BALLANTYNE (since 2 wrzesien 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Ralph E. GONSALVES (since 29 marzec 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
SamoaSamoa chief of state: TUIATUA Tupua Tamasese Efi (since 20 czerwiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA (since 1996); Deputy Prime Minister MISA Telefoni (since 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members appointed by the chief of state on the prime minister's advice


elections: chief of state is elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 15 czerwiec 2007 (next to be held w 2012); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state z the approval of the Legislative Assembly


election results: TUIATUA Tupua Tamasese Efi unanimously elected by the Legislative Assembly
San MarinoSan Marino chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Mirko TOMASSONI and Captain Regent Alberto SELVA (for the period 1 pazdziernik 2007-31 marzec 2008)


head of government: Secretary of State dla Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo STOLFI (since 27 lipiec 2006)


cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council dla a five-year term


elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council dla a six-month term; election last held w wrzesien 2007 (next to be held w marzec 2008); secretary of state dla foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council dla a five-year term; election last held 27 lipiec 2006 (next to be held by 2011)


election results: Mirko TOMASSONI and Alberto SELVA elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Fiorenzo STOLFI elected secretary of state dla foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA


note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) dla a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state dla Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 wrzesien 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA (since 14 luty 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 30 lipiec 2006 (next to be held lipiec 2011); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president


election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president; percent of vote - Fradique DE MENEZES 60%, Patrice TROVOADA 38.5%
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska chief of state: King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 sierpien 2005); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SULTAN bin Abd al- Aziz Al Saud (half brother of the monarch, born 5 styczen 1928) note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 sierpien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch every four years and includes many royal family members


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; note - a new Allegiance Commission created by royal decree w pazdziernik 2006 established a committee of Saudi princes that will play a role w selecting future Saudi kings, but the new system will not take effect until after Crown Prince Sultan becomes king
SenegalSenegal chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 kwiecien 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Cheikh Hadjibou SOUMARE (since 19 czerwiec 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister w consultation z the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term) under new constitution; election last held on 25 luty 2007 (next to be held w 2012); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Abdoulaye WADE reelected president w the first round of voting; percent of vote - Abdoulaye WADE 55.9%, Idrissa SECK 14.9%, Ousmane Tanor DIENG 13.6%, Moustapha NIASSE 5.9%, other 9.7%
SerbiaSerbia chief of state: President Boris TADIC (since 11 lipiec 2004);


head of government: Prime Minister Vojislav KOSTUNICA (since 3 marzec 2004);


cabinet: Federal Ministries act as cabinet;


elections: president elected by direct vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 3 luty 2008 (next to be held w 2013); prime minister elected by the Assembly


election results: Boris TADIC elected president w the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 51.2% of the vote and Tomislav NIKOLIC 48.8%
SeszeleSeszele chief of state: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 kwiecien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President James MICHEL (since 14 kwiecien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla two more terms); election last held 28-30 lipiec 2006 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: President James MICHEL elected president; percent of vote - James MICHEL 53.73%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 45.71%, Philippe BOULLE 0.56%; note - this was the first election w which President James MICHEL participated; he was originally sworn w as president after former president Francja Albert RENE stepped down w kwiecien 2004
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone chief of state: President Ernest Bai KOROMA (since 17 wrzesien 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Ernest Bai KOROMA (since 17 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president z the approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 11 sierpien 2007 and 8 wrzesien 2007 (next to be held w 2012)


election results: second round results; percent of vote - Ernest Bai KOROMA 54.6%, Solomon BEREWA 45.4%
SingapurSingapur chief of state: President S R NATHAN (since 1 wrzesien 1999)


note: uses S R NATHAN but his full name and the one used w formal communications is Sellapan RAMANATHAN


head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 sierpien 2004); Senior Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 12 sierpien 2004); Minister Mentor LEE Kuan Yew (since 12 sierpien 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers Shunmugam JAYAKUMAR (since 12 sierpien 2004) and WONG Kan Seng (since 1 wrzesien 2005)


cabinet: appointed by president, responsible to parliament


elections: president elected by popular vote dla six-year term; appointed on 17 sierpien 2005 (next election to be held by sierpien 2011); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president


election results: Sellapan Rama (S R) NATHAN appointed president w sierpien 2005 after Presidential Elections Committee disqualified three other would-be candidates; scheduled election not held
SlowacjaSlowacja chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 czerwiec 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 lipiec 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Dusan CAPLOVIC, Robert KALINAK, Stefan HARABIN, Jan MIKOLAJ (since 4 lipiec 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 3 kwiecien and 17 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held w kwiecien 2009); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president


election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president w runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%
SloweniaSlowenia chief of state: President Danilo TURK (since 22 grudzien 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Janez JANSA (since 9 listopad 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 21 pazdziernik and 11 listopad 2007 (next to be held w the fall of 2012); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 listopad 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held w pazdziernik 2008)


election results: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2%, Alojze PETERLE 31.8%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister by National Assembly vote - 57 to 27 w 2004
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Nathaniel WAENA (since 7 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Derek SIKUA (since 20 grudzien 2007); note - Prime Minister Manasseh SOGAVARE defeated w a no confidence vote w parliament on 13 grudzien 2007; SIKUA elected on 20 grudzien 2007


cabinet: Cabinet consists of 20 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of Parliament dla up to five years (eligible dla a second term); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament
SomaliaSomalia chief of state: Transitional Federal President Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed (since 14 pazdziernik 2004); note - a transitional governing entity z a five-year mandate, known as the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), was established w pazdziernik 2004; the TFIs relocated to Somalia w czerwiec 2004


head of government: Prime Minister Nur "Adde" Hassan HUSSEIN (since 24 listopad 2007) State requested addition of "Adde" Feb '08


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by the Transitional Federal Assembly


election results: Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed, the former leader of the semi-autonomous Puntland region of Somalia, was elected president by the Transitional Federal Assembly
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki chief of state: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 czerwiec 1999); Executive Deputy President Phumzile MLAMBO-NGCUKA (since 23 czerwiec 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 czerwiec 1999); Executive Deputy President Phumzile MLAMBO-NGCUKA (since 23 czerwiec 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held on 24 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held w kwiecien 2009)


election results: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)
HiszpaniaHiszpania chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 listopad 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 styczen 1968


head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO (since 17 kwiecien 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Presidency) Maria Teresa FERNANDEZ DE LA VEGA (since 18 kwiecien 2004) and Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Pedro SOLBES (since 18 kwiecien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president


note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding


elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 14 marzec 2004 (next to be held w marzec 2008); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president


election results: Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52.29%
Sri LankaSri Lanka chief of state: President Mahinda RAJAPAKSA (since 19 listopad 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; Ratnasiri WICKREMANAYAKE (since 21 listopad 2005) holds the largely ceremonial title of prime minister


head of government: President Mahinda RAJAPAKSA (since 19 listopad 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president w consultation z the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held on 17 listopad 2005 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: Mahinda RAJAPAKSA elected president; percent of vote - Mahinda RAJAPAKSA 50.3%, Ranil WICKREMESINGHE 48.4%, other 1.3%
SudanSudan chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet


elections: election last held 13-23 grudzien 2000; next to be held no later than lipiec 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement


election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees dla a free and fair election


note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council dla National Salvation (RCC) w czerwiec 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-pazdziernik 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote dla the first time w marzec 1996
SurinamSurinam chief of state: President Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (since 12 sierpien 2000); Vice President Ramdien SARDJOE (since 3 sierpien 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (since 12 sierpien 2000); Vice President Ram SARDJOE (since 3 sierpien 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate receives a two-thirds constitutional majority w the National Assembly after two votes, by a simple majority w the larger United People's Assembly (893 representatives from the national, local, and regional councils), dla five-year terms (no term limits); election last held on 25 maj 2005 (next to be held w 2010)


election results: Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN reelected president; percent of vote - Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN 62.9%, Rabin PARMESSAR 35.4%, other 1.7%; note - after two votes w the parliament failed to secure a two-thirds majority dla a candidate, the vote then went to a special session of the United People's Assembly on 3 sierpien 2005
SvalbardSvalbard chief of state: King HARALD V of Norwegia (since 17 styczen 1991)


head of government: Governor Per SEFLAND (since 1 pazdziernik 2005); Assistant Governor Rune Baard HANSEN (since 2003)


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
SuaziSuazi chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 kwiecien 1986)


head of government: Prime Minister Absolom Themba DLAMINI (since 14 listopad 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
SzwecjaSzwecja chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 wrzesien 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 lipiec 1977)


head of government: Prime Minister Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 pazdziernik 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the parliament; election last held on 17 wrzesien 2006 (next to be held w wrzesien 2010)


election results: Fredrik REINFELDT elected prime minister z 175 out of 349 votes
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria chief of state: President Pascal COUCHEPIN (since 1 styczen 2008); Vice President Hans-Rudolf MERZ (since 1 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government representing the Federal Council; the Federal Council is the formal chief of state and head of government whose council members, rotating w one-year terms as federal president, represent the Council


head of government: President Pascal COUCHEPIN (since 1 styczen 2008); Vice President Hans-Rudolf MERZ (since 1 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Federal Council or Bundesrat (in German), Conseil Federal (in French), Consiglio Federale (in Italian) elected by the Federal Assembly usually from among its members dla a four-year term


elections: president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council dla a one-year term (they may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 12 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w grudzien 2008)


election results: Pascal COUCHEPIN elected president; percent of Federal Assembly vote - 80.0%; Hans-Rudolf MERZ elected vice president; percent of Federal Assembly vote - 86.5%
SyriaSyria chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 lipiec 2000); Vice President Farouk al-SHARA (since 11 luty 2006) oversees foreign policy; Vice President Najah al-ATTAR (since 23 marzec 2006) oversees cultural policy


head of government: Prime Minister Muhammad Naji al-UTRI (since 10 wrzesien 2003); Deputy Prime Minister dla Economic Affairs Abdallah al-DARDARI (since 14 czerwiec 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president approved by popular referendum dla a second seven-year term (no term limits); referendum last held on 27 maj 2007 (next to be held w maj 2014); the president appoints the vice presidents, prime minister, and deputy prime ministers


election results: Bashar al-ASAD approved as president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD 97.6%
TajwanTajwan chief of state: President CHEN Shui-bian (since 20 maj 2000); Vice President Annette LU (LU Hsiu-lien) (since 20 maj 2000)


head of government: Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) CHANG Chun-hsiung (since 21 maj 2007); Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) CHIOU I-jen (since 21 maj 2007)


cabinet: Executive Yuan - (ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier)


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 20 marzec 2004 (next to be held 22 marzec 2008); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier


election results: CHEN Shui-bian re-elected president; percent of vote - CHEN Shui-bian 50.1%, LIEN Chan 49.9%
TadzykistanTadzykistan chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 listopad 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 listopad 1992)


head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 styczen 1999)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 6 listopad 2006 (next to be held w listopad 2013); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Emomali RAHMONOV reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 79.3%, Olimzon BOBOYEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
TanzaniaTanzania chief of state: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 grudzien 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 grudzien 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 lipiec 2001)


note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government dla matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was reelected to that office on 30 pazdziernik 2005


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote dla five-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 14 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w grudzien 2010); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 80.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 11.7%, Freeman MBOWE 5.9%
TajlandiaTajlandia chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (BHUMIBOL Adulyadej) (since 9 czerwiec 1946)


head of government: Prime Minister SAMAK Sundavavej (since 29 styczen 2008); Deputy Prime Minister MINGKWAN Saengsuwan (MINGKWAN Sangsuwan) (since 7 luty 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SAHAS Banditkun (SAHAS Banditkul) (since 7 luty 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SANAN Kachornprasat (ANA Kachornparsart) (since 7 luty 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SOMCHAI Wongsawat (since 7 luty 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SURAPONG Suebwonglee (since 7 luty 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SUWIT Khunkitti (since 7 luty 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


note: there is also a Privy Council


elections: none; monarch is hereditary; according to 2007 constitution, prime minister is designated from among members of House of Representatives; following national elections dla House of Representatives, leader of party that could organize a majority coalition usually was appointed prime minister by king; prime minister is limited to two 4-year terms
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni chief of state: President Jose RAMOS-HORTA (since 20 maj 2007); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is able to veto legislation, dissolve parliament, and call national elections


head of government: Prime Minister Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO (since 8 sierpien 2007), note - he formerly used the name Jose Alexandre GUSMAO; Deputy Prime Minister Jose Luis GUTERRES (since 8 sierpien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held on 9 kwiecien 2007 z run-off on 8 maj 2007 (next to be held w maj 2012); following elections, president appoints leader of majority party or majority coalition as prime minister


election results: Jose RAMOS-HORTA elected president; percent of vote - Jose RAMOS-HORTA 69.2%, Francisco GUTTERES 30.8%
TogoTogo chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 maj 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 luty 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, z the support of the military following international condemnation dla the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections, and Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections w kwiecien 2005


head of government: Prime Minister Komlan MALLY (since 3 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 kwiecien 2005 (next to be held by 2010); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
TokelauTokelau chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General of Nowa Zelandia Anand SATYANAND (since 23 sierpien 2006); Nowa Zelandia is represented by Administrator David PAYTON (since 17 pazdziernik 2006)


head of government: Pio TUIA (since 23 luty 2008); note - position rotates annually among the three Faipule (village leaders)


cabinet: the Council dla the Ongoing Government of Tokelau, consisting of three Faipule (village leaders) and three Pulenuku (village mayors), functions as a cabinet


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade w Nowa Zelandia; the head of government is chosen from the Council of Faipule and serves a one-year term
TongaTonga chief of state: King George TUPOU V (since 11 wrzesien 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Feleti SEVELE (since 11 luty 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Viliami TANGI (since 16 maj 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet consists of 14 members, 10 appointed by the monarch dla life; four appointed from among the elected members of the Legislative Assembly, including two each from the nobles' and peoples' representatives serving three-year terms


note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the monarch, the cabinet, and two governors


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 marzec 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 grudzien 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament


elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held on 11 luty 2008 (next to be held by luty 2013); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party w the House of Representatives


election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS reelected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA
TunezjaTunezja chief of state: President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 listopad 1987)


head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17 listopad 1999)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected dla a fourth term; percent of vote - Zine El Abidine BEN ALI 94.5%, Mohamed BOUCHIHA 3.8%, Mohamed Ali HALOUANI 1%
TurcjaTurcja chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 sierpien 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 marzec 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 sierpien 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Hayati YAZICI (since 29 sierpien 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Nazim EKREN (since 29 sierpien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a maximum of two five-year terms; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament


election results: Abdullah GUL received 339 votes w the third round of voting on 28 sierpien 2007, after failing to garner the two thirds vote required by law w the first two rounds


note: president-elect must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan chief of state: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 luty 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 luty 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held on 11 luty 2007 (next to be held w 2012)


election results: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW elected president; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW 89.2%
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor Richard TAUWHARE (since 11 lipiec 2005)


head of government: Premier Michael Eugene MISICK (since 15 sierpien 2003); note - the office of premier was created w the 2006 constitution


cabinet: Cabinet consists of the governor, the premier, six ministers appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly, and the attorney general


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed premier by the governor
TuvaluTuvalu chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Filoimea TELITO (since 15 kwiecien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Apisai IELEMIA (since 14 sierpien 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of Parliament; election last held 14 sierpien 2006 (next to be held following parliamentary elections w 2010)


election results: Apisai IELEMIA elected Prime Minister w a Parliamentary election on 14 sierpien 2006
UgandaUganda chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 styczen 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 styczen 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 kwiecien 1999); note - the prime minister assists the president w the supervision of the cabinet


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators


elections: president reelected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 23 luty 2006 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 59.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 37.4%, other 3.3%
UkrainaUkraina chief of state: President Viktor A. YUSHCHENKO (since 23 styczen 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (since 18 grudzien 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister Oleksandr TURCHYNOV (since 18 grudzien 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Hryhoriy NEMYRYA and Ivan VASYUNYK (since 18 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers selected by the prime minister; the only exceptions are the foreign and defense ministers, who are chosen by the president


note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created w 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked z developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a Presidential Secretariat helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); note - a special repeat runoff presidential election between Viktor YUSHCHENKO and Viktor YANUKOVYCH took place on 26 grudzien 2004 after the earlier 21 listopad 2004 contest - won by YANUKOVYCH - was invalidated by the Ukrainian Supreme Court because of widespread and significant violations; under constitutional reforms that went into effect 1 styczen 2006, the majority w parliament takes the lead w naming the prime minister


election results: Viktor YUSHCHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Viktor YUSHCHENKO 51.99%, Viktor YANUKOVYCH 44.2%
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie chief of state: President KHALIFA bin Zayid al-Nuhayyan (since 3 listopad 2004), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 4 listopad 2004); Vice President and Prime Minister MUHAMMAD bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 5 styczen 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister and Vice President MUHAMMAD bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 5 styczen 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers SULTAN bin Zayid al-Nuhayyan (since 20 listopad 1990) and HAMDAN bin Zayid al-Nuhayyan (since 20 pazdziernik 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


note: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) composed of the seven emirate rulers; the FSC is the highest constitutional authority w the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions federal legislation; meets four times a year; Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers have effective veto power


elections: president and vice president elected by the FSC dla five-year terms (no term limits); election last held 3 listopad 2004 upon the death of the UAE's Founding Father and first President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (next to be held w 2009); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president


election results: KHALIFA bin Zayid al-Nuhayyan elected president by a unanimous vote of the FSC; MUHAMMAD bin Rashid al-Maktum unanimously affirmed vice president after the 2006 death of his brother Sheikh Maktum bin Rashid al-Maktum
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 listopad 1948)


head of government: Prime Minister Gordon BROWN (since 27 czerwiec 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone chief of state: President George W. BUSH (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President George W. BUSH (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president z Senate approval


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 2 listopad 2004 (next to be held on 4 listopad 2008)


election results: George W. BUSH reelected president; percent of popular vote - George W. BUSH 50.9%, John KERRY 48.1%, other 1.0%
UrugwajUrugwaj chief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 marzec 2005); Vice President Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 marzec 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 marzec 2005); Vice President Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 marzec 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president z parliamentary approval


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 31 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2009)


election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ 50.5%, Jorge LARRANAGA 35.1%, Guillermo STIRLING 10.3%; other 4.1%
UzbekistanUzbekistan chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 marzec 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)


head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 grudzien 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president z approval of the Supreme Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment w 2002); election last held 23 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president


election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Aslidden RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TASHMUKHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%
VanuatuVanuatu chief of state: President Kalkot Matas KELEKELE (since 16 sierpien 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Ham LINI (since 11 grudzien 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Sato KILMAN (since 11 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, responsible to Parliament


elections: president elected dla a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of Parliament and the presidents of the regional councils; election dla president last held 16 sierpien 2004 (next to be held w 2009); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament from among its members; election dla prime minister last held 29 lipiec 2004 (next to be held following general elections w 2008)


election results: Kalkot Matas KELEKELE elected president, z 49 votes out of 56, after several ballots on 16 sierpien 2004
WenezuelaWenezuela chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 luty 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 styczen 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 luty 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 3 grudzien 2006 (next to be held w grudzien 2012)


note: w 1999, a National Constituent Assembly drafted a new constitution that increased the presidential term to six years; an election was subsequently held on 30 lipiec 2000 under the terms of this constitution


election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias reelected president; percent of vote - Hugo CHAVEZ Frias 62.9%, Manuel ROSALES 36.9%
WietnamWietnam chief of state: President Nguyen Minh TRIET (since 27 czerwiec 2006); Vice President Nguyen Thi DOAN (since 25 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 27 czerwiec 2006); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Sinh HUNG (since 28 czerwiec 2006), Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung HAI (since 2 sierpien 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien NHAN (since 2 sierpien 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Pham Gia KHIEM (since 28 czerwiec 2006), and Deputy Prime Minister Truong Vinh TRONG (since 28 czerwiec 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister and confirmed by National Assembly


elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members dla five-year term; last held 27 czerwiec 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister and deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly


election results: Nguyen Minh TRIET elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 94%; Nguyen Tan DUNG elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 92%
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor John DeJONGH (since 1 styczen 2007)


cabinet: NA


elections: under the US Konstytucja, residents of unincorporated territories, such as the Wyspy Dziewicze, do not vote w elections dla US president and vice president; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 7 and 21 listopad 2006 (next to be held listopad 2010)


election results: John DeJONGH elected governor; percent of vote - John DeJONGH 57.3%, Kenneth MAPP 42.7%
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 maj 2007); represented by High Administrator Richard DIDIER (since 19 lipiec 2006)


head of government: President of the Territorial Assembly Patalione KANIMOA (since styczen 2001)


cabinet: Council of the Territory consists of three kings and three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly


note: there are three traditional kings z limited powers


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; high administrator appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia none
JemenJemen chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 maj 1990, the former president of North Jemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Jemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 pazdziernik 1994)


head of government: Prime Minister Ali Muhammad MUJAWWAR (since 31 marzec 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Rashad Muhammad al-ALIMI


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 20 wrzesien 2006 (next to be held w wrzesien 2013); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 77.2%, Faysal BIN SHAMLAN 21.8%
ZambiaZambia chief of state: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 styczen 2002); Vice President Rupiah BANDA (since 9 pazdziernik 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 styczen 2002); Vice President Rupiah BANDA (since 9 pazdziernik 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 28 wrzesien 2006 (next to be held w 2011); vice president appointed by the president


election results: Levy MWANAWASA reelected president; percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 43.0%, Michael SATA 29.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 25.3%, Godfrey MIYANDA 1.6%, Winright NGONDO 0.8%
ZimbabweZimbabwe chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 grudzien 1987); Vice President Joseph MSIKA (since grudzien 1999) and Vice President Joyce MUJURU (since 6 grudzien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 grudzien 1987); Vice President Joseph MSIKA (since grudzien 1999) and Vice President Joyce MUJURU (since 6 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly


elections: presidential candidates nominated z a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 9-11 marzec 2002 (next to be held 28 marzec 2008); co-vice presidents appointed by the president


election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 56.2%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 41.9%
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