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Fraza:

Wladza wykonawcza (2004)

Wladza wykonawcza - wybierz rok:
- Wladza wykonawcza (2001) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2002) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2003) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2005) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2006) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2007) (porownaj)
- Wladza wykonawcza (2008) (porownaj)


Informacje o Wladza wykonawcza w 2004 rok

AfganistanAfganistan chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan, Hamid KARZAI (since 7 grudzien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former King ZAHIR Shah holds the honorific, "Father of the Country," and presides symbolically over certain occasions, but lacks any governing authority; the honorific is not hereditary


head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan, Hamid KARZAI (since 7 grudzien 2004); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


cabinet: 27 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly


elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by direct vote dla a five-year term; if no candidate receives 50% or more of the vote w the first round of voting, the two candidates z the most votes will participate w a second round; a president can only be elected dla two terms; election last held 9 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote - Hamid KARZAI - 55.4%, Yunus QANOONI - 16.3%, Mohammad MOHAQEQ - 11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM - 1.4%, Masooda JALAL - 1.2%
AkrotiriAkrotiri chief of state: Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Administrator Maj. Gen. Peter Tomas Clayton PEARSON (since 9 maj 2003) note - reports to the British Ministry of Defence


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is appointed by the monarch
AlbaniaAlbania chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24 lipiec 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 lipiec 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by Parliament


elections: president elected by the People's Assembly dla a five-year term; election last held 24 czerwiec 2002 (next to be held NA czerwiec 2007); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 116, dla 97, against 19
AlgieriaAlgieria chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 kwiecien 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 maj 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 8 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held NA kwiecien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president dla second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS 6.4%, Abdallah DJABALLAH 5%
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001) and Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 kwiecien 2003)


cabinet: NA


elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket dla four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held 2 and 16 listopad 2004 (next to be held listopad 2008)


election results: Togiola TULAFONO elected governor; percent of vote: Togiola TULAFONO 55.7%, Afoa Moega LUTU 44.3%
AndoraAndora chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 maj 1995), represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 lipiec 2002); Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 maj 2003), represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since NA)


head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 grudzien 1994)


cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president


elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces dla a four-year term; election last held 4 marzec 2001 (next to be held kwiecien-maj 2005)


election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA%
AngolaAngola chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 wrzesien 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 wrzesien 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 grudzien 2002, but this is not a position of real power


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by universal ballot dla a NA-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood dla reelection w Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 wrzesien 1992 (next to be held NA)


election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union dla the Total Niepodleglosc of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
AnguillaAnguilla chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor Alan Eden HUCKLE (since 28 maj 2004)


head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 marzec 2000)


cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since 10 czerwiec 1993)


head of government: Prime Minister Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
ArgentynaArgentyna chief of state: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 maj 2003); Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 maj 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Nestor KIRCHNER (since 25 maj 2003); Vice President Daniel SCIOLI (since 25 maj 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; the last election held was the presidential primary election of 27 kwiecien 2003 (next election to be held NA 2007)


election results: results of the presidential primary of 27 kwiecien 2003: Carlos Saul MENEM 24.3%, Nestor KIRCHNER 22%, Ricardo Lopez MURPHY 16.4%, Adolfo Rodriguez SAA 14.4%, Elisa CARRIO 14.2%, other 8.7%; the subsequent runoff election slated dla 25 maj 2003 was awarded to KIRCHNER by default after MENEM withdrew his candidacy on the eve of the election
ArmeniaArmenia chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 marzec 1998)


head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 maj 2000)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 19 luty and 5 marzec 2003 (next to be held NA 2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program


election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%
ArubaAruba chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Holandia (since 30 kwiecien 1980), represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 maj 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30 pazdziernik 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)


elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed dla a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten dla four-year terms; election last held 28 wrzesien 2001 (next to be held by grudzien 2005)


election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA
AustraliaAustralia chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael JEFFERY (since 11 sierpien 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 marzec 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 lipiec 1999)


cabinet: Parliament nominates and selects, from among its members, a list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list, the governor general swears w the final selections dla the Cabinet


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn w as prime minister by the governor general


note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party
AustriaAustria chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 luty 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 pazdziernik 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor


elections: president elected by direct popular vote dla a six-year term; presidential election last held 25 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held NA kwiecien 2010); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party w the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor


election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%


note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 pazdziernik 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 listopad 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 listopad 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 15 pazdziernik 2003 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly


election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%
BahamyBahamy chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Ivy DUMONT (since NA maj 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Perry CHRISTIE (since 3 maj 2002) and Deputy Prime Minister Cynthia PRATT (since 7 maj 2002)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
BahrajnBahrajn chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 marzec 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 pazdziernik 1969)


head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
BangladeszBangladesz chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 wrzesien 2002); note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but z the 13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"), the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential direction - to supervise the elections


head of government: Prime Minister Khaleda ZIA (since 10 pazdziernik 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president


elections: president elected by National Parliament dla a five-year term; election scheduled dla 16 wrzesien 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn w on 6 wrzesien 2002 (next election to be held by NA 2007); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president


election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared by the Election Commission elected unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA
BarbadosBarbados chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 czerwiec 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6 wrzesien 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 26 maj 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
BialorusBialorus chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 lipiec 1994)


head of government: Prime Minister Sergei SIDORSKY (since 19 grudzien 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since grudzien 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since grudzien 2003), Vladimir DRAZHIN (since 24 wrzesien 2001), Ivan BAMBIZA (since 25 maj 2004), Anatoly TYUTYUNOV (since lipiec 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; first election took place 23 czerwiec and 10 lipiec 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held w 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a listopad 1996 referendum; new election held 9 wrzesien 2001; pazdziernik 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits allowing president to run dla a third term w wrzesien 2006; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4%
BelgiaBelgia chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 sierpien 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch


head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 lipiec 1999)


cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and then approved by Parliament


note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP.A-Spirit
BelizeBelize chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 listopad 1993)


head of government: Prime Minister Said Wilbert MUSA (since 28 sierpien 1998); Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 wrzesien 1998)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
BeninBenin chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 kwiecien 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 kwiecien 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president reelected by popular vote dla a five-year term; runoff election held 22 marzec 2001 (next to be held NA marzec 2006)


election results: Mathieu KEREKOU reelected president; percent of vote - Mathieu KEREKOU 84.1%, Bruno AMOUSSOU 15.9%


note: the four top-ranking contenders following the first-round presidential elections were: Mathieu KEREKOU (incumbent) 45.4%, Nicephore SOGOLO (former president) 27.1%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (National Assembly Speaker) 12.6%, and Bruno AMOUSSOU (Minister of State) 8.6%; the second-round balloting, originally scheduled dla 18 marzec 2001, was postponed four days because both SOGOLO and HOUNGBEDJI withdrew alleging electoral fraud; this left KEREKOU to run against his own Minister of State, AMOUSSOU, w what was termed a "friendly match"
BermudyBermudy chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA kwiecien 2002)


head of government: Premier Alex SCOTT (since 24 lipiec 2003); Deputy Premier Ewart BROWN


cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
BhutanBhutan chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 lipiec 1972)


head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Lyonpo Yeshey ZIMBA (since 20 sierpien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms w lipiec 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch z two-thirds vote
BoliwiaBoliwia chief of state: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17 pazdziernik 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (since 17 pazdziernik 2003); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms; election last held 30 czerwiec 2002 (next to be held NA czerwiec 2007)


election results: as a result of no candidate winning a majority w the 30 czerwiec 2002 election, Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante was chosen president by Congress; Congressional votes - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamante 84, Evo MORALES 43; note - following the resignation of the elected president on 17 pazdziernik 2003, Vice President Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert assumed the presidency
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Borislav PARAVAC (chairman since 28 pazdziernik 2004; presidency member since 10 kwiecien 2003 - Serb) other members of the three-member rotating (every eight months) presidency: Dragan COVIC (since 5 pazdziernik 2002 - Croat) and Sulejman TIHIC (since 5 pazdziernik 2002 - Bosniak); note - Mirko SAROVIC resigned 2 kwiecien 2003


head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan TERZIC (since 20 grudzien 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives


elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; the member z the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 5 pazdziernik 2002 (next to be held NA 2006); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives


election results: percent of vote - Mirko SAROVIC z 35.5% of the Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency dla the first eight months; Dragan COVIC received 61.5% of the Croat vote; Sulejman TIHIC received 37% of the Bosniak vote


note: President of the Federation of Bosnia i Hercegowina: Niko LOZANCIC (since 27 styczen 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC (since NA 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since NA 2003); President of the Republika Srpska: Dragan CAVIC (since 28 listopad 2002)
BotswanaBotswana chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 kwiecien 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 lipiec 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 kwiecien 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 lipiec 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term; election last held 16 pazdziernik 1999 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2004); vice president appointed by the president


election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 54.3%
BrazyliaBrazylia chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 styczen 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 styczen 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 styczen 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 styczen 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held 6 pazdziernik 2002 (next to be held 1 pazdziernik 2006, z a runoff on 29 pazdziernik 2006 if necessary); runoff election held 27 pazdziernik 2002


election results: w runoff election 27 pazdziernik 2002, Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) was elected z 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA (PSDB) 38.7%
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu IndyjskiegoBrytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Commissioner Tony CROMBIE (since styczen 2004); Administrator Charles A. HAMILTON (since 2002); note - both reside w the UK


cabinet: NA


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and administrator appointed by the monarch
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor Tom MACAN (since 14 pazdziernik 2002)


head of government: Chief Minister Orlando D. SMITH (since 17 czerwiec 2003)


cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of the Legislative Council


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
BruneiBrunei chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 pazdziernik 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 pazdziernik 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals z executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals z constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
BulgariaBulgaria chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 styczen 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 styczen 2002)


head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (since 24 lipiec 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 24 lipiec 2001), Lidiya SHULEVA (since 24 lipiec 2001), and Plamen PANAYOTOV (since 17 lipiec 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms; election last held 11 listopad and 18 listopad 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president and elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly


election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote - Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 pazdziernik 1987)


head of government: Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6 listopad 2000)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 15 listopad 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); w kwiecien 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005, and allowing the president to be reelected only once; it is unclear whether this amendment will be applied retroactively or not; prime minister appointed by the president z the consent of the legislature


election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president z 87.5% percent of the vote
BirmaBirma chief of state: Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 kwiecien 1992)


head of government: Prime Minister, Gen SOE WIN (since 19 pazdziernik 2004)


cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta, so named 15 listopad 1997, which initially assumed power 18 wrzesien 1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC); the SPDC oversees the cabinet


elections: none
BurundiBurundi chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 kwiecien 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn w as president dla the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 listopad 2001; Vice President Frederic NGENZEBUHORO (since 11 listopad 2004)


head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 kwiecien 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn w as president dla the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 listopad 2001; Vice President Frederic NGENZEBUHORO (since 11 listopad 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president


elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 kwiecien 2003 as part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha Accord
KambodzaKambodza chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 pazdziernik 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 styczen 1985) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 luty 1992), Norodom SIRIVUDH, SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 lipiec 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers w theory appointed by the monarch; w practice named by the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
KamerunKamerun chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 listopad 1982)


head of government: Prime Minister Ephraim INONI (since 8 Dec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 11 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 70.9%, John FRU NDI 17.4%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.7%
KanadaKanada chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 pazdziernik 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 grudzien 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 grudzien 2003)


cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting w Parliament


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister dla a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition w the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 marzec 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 luty 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 11 and 25 luty 2001 (next to be held NA luty 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president


election results: Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note - the election was won by only twelve votes
KajmanyKajmany chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); Governor Bruce DINWIDDY (since 29 maj 2002)


head of government: Chief Secretary W. McKeeva BUSH (since NA grudzien 2001)


cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor, four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is appointed by the monarch; the chief secretary is appointed by the governor
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie chief of state: President Francois BOZIZE (since 15 marzec 2003 coup) and Vice President Abel GOUMA (since 12 grudzien 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Celestin GAOMBALET (since 12 grudzien 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: NA; municipal, legislative and presidential elections scheduled dla grudzien 2004 or styczen 2005; prime minister appointed by the president
CzadCzad chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 grudzien 1990)


head of government: Prime Minister Pascal YOADIMNADJI (since 3 luty 2005)


cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand dla a second round of voting; last held 20 maj 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7%


note: government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD
ChileChile chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 marzec 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 marzec 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term; election last held 12 grudzien 1999, z runoff election held 16 styczen 2000 (next to be held NA grudzien 2005)


election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent of vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68%
ChinyChiny chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 marzec 2003), WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla five-year terms; elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by the Australian governor general


head of government: Administrator Evan WILLIAMS (since 1 listopad 2003)


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by the Australian governor general


head of government: Administrator (nonresident) Evan WILLIAMS (since 1 listopad 2003)


cabinet: NA


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
KolumbiaKolumbia chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 sierpien 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 sierpien 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 sierpien 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 sierpien 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents


elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 26 maj 2002 (next to be held NA maj 2006)


election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez received 53% of the vote; Vice President Francisco SANTOS was elected on the same ticket
KomoryKomory chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 maj 2002); note - following a 1999 coup AZALI was appointed president; w styczen 2002 he resigned his position to run w the 14 kwiecien 2002 presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO was appointed interim president until replaced again by AZALI w maj 2002 when BOLERO was appointed Minister of External Defense and Territorial Security; the president is both the chief of state and the head of government


head of government: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 maj 2002); note - following a 1999 coup AZALI was appointed president; w styczen 2002 he resigned his position to run w the 14 kwiecien 2002 presidential elections; Prime Minister Hamada Madi BOLERO was appointed interim president until replaced again by AZALI w maj 2002 when BOLERO was appointed Minister of External Defense and Territorial Security; the president is both the chief of state and the head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three main islands w the Union; election last held 14 kwiecien 2002 (next to be held NA kwiecien 2007); prime minister appointed by the president; note - AZALI has not appointed a Prime Minister since he was sworn into office w maj 2002


election results: President AZALI Assoumani elected president z 75% of the vote
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 styczen 2001); note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, on 16 styczen 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 styczen 2001); note - following the assassination of his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, on 16 styczen 2001, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the presidency; the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: National Executive Council, appointed by the president


elections: prior to the overthrow of MOBUTU Sese Seko, the president was elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 29 lipiec 1984 (next was scheduled to be held w maj 1997); formerly, there was also a prime minister who was elected by the High Council of the Republic; note - a Transitional Government is drafting a new constitution z free elections scheduled to be held w NA 2005


election results: results of the last election were: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected president w 1984 without opposition


note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, following the latter's assassination w styczen 2001, negotiations z rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional government w lipiec 2003 z free elections scheduled to be held w NA 2005
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 pazdziernik 1997, following the civil war w which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 pazdziernik 1997, following the civil war w which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second seven-year term); election last held 10 marzec 2002 (next to be held NA 2009)


election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Frederick GOODWIN (since 9 luty 2001); Nowa Zelandia High Commissioner Kurt MEYER (since lipiec 2001), representative of Nowa Zelandia


head of government: Prime Minister Jim MARURAI (since 14 grudzien 2004); Deputy Prime Minister SIR Geoffrey HENRY (since 14 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively responsible to Parliament


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is appointed by the monarch; the Nowa Zelandia high commissioner is appointed by the Nowa Zelandia Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes prime minister
Wyspy Morza KoralowegoWyspy Morza Koralowego administered from Canberra by the Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories
KostarykaKostaryka chief of state: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 maj 2002); First Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since 8 maj 2002); Second Vice President Luis FISHMAN (since 8 maj 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Abel PACHECO (since 8 maj 2002); First Vice President Lineth SABORIO (since NA maj 2002); Second Vice President Luis FISHMAN (since NA maj 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president


elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held 3 luty 2002; run-off election held 7 kwiecien 2002 (next to be held NA luty 2006)


election results: Abel PACHECO elected president; percent of vote - Abel PACHECO (PUSC) 58%; Rolando ARAYA (PLN) 42%
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire chief of state: President Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 pazdziernik 2000); note - seized power following a popular overthrow of the interim leader Gen. Robert GUEI who had claimed a dubious victory w presidential elections; Gen. GUEI himself had assumed power on 25 grudzien 1999, following a military coup against the government of former President Henri Konan BEDIE


head of government: Prime Minister Seydou DIARRA (since 25 styczen 2003); note - appointed as transitional Prime Minister by President GBAGBO as part of a French brokered peace plan


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 26 pazdziernik 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other 2.2%
ChorwacjaChorwacja chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 luty 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Ivo SANADER (since 9 grudzien 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Jadranka KOSOR (since 23 grudzien 2003) and Andrija HEBRANG (since 23 grudzien 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 16 styczen 2005 (next to be held styczen 2010); prime minister nominated by the president w line z the balance of power w the Assembly


election results: Stjepan MESIC reelected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 66%, Jadranka KOSOR (HDZ) 34%
KubaKuba chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from luty 1959 until 24 luty 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 grudzien 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 grudzien 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from luty 1959 until 24 luty 1976 when office was abolished; president since 2 grudzien 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 grudzien 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State and appointed by the National Assembly or the 31-member Council of State, elected by the Assembly to act on its behalf when it is not w session


elections: president and vice presidents elected by the National Assembly dla a term of five years; election last held 6 marzec 2003 (next to be held w 2008)


election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz reelected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%
CyprCypr chief of state: President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS (since 1 marzec 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved dla a Turkish Cypriot


head of government: President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS (since 1 marzec 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved dla a Turkish Cypriot


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 16 luty 2003 (next to be held NA luty 2008)


election results: Tassos PAPADOPOULOS elected president; percent of vote - Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 51.5%, Glafkos KLIRIDIS 38.8%, Alekos MARKIDIS 6.6%


note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of north Cypr since 13 luty 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote dla a five-year term); elections last held 15 kwiecien 2000 (next to be held kwiecien 2005); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president after the other contender withdrew; Mehmet Ali TALAT, who had been "prime minister" of north Cypr since mid-styczen 2004, currently serving w a caretaker capacity following the failure of the governing coalition to pass a budget; "parliamentary" elections are planned dla 20 luty 2005; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) w north Cypr, appointed by the "prime minister"
CzechyCzechy chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 marzec 2003)


note: the Czechy's first president Vaclav HAVEL stepped down from office on 2 luty 2003 having served exactly 10 years; parliament finally elected a successor on 28 luty 2003 after two inconclusive elections w styczen 2003


head of government: Prime Minister Stanislav GROSS (since 26 lipiec 2004), Deputy Prime Ministers Zdenek SKROMACH (since 4 sierpien 2004), Martin JAHN (since 4 sierpien 2004), Pavel NEMEC (since 4 sierpien 2004); Milan SIMONOVSKY (since 4 sierpien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; last successful election held 28 luty 2003 (after earlier elections held 15 and 24 styczen 2003 were inconclusive; next election to be held NA styczen 2008); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Vaclav KLAUS elected president on 28 luty 2003; Vaclav KLAUS 142 votes, Jan SOKOL 124 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
DaniaDania chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 styczen 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 maj 1968)


head of government: Prime Minister Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN (since 27 listopad 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by Parliament


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
DhekeliaDhekelia chief of state: Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Administrator Maj. Gen. Peter Tomas Clayton PEARSON (since 9 maj 2003) note - reports to the British Ministry of Defence


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is appointed by the monarch
DzibutiDzibuti chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 maj 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister DILEITA Mohamed Dileita (since 4 marzec 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term; election last held 9 kwiecien 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH elected president; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 74.4%, IDRIS Moussa Ahmed 25.6%
DominikaDominika chief of state: President Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (since pazdziernik 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Roosevelt SKERRIT (since 8 styczen 2004); note - assumed post after death of Prime Minister Pierre CHARLES


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister


elections: president elected by the House of Assembly dla a five-year term; election last held 1 pazdziernik 2003 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2008); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Nicholas LIVERPOOL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 sierpien 2004); Vice President Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 sierpien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 sierpien 2004); Vice President Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 sierpien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held 16 maj 2004 (next to be held w maj 2008)


election results: Leonel FERNANDEZ elected president; percent of vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ (PLD) 57.1%, Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez (PRD) 33.7%, Eduardo ESTRELLA (PRSC) 8.7%
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni chief of state: President Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO (since 20 maj 2002); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is able to veto some legislation; he formerly used the name Jose Alexandre GUSMAO


head of government: Prime Minister Mari Bin Amude ALKATIRI (since 20 maj 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 14 kwiecien 2002 (next to be held NA kwiecien 2007); after the first legislative elections, the leader of the majority party was appointed prime minister by the president, suggesting a precedent dla the future


election results: Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO elected president; percent of vote - Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO 82.7%, Francisco Xavier do AMARAL 17.3%
EkwadorEkwador chief of state: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 styczen 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 styczen 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 styczen 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 styczen 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a four-year term (no immediate reelection); election last held 20 pazdziernik 2002; runoff election held 24 listopad 2002 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2006)


election results: results of the 24 listopad 2002 runoff election - Lucio GUTIERREZ elected president; percent of vote - Lucio GUTIERREZ 54.3%; Alvaro NOBOA 45.7%
EgiptEgipt chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 pazdziernik 1981)


head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF (since 9 lipiec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly dla a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 wrzesien 1999 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2005); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term
SalwadorSalwador chief of state: President Elias Antonio SACA (since 1 czerwiec 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma DE ESCOBAR (since 1 czerwiec 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Elias Antonio SACA (since 1 czerwiec 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma DE ESCOBAR (since 1 czerwiec 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms; election last held 21 marzec 2004 (next to be held NA marzec 2009)


election results: Elias Antonio SACA elected president; percent of vote - Elias Antonio SACA (ARENA) 57.7%, Schafik HANDAL (FMLN) 35.6%, Hector SILVA (CDU-PDC) 3.9%, other 2.8%
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 sierpien 1979 when he seized power w a military coup)


head of government: Prime Minister Miguel Abia BITEO BORICO (since 14 czerwiec 2004); First Deputy Prime Minister Miguel OYONO NDONG (since NA styczen 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Demetrio Elo NDONG NZE FUMU (since NA styczen 1998)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 15 grudzien 2002 (next to be held NA grudzien 2009); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO 97.1%, Celestino Bonifacio BACALE 2.2%; elections marred by widespread fraud
ErytreaErytrea chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 czerwiec 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly


head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 czerwiec 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly


cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority; members appointed by the president


elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last held 8 czerwiec 1993 (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly did not hold a presidential election w grudzien 2001 as anticipated)


election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%
EstoniaEstonia chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 pazdziernik 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Juhan PARTS (since 10 kwiecien 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting w the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates z the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 wrzesien 2001 (next to be held w the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament


election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 wrzesien 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure w sierpien to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 186 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 26 ballots were either left blank or invalid
EtiopiaEtiopia chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 pazdziernik 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA sierpien 1995)


cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided dla w the grudzien 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives


elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives dla a six-year term; election last held 8 pazdziernik 2001 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2007); prime minister designated by the party w power following legislative elections


election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 100%
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska chief of union: President of the European Commission Jose DURAO BARROSO (since 22 listopad 2004)


cabinet: European Commission (composed of 25 members, one from each member country; each commissioner responsible dla one or more policy areas)


elections: the president of the European Commission is designated by member governments; the president-designate then chooses the other Commission members; the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission dla a five-year term; election last held 18 listopad 2004 (next to be held 2009)


election results: European Parliament approved the European Commission by an approval vote of 449-149 z 82 abstentions


note: the European Council brings together heads of state and government and the president of the European Commission and meets at least twice a year; its aim is to provide the impetus dla the major political issues relating to European integration and to issue general policy guidelines
FalklandyFalklandy chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Governor Howard PEARCE (since 3 grudzien 2002); Chief Executive Chris SIMPKINS (since NA marzec 2003); Financial Secretary Derek F. HOWATT (since NA)


cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Dania (since 14 styczen 1972), represented by High Commissioner Birgit KLEIS, chief administrative officer (since 1 listopad 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Joannes EIDESGAARD (since 3 luty 2004)


cabinet: Landsstyri appointed by the prime minister


elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held 20 styczen 2004 (next to be held no later than styczen 2008)


election results: Joannes EIDESGAARD elected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - NA%


note: coalition of Social Democrats, Union Party, and People's Party
FidziFidzi chief of state: President Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda (since 18 lipiec 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since 10 wrzesien 2000)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament; note - there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs, which consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chief system


elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs dla a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs; percent of vote - NA%
FinlandiaFinlandia chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 marzec 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 czerwiec 2003) and Deputy Prime Minister Antti KALLIOMAKI (since 17 kwiecien 2003); note - former Prime Minister Anneli JAATTEENMAKI resigned


cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term; election last held 16 styczen 2000 and 6 luty 2000 (next to be held luty 2006); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after Parliamentary elections and the Parliament must approve the appointment


election results: Tarja HALONEN elected president; percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esko AHO (Kesk) 48.4%


note: government coalition - KESK, SDP, and SFP
FrancjaFrancja chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 maj 1995)


head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Pierre RAFFARIN (since 7 maj 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the suggestion of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (changed from seven-year term w pazdziernik 2000); election last held 21 kwiecien and 5 maj 2002 (next to be held, first round kwiecien 2007, second round maj 2007); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and appointed by the president


election results: Jacques CHIRAC reelected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Jacques CHIRAC (RPR) 81.96%, Jean-Marie LE PEN (FN) 18.04%
Gujana FrancuskaGujana Francuska chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of Francja (since 17 maj 1995), represented by Prefect Ange MANCINI (since 31 lipiec 2002)


head of government: President of the General Council Joseph HO-TEN-YOU (since 26 marzec 2001); President of the Regional Council Antoine KARAM (since 22 marzec 1992)


cabinet: NA


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; presidents of the General and Regional Councils are appointed by the members of those councils
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of Francja (since 17 maj 1995), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Michel MATHIEU (since 24 pazdziernik 2001)


head of government: President of the Territorial Government of Polinezja Francuska Gaston FLOSSE (since 9 pazdziernik 2004); President of the Territorial Assembly Lucette TAERO (since 17 maj 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of the Territorial Assembly dla approval by them to serve as ministers


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Government and the president of the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly
GabonGabon chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 grudzien 1967)


head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Francois NTOUTOUME-EMANE (since 23 styczen 1999)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister w consultation z the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 6 grudzien 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President El Hadj Omar BONGO reelected; percent of vote - El Hadj Omar BONGO 66.6%, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU 16.5%, Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE 13.4%
GambiaGambia chief of state: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 pazdziernik 1996; note - from 1994 to 1996 he was Chairman of the Junta); Vice President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since 20 marzec 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 pazdziernik 1996; note - from 1994 to 1996 was he Chairman of the Junta); Vice President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since 20 marzec 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; the number of terms is not restricted; election last held 18 pazdziernik 2001 (next to be held pazdziernik 2006)


election results: Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH reelected president; percent of vote - Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH 52.9%, Ousainou DARBOE 32.7%
GeorgiaGeorgia chief of state: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 styczen 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government dla the power ministries: state security (includes interior) and defense


head of government: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 styczen 2004); Prime Minister Zurab ZHVANIA (since 9 luty 2004); note - the president is the chief of state and head of government dla the power ministries: state security (includes interior) and defense; the prime minister is head of the remaining ministries of government


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 4 styczen 2004 (next to be held NA 2009)


election results: Mikheil SAAKASHVILI elected president; percent of vote - Mikheil SAAKASHVILI 96.3%, Temur SHASHIASHVILI 1.9%
NiemcyNiemcy chief of state: President Horst KOEHLER (since 1 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 pazdziernik 1998); Vice Chancellor Joschka FISCHER (since 17 pazdziernik 1998)


cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor


elections: president elected dla a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 maj 2004 (next to be held 23 maj 2009); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly dla a four-year term; election last held 22 wrzesien 2002 (next to be held wrzesien 2006)


election results: Horst KOEHLER elected president; received 604 votes of the Federal Convention against 589 dla Gesine SCHWAN; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly vote 50.7%
GhanaGhana chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 styczen 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 styczen 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 styczen 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 styczen 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held 7 grudzien 2004 (next to be held grudzien 2008)


election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president w election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 53.4%, John Atta MILLS 43.7%
GibraltarGibraltar chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor and Commander-in-Chief Sir Francis RICHARDS (since 27 maj 2003)


head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 maj 1996)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 15 elected members of the House of Assembly by the governor w consultation z the chief minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
GrecjaGrecja chief of state: President Konstandinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (since 10 marzec 1995)


head of government: Prime Minister Konstandinos KARAMANLIS (since 7 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 8 luty 2000 (next to be held by luty 2005); according to the Greek Konstytucja, presidents may only serve two terms; president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote w election to become prime minister and form a government


election results: Konstandinos STEPHANOPOULOS reelected president; percent of Parliament vote - 90%
GrenlandiaGrenlandia chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Dania (since 14 styczen 1972), represented by High Commissioner Peter LAURITEEN (since NA 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Hans ENOKSEN (since 14 grudzien 2002)


cabinet: Home Rule Government is elected by the Parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties


elections: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by Parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 3 grudzien 2002 (next to be held grudzien 2006)


election results: Hans ENOKSEN elected prime minister


note: government coalition - Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit
GrenadaGrenada chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Daniel WILLIAMS (since 9 sierpien 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 22 czerwiec 1995)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
GwadelupaGwadelupa chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of Francja (since 17 maj 1995), represented by Prefect Paul GIROT DE LANGLADE (since 17 sierpien 2004)


head of government: President of the General Council Jacques GILLOT (since 26 marzec 2001); President of the Regional Council Victorin LUREL (since 2 kwiecien 2004)


cabinet: NA


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; the presidents of the General and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils


election results: NA
GuamGuam chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Felix P. P. CAMACHO (since 6 styczen 2003) and Lieutenant Governor Kaleo MOYLAN (since 6 styczen 2003)


cabinet: executive departments; heads appointed by the governor z the consent of the Guam legislature


elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket dla a four-year term; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year term; election last held 5 listopad 2002 (next to be held NA listopad 2006)


election results: Felix P. P. CAMACHO elected governor; percent of vote - Felix P. P. CAMACHO (Republican Party) 55.4%, Robert A. UNDERWOOD (Democratic Party) 44.6%
GwatemalaGwatemala chief of state: President Oscar Jose Rafael BERGER Perdomo (since 14 styczen 2004); Vice President Eduardo STEIN Barillas (since 14 styczen 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Oscar Jose Rafael BERGER Perdomo (since 14 styczen 2004); Vice President Eduardo STEIN Barillas (since 14 styczen 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 9 listopad 2003; runoff held 28 grudzien 2003 (next to be held NA listopad 2007)


election results: Oscar BERGER Perdomo elected president; percent of vote - Oscar BERGER Perdomo (GANA) 54.1%, Alvaro COLOM (UNE) 45.9%
GuernseyGuernsey chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor and Commander-in-Chief Lt. Gen. Sir John FOLEY (since NA 2000)


head of government: Chief Minister Laurie MORGAN (since 1 maj 2004)


cabinet: Policy Council elected by the States of Deliberation


elections: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister is elected by States of Delibertion


election results: Laurie MORGAN elected chief minister, percent of vote of the States of Deliberation NA
GwineaGwinea chief of state: President Lansana CONTE (head of military government since 5 kwiecien 1984, elected president 19 grudzien 1993)


head of government: Prime Minister Cellou Dalein DIALLO (since 9 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held 21 grudzien 2003 (next to be held NA grudzien 2008); the prime minister is appointed by the president


election results: Lansana CONTE reelected president; percent of vote - Lansana CONTE (PUP) 95.3%, Mamadou Boye BARRY (UPR) 4.6%
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau chief of state: President Henrique ROSA (interim; since 28 wrzesien 2003); note - a wrzesien 2003 coup overthrew the elected government of Kumba YALA; General Verissimo Correia SEABRA served as interim president from 14 to 28 wrzesien 2003


head of government: Prime Minister Carlos GOMES Junior (since 9 maj 2004)


cabinet: NA


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 28 listopad 1999 and 16 styczen 2000 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation z party leaders w the legislature


election results: Kumba YALA elected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Kumba YALA (PRS) 72%, Malan Bacai SANHA (PAIGC) 28%


note: a bloodless coup led to the dissolution of the elected government of Kumba YALA w wrzesien 2003; General Verissimo Correia SEABRA served as interim president from 14 wrzesien 2003 until stepping aside on 28 wrzesien 2003 z the establishment of a caretaker government
GujanaGujana chief of state: President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 11 sierpien 1999); note - assumed presidency after resignation of President Janet JAGAN


head of government: Prime Minister Samuel HINDS (since NA grudzien 1997)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature


elections: president elected by the majority party w the National Assembly following legislative elections, which must be held at least every five years; elections last held 19 marzec 2001 (next to be held by marzec 2006); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Bharrat JAGDEO reelected; percent of legislative vote - NA
HaitiHaiti chief of state: Interim President Boniface ALEXANDRE (since 29 luty 2004)


note: Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE resigned as president on 29 luty 2004; ALEXANDRE, as Chief of the Supreme Court, constitutionally succeeded Aristide


head of government: Interim Prime Minister Gerald LATORTUE (since 12 marzec 2004), chosen by extraconstitutional Council of Eminent Persons representing cross-section of political and civic interests


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 26 listopad 2000 (next to be held w listopad 2005); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly


election results: Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE elected president; percent of vote - Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 92%
WatykanWatykan chief of state: Pope JOHN PAUL II (since 16 pazdziernik 1978)


head of government: Secretary of State Cardinal Angelo SODANO (since 1 grudzien 1990)


cabinet: Pontifical Commission appointed by the pope


elections: pope elected dla life by the College of Cardinals; election last held 16 pazdziernik 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope


election results: Karol WOJTYLA elected pope
HondurasHonduras chief of state: President Ricardo (Joest) MADURO (since 27 styczen 2002); First Vice President Vicente WILLIAMS Agasse (since 27 styczen 2002); Second Vice President Armida Villela Maria DE LOPEZ Contreras (since 27 styczen 2002); Third Vice President Alberto DIAZ Lobo (since 27 styczen 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Ricardo (Joest) MADURO (since 27 styczen 2002); First Vice President Vicente WILLIAMS Agasse (since 27 styczen 2002); Second Vice President Armida Villela Maria DE LOPEZ Contreras (since 27 styczen 2002); Third Vice President Alberto DIAZ Lobo (since 27 styczen 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 25 listopad 2001 (next to be held 27 listopad 2005)


election results: Ricardo (Joest) MADURO (PN) elected president - 52.2%, Raphael PINEDA Ponce (PL) 44.3%, others 3.5%
Hong KongHong Kong chief of state: President of Chiny HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 lipiec 1997)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of seven non-official members and 14 official members; including Chief Secretary Donald TSANG Yam-kuen (since 1 maj 2001), Financial Secretary Henry TANG (since 2 sierpien 2003), and Secretary of Justice Elsie LEUNG (since 1 lipiec 1997)


elections: TUNG Chee-hwa was elected to a second term w marzec 2002 by an 800-member election committee dominated by pro-Beijing forces; the next election is scheduled to be held w 2007
WegryWegry chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since 4 sierpien 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 wrzesien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term; election last held 6 czerwiec 2000 (next to be held by czerwiec 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 wrzesien 2004


election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority w the third round of voting); Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - 197 to 12


note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote w the first two rounds or a simple majority w the third round
IslandiaIslandia chief of state: President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 sierpien 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Halldor ASGRIMSSON (since 15 wrzesien 2004); note - Former Prime Minister David ODDSSON switched positions z former Foreign Minister Halldor ASGRIMMSON


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by Parliament


elections: president, which is largely a ceremonial post, elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 26 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held czerwiec 2008); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON wins z 85.6% of the vote, Baldur AGUSTSSON 12.5%, Astthor MAGNUSSON 1.9%
IndieIndie chief of state: President Abdul KALAM (since 26 lipiec 2002); Vice President Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT (since 19 sierpien 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since NA maj 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term; election last held NA lipiec 2002 (next to be held 18 lipiec 2007); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 12 sierpien 2002 (next to be held NA sierpien 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held kwiecien - maj 2004 (next to be held NA 2009)


election results: Abdul KALAM elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 89.6%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - 59.8%
IndonezjaIndonezja chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 pazdziernik 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 pazdziernik 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 pazdziernik 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 pazdziernik 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president were elected by direct vote of the citizenry


election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%
IranIran chief of state: Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 czerwiec 1989)


head of government: President (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani (since 3 sierpien 1997); First Vice President Dr. Mohammad Reza AREF-Yazdi (since 26 sierpien 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president z legislative approval; the Supreme Leader has some control over appointments to the more sensitive ministries


elections: leader of the Islamic Revolution appointed dla life by the Assembly of Experts; president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 8 czerwiec 2001 (next to be held czerwiec 2005)


election results: (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani reelected president; percent of vote - (Ali) Mohammad KHATAMI-Ardakani 77%
IrakIrak chief of state: Interim Iraki Government (IG) President Ghazi al-Ujayl al-YAWR (since 1 czerwiec 2004); Deputy Presidents Ibrahim al-JAFARI and Rowsch SHAWAYS (since 1 czerwiec 2004); note - the President and Deputy Presidents comprise the Presidency Council


head of government: Interim Iraki Government (IG) Prime Minister Ayad ALLAWI (since 28 czerwiec 2004)


cabinet: 31 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus a Deputy Prime Minister, Barham SALIH


elections: scheduled to be held styczen 2005
IrlandiaIrlandia chief of state: President Mary MCALEESE (since 11 listopad 1997)


head of government: Prime Minister Bertie AHERN (since 26 czerwiec 1997)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president z previous nomination by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 31 pazdziernik 1997 (next scheduled dla 22 pazdziernik 2004); note - Mary MCALEESE appointed to a second term when no other candidate qualified dla the 2004 presidential election; prime minister nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president


election results: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of vote - Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%


note: government coalition - Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats
Wyspa ManWyspa Man chief of state: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Ian MACFADYEN (since 26 pazdziernik 2002)


head of government: Chief Minister Donald GELLING (since 14 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch dla a five-year term; the Chief Minister is elected by the Tynwald; election last held 14 grudzien 2004 (next to be held NA grudzien 2010)


election results: Donald GELLING elected chief minister by the Tynwald; note - Richard CORKILL resigned 2 grudzien 2004
IzraelIzrael chief of state: President Moshe KATZAV (since 31 lipiec 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Ariel SHARON (since 7 marzec 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset


elections: president is largely a ceremonial role and is elected by the Knesset dla a seven-year term; election last held 31 lipiec 2000 (next to be held mid-2007); following legislative elections, the president assigns a Knesset member - traditionally the leader of the largest party - the task of forming a governing coalition; election last held 28 styczen 2003 (next schedulde to be held fall of 2006)


election results: Moshe KATZAV elected president by the 120-member Knesset z a total of 60 votes, other candidate, Shimon PERES, received 57 votes (there were three abstentions); Ariel SHARON continues as prime minister after Likud Party victory w styczen 2003 Knesset elections; Likud won 38 seats and then formed coalition government z Shinui, the National Religious Party, and the National Union
WlochyWlochy chief of state: President Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (since 13 maj 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister (referred to w Wlochy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Silvio BERLUSCONI (since 10 czerwiec 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives dla a seven-year term; election last held 13 maj 1999 (next to be held NA maj 2006); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by Parliament


election results: Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 70%


note: a four-party government coalition includes Forza Italia, National Alliance, Northern League, and Union of Christian Democrats and Democrats of the Center
JamajkaJamajka chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Howard Felix COOKE (since 1 sierpien 1991)


head of government: Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30 marzec 1992)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition w the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is recommended by the prime minister
JaponiaJaponia chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 styczen 1989)


head of government: Prime Minister Junichiro KOIZUMI (since 26 kwiecien 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: Diet designates prime minister; constitution requires that prime minister commands parliamentary majority; following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition w House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister; monarch is hereditary
JerseyJersey chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Lieutenant Governor and Commander w Chief Air Chief Marshall Sir John CHESHIRE (since 24 styczen 2001) and Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since NA luty 1995)


cabinet: committees appointed by the Assembly of the States


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch
JordaniaJordania chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 luty 1999); Prince HUSSEIN (born 1994), son of King ABDALLAH, is first w line to inherit the throne


head of government: Prime Minister Faisal al-FAYEZ (since 25 pazdziernik 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister w consultation z the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
KazachstanKazachstan chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 luty 1990, elected president 1 grudzien 1991)


head of government: Prime Minister Daniyal AKHMETOV (since 13 czerwiec 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Akhmetzhan YESIMOV (since 14 maj 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 10 styczen 1999, a year before it was previously scheduled (next to be held NA 2006); note - President NAZARBAYEV's previous term was extended to 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 kwiecien 1995; prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 81.7%, Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN 12.1%, Gani KASYMOV 4.7%, Engels GABBASSOV 1.5%


note: President NAZARBAYEV arranged a referendum w 1995 that expanded his presidential powers: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities
KeniaKenia chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 grudzien 2002) and Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 wrzesien 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 grudzien 2002) and Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 wrzesien 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; w addition to receiving the largest number of votes w absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote w at least five of Kenia's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 grudzien 2002 (next to be held NA grudzien 2007); vice president appointed by the president


election results: President Mwai KIBAKI elected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 63%, Uhuru KENYATTA 30%
KiribatiKiribati chief of state: President Anote TONG (since 10 lipiec 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Anote TONG (since 10 lipiec 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: 12-member Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Parliament


elections: the House of Parliament chooses the presidential candidates from among their members and then those candidates compete w a general election; president is elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 4 lipiec 2003 (next to be held not later than lipiec 2007); vice president appointed by the president


election results: Anote TONG 47.4%, Harry TONG 43.5%, Banuera BERINA 9.1%
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea chief of state: KIM Jong Il (since lipiec 1994); note - on 3 wrzesien 2003, rubberstamp Supreme People's Assembly (SPA) reelected KIM Jong Il Chairman of the National Defense Commission, a position accorded nation's "highest administrative authority"; SPA reelected KIM Yong Nam President of its Presidium also z responsibility of representing state and receiving diplomatic credentials; SPA appointed PAK Pong Ju Premier


head of government: Premier PAK Pong Ju (since 3 wrzesien 2003); Vice Premiers KWAK Pom Gi (since 5 wrzesien 1998), JON Sung Hun (since 3 wrzesien 2003), RO Tu Chol (since 3 wrzesien 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet (Naegak), members, except dla the Minister of People's Armed Forces, are appointed by the SPA


elections: election last held w wrzesien 2003 (next to be held w wrzesien 2008)


election results: KIM Jong Il and KIM Yong Nam were only nominees dla positions and ran unopposed
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea chief of state: President ROH Moo-hyun (since 25 luty 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hae-chan (since 25 maj 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers KIM Jin-pyo (since 28 styczen 2005), LEE Hun-jai (since 10 luty 2004), and OH Myung (since 18 pazdziernik 2004)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation


elections: president elected by popular vote dla single five-year term; election last held 19 grudzien 2002 (next to be held w grudzien 2007); prime minister appointed by president z consent of National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by president on prime minister's recommendation


election results: results of the 19 grudzien 2002 election - ROH Moo-hyun elected president; percent of vote - ROH Moo-hyun (MDP) 48.9%; LEE Hoi-chang (GNP) 46.6%; other 4.5%
KuwejtKuwejt chief of state: Amir JABIR al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 31 grudzien 1977); Crown Prince SAAD al-Abdullah al-Salim Al Sabah


head of government: Prime Minister SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 13 lipiec 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior NAWWAF al-Ahmad Al Sabah (since 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers JABIR MUBARAK al-Hamad Al Sabah (since 2001) and Muhammad Dayfallah al-SHARAR (since 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister and approved by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch
KirgistanKirgistan chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 pazdziernik 1990)


head of government: Prime Minister Nikolay TANAYEV (since 22 maj 2002); note - Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV resigned on 22 maj 2002 when five demonstrators were killed w a clash z police w marzec of 2002; First Deputy Prime Minister Kubanychbek JUMALIYEV (since 19 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president reelected by popular vote dla a five-year term; elections last held 29 pazdziernik 2000 (next to be 30 pazdziernik 2005); prime minister appointed by the president; note - President AKAYEV has publicly stated that he will not seek reelection when his current term expires w 2005


election results: Askar AKAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Askar AKAYEV 74%, Omurbek TEKEBAYEV 14%, other candidates 12%; note - election marred by serious irregularities
LaosLaos chief of state: President Gen. KHAMTAI Siphadon (since 26 luty 1998) and Vice President Lt. Gen. CHOUMMALI Saignason (since 27 marzec 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister BOUNGNANG Volachit (since 27 marzec 2001); First Deputy Prime Minister Bouasone BOUPHAVANH (since 3 pazdziernik 2003) Deputy Prime Minister Maj. Gen. ASANG Laoli (since maj 2002), Deputy Prime Minister THONGLOUN Sisolit (since 27 marzec 2001), and Deputy Prime Minister SOMSAVAT Lengsavat (since 26 luty 1998)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term; election last held 24 luty 2002 (next to be held w 2007); prime minister appointed by the president z the approval of the National Assembly dla a five-year term


election results: KHAMTAI Siphandon elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA%
LotwaLotwa chief of state: President Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA (since 8 lipiec 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Aigars KALVITIS (since 2 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the Parliament


elections: president reelected by Parliament dla a four-year term; election last held 20 czerwiec 2003 (next to be held by czerwiec 2007); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA reelected president; parliamentary vote - Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA 88 of 94 votes cast
LibanLiban chief of state: President Emile LAHUD (since 24 listopad 1998)


head of government: Prime Minister Omar KARAMI (since 21 pazdziernik 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Issam FARES (since 23 pazdziernik 2000)


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president and members of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a six-year term; election last held 15 pazdziernik 1998 (next election date NA); note - on 3 wrzesien 2004 the National Assembly voted 96 to 29 to extend Emile LAHUD's six-year term by three years; the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president w consultation z the National Assembly; by agreement, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shia Muslim


election results: For 15 pazdziernik 1998 election: Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes w favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions
LesothoLesotho chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 luty 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from listopad 1990 to luty 1995, while his father was w exile


head of government: Prime Minister Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 maj 1998)


cabinet: Cabinet


elections: none; according to the constitution, the leader of the majority party w the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarch is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution, which came into effect after the marzec 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" z no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to determine who is next w the line of succession, who shall serve as regent w the event that the successor is not of mature age, and may even depose the monarch
LiberiaLiberia chief of state: Chairman Gyude BRYANT (since 14 pazdziernik 2003); note - this is an interim position until presidential elections w 2005; the chairman is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: Chairman Gyude BRYANT (since 14 pazdziernik 2003); note - this is an interim position until presidential elections w 2005; the chairman is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; note - current cabinet positions are divided among groups participating w the Liberian peace process


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term (renewable); election last held 19 lipiec 1997 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2005)


election results: Charles Ghankay TAYLOR elected president; percent of vote - Charles Ghankay TAYLOR (NPP) 75.3%, Ellen Johnson SIRLEAF (UP) 9.6%, Alhaji KROMAH (ALCOP) 4%, other 11.1%; note - Taylor stepped down w sierpien 2003


note:: a UN-brokered cease-fire among warring factions and the Liberian government resulted w the sierpien 2003 resignation of former president Charles TAYLOR; a jointly agreed upon replacement, Chairman Gyude BRYANT, assumed office as head of the National Transitional Government on 14 pazdziernik 2003
LibiaLibia chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 wrzesien 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state


head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) Shukri Muhammad GHANIM (since 14 czerwiec 2003)


cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress


elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held 2 marzec 2000 (next to be held NA)


election results: NA
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 listopad 1989, assumed executive powers 26 sierpien 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 czerwiec 1968) note - on 15 sierpien 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state


head of government: Head of Government Otmar HASLER (since 5 kwiecien 2001) and Deputy Head of Government Rita KIEBER-BECK (since 5 kwiecien 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party w the Diet is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party w the Diet is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch
LitwaLitwa chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Premier Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 3 lipiec 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the premier


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 13 czerwiec 2004 and 27 czerwiec 2004; premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament


election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%
LuksemburgLuksemburg chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 pazdziernik 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 listopad 1981)


head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 styczen 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 lipiec 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies


note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP
MakauMakau chief of state: President of Chiny HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 grudzien 1999)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of all one government secretary, four legislators, four businessmen, and one pro-Beijing unionist


elections: chief executive chosen by a 300-member selection committee dla up to two five-year terms


election results: Edmund HO Hau-wah reelected on 29 sierpien 2004; received 296 votes w Election Committee out of 300 possible; 3 members submitted blank ballots; 1 member was absent
MacedoniaMacedonia chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 maj 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Vlado BUCKOVSKI (since 17 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies w the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties SDSM, LDP, and BDI


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; two-round election last held 14 kwiecien and 28 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held kwiecien 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held 1 listopad 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)


election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%; Vlado BUCKOVSKI elected prime minister by the Assembly
MadagaskarMadagaskar chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 maj 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Jacques SYLLA (27 maj 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 16 grudzien 2001 (next to be held NA listopad 2006); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 37.7%, Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 50.5%
MalawiMalawi chief of state: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 maj 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 maj 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: 46-member Cabinet named by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 20 maj 2004 (next to be held NA maj 2009)


election results: Bingu wa MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (UDF) 35.9%, John TEMBO (MCP) 27.1%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MC) 25.7%, Brown MPINGANJIRA (NDA) 8.7%, Justin MALEWEZI (independent) 2.5%
MalezjaMalezja chief of state: Paramount Ruler Tuanku SYED SIRAJUDDIN ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail, the Raja of Perlis (since 12 grudzien 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 31 pazdziernik 2003); Deputy Prime Minister NAJIB Tun Razak (since 7 styczen 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament z consent of the paramount ruler


elections: paramount ruler elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states dla five-year terms; election last held 12 grudzien 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats w the House of Representatives becomes prime minister


election results: Tuanku SYED SIRAJUDDIN ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail elected paramount ruler
MalediwyMalediwy chief of state: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 listopad 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 listopad 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president nominated by the Majlis and then the nomination must be ratified by a national referendum (at least a 51% approval margin is required); president elected dla a five-year term; election last held 17 pazdziernik 2003 (next to be held NA 2008)


election results: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected w referendum held 17 pazdziernik 2003; percent of popular vote - Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 90.3%
MaliMali chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 czerwiec 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Ousmane Issoufi MAIGA (since 30 kwiecien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (two-term limit); election last held 12 maj 2002 (next to be held NA maj 2007); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6%
MaltaMalta chief of state: President Eddie FENECH ADAMI (since 4 kwiecien 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Lawrence GONZI (since 23 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister


elections: president elected by the House of Representatives dla a five-year term; election last held 29 marzec 2004 (next to be held by kwiecien 2009); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president dla a five-year term; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister


election results: Eddie FENECH ADAMI elected president; percent of House of Representatives vote - 33 out of 65 votes
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla chief of state: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 5 styczen 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 5 styczen 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members dla a four-year term; election last held 17 listopad 2003 (next to be held NA listopad 2007)


election results: Kessai Hesa NOTE elected president; percent of Parliament vote - 100%
MartynikaMartynika chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of Francja (since 17 maj 1995); Prefect Yves DASSONVILLE (since 14 styczen 2004); note - took office 8 luty 2004


head of government: President of the General Council Claude LISE (since 22 marzec 1992); President of the Regional Council Alfred MARIE-JEANNE (since NA marzec 1998)


cabinet: NA


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; the presidents of the General and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils
MauretaniaMauretania chief of state: President Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA (since 12 grudzien 1984)


head of government: Prime Minister Sghair Ould M'BARECK (since 6 lipiec 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term; election last held 7 listopad 2003 (next to be held NA 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA reelected dla a third term z 60.8% of the vote
MauritiusMauritius chief of state: President Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 7 pazdziernik 2003) and Vice President Abdool Raouf BUNDHUN (since 25 luty 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Paul BERENGER (since 30 wrzesien 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly dla five-year terms; election last held 25 luty 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly


election results: Karl OFFMANN elected president and Raouf BUNDHUN elected vice president; percent of vote by the National Assembly - NA; note - Karl OFFMANN stepped down on 30 wrzesien 2003
MajottaMajotta chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of Francja (since 17 maj 1995), represented by Prefect Jean-Paul KIHL (since 17 styczen 2005)


head of government: President of the General Council Younoussa BAMANA (since NA 1977)


cabinet: NA


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; president of the General Council elected by the members of the General Council dla a six-year term
MeksykMeksyk chief of state: President Vicente FOX Quesada (since 1 grudzien 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Vicente FOX Quesada (since 1 grudzien 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term; election last held 2 lipiec 2000 (next to be held 2 lipiec 2006)


election results: Vicente FOX Quesada elected president; percent of vote - Vicente FOX Quesada (PAN) 42.52%, Francisco LABASTIDA Ochoa (PRI) 36.1%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 16.64%, other 4.74%
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji chief of state: President Joseph J. URUSEMAL (since 11 maj 2003); Vice President Redley KILLION (11 maj 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Joseph J. URUSEMAL (since 11 maj 2003); Vice President Redley KILLION (11 maj 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet


elections: president and vice president elected by Congress from among the four senators at large dla four-year terms; election last held 11 maj 2003 (next to be held NA maj 2007); note - a proposed constitutional amendment to establish popular elections dla president and vice president failed


election results: Joseph J. URUSEMAL elected president; percent of Congress vote - NA; Redley KILLION elected vice president; percent of Congress vote - NA
MoldawiaMoldawia chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 kwiecien 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 kwiecien 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Vasile IOVV (since 29 styczen 2002)


cabinet: selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a four-year term; election last held 4 kwiecien 2001 (next to be held NA 2005); note - presidential elections were scheduled dla grudzien 2000, but w lipiec 2000, Parliament canceled direct, popular elections; Parliament's failure to choose a new president w grudzien 2000 led to early parliamentary elections w luty 2001; prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation z Parliament; note - within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 kwiecien 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 kwiecien 2001


election results: Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
MonakoMonako chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (since 9 maj 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre, son of the monarch (born 14 marzec 1958)


head of government: Minister of State Patrick LECLERCQ (since 5 styczen 2000)


cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the monarch


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government
MongoliaMongolia chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 czerwiec 1997)


head of government: Prime Minister Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ (since 20 sierpien 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Chultem ULAAN (since 28 wrzesien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural (parliament) w consultation z the president


elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented w State Great Hural and elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; presidential tenure limited to two four-year terms; election last held 20 maj 2001 (next to be held w maj 2005); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural; election last held 27 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held w czerwiec 2008)


election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president w 2001; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Tsakkhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 74 to 0
MontserratMontserrat chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor Deborah Barnes JONES (since 10 maj 2004)


head of government: Chief Minister John OSBORNE (since 5 kwiecien 2001)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary


elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister
MarokoMaroko chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 30 lipiec 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister Driss JETTOU (since 9 pazdziernik 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections
MozambikMozambik chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 luty 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 luty 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 1-2 grudzien 2004 (next to be held grudzien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
NamibiaNamibia chief of state: President Hifikepunye POHAMBA (since listopad 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Theo-Ben GURIRAB (since 28 sierpien 2002)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 15 listopad 2004 (next to be held listopad 2009)


election results: Hifikepunye POHAMBA elected president; percent of vote - NA%
NauruNauru chief of state: President Ludwig SCOTTY (since 26 pazdziernik 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Ludwig SCOTTY (since 26 pazdziernik 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a three-year term; election last held 23 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held NA 2007)


election results: Ludwig SCOTTY was unopposed w the parliamentary elections dla president
NepalNepal chief of state: King GYANENDRA Bir Bikram Shah (succeeded to the throne 4 czerwiec 2001 following the death of his nephew, King DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah)


head of government: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA (since 3 czerwiec 2004); note - Prime Minister THAPA resigned 7 maj 2004


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch


note: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev died w a bloody shooting at the royal palace on 1 czerwiec 2001 that also claimed the lives of most of the royal family; King BIRENDRA's son, Crown Price DIPENDRA, is believed to have been responsible dla the shootings before fatally wounding himself; immediately following the shootings and while still clinging to life, DIPENDRA was crowned king; he died three days later and was succeeded by his uncle
HolandiaHolandia chief of state: Queen BEATRIX (since 30 kwiecien 1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 kwiecien 1967), son of the monarch


head of government: Prime Minister Jan Peter BALKENENDE (since 22 lipiec 2002) and Deputy Prime Ministers Gerrit ZALM (since 27 maj 2003) and Thom DE GRAAF (since 27 maj 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; vice prime ministers appointed by the monarch


note: there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides consultations to the cabinet on legislative and administrative policy
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Holandia (since 30 kwiecien 1980), represented by Governor General Frits GOEDGEDRAG (since 1 lipiec 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Etienne YS (since 3 czerwiec 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten (legislature)


elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch dla a six-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime minister by the Staten; election last held 18 styczen 2002 (next to be held by NA 2006)


note: government coalition - PAR, PNP, PLKP, DP St. Maarten, UP Bonaire, WIPM Saba, DP Statia
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia chief of state: President of Francja Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 maj 1995), represented by High Commissioner Daniel CONSTANTIN (since 3 lipiec 2002)


head of government: President of the Government Marie-Noelle THEMEREAU (since 10 czerwiec 2004)


cabinet: Consultative Committee


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government elected by the members of the Territorial Congress; note - last election held 29 czerwiec 2004 when Marie-Noelle THEMEREAU was elected on the third vote z 8 votes dla and 3 abstentions
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Silvia CARTWRIGHT (since 4 kwiecien 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 grudzien 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since NA lipiec 2002)


cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
NikaraguaNikaragua chief of state: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 styczen 2002); Vice President Jose RIZO Castellon (since 10 styczen 2002); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 styczen 2002); Vice President Jose RIZO Castellon (since 10 styczen 2002); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 4 listopad 2001 (next to be held by listopad 2006)


election results: Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (PLC) elected president - 56.3%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 42.3%, Alberto SABORIO (PCN) 1.4%; Jose RIZO Castellon elected vice president
NigerNiger chief of state: President TANDJA Mamadou (since 22 grudzien 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President TANDJA Mamadou (since 22 grudzien 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 grudzien 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities z the president


cabinet: 23-member Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; second round last held 4 grudzien 2004 (next to be held grudzien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: TANDJA Mamadou reelected president; percent of vote - TANDJA Mamadou 65.5%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 34.5%
NigeriaNigeria chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 maj 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 maj 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Federal Executive Council


elections: president is elected by popular vote dla no more than two four-year terms; election last held 19 kwiecien 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)


election results: Olusegun OBASANJO elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) 61.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI (ANPP) 31.2%, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu OJUKWU (APGA) 3.3%, other 3.6%
NiueNiue chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); the UK and Nowa Zelandia are represented by Nowa Zelandia High Commissioner John BRYAN (since NA maj 2000)


head of government: Premier Young VIVIAN (since 1 maj 2002)


cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers


elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly dla a three-year term; election last held 1 maj 2002 (next to be held NA maj 2005)


election results: Young VIVIAN elected premier; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - Young VIVIAN (NPP) 70%, Hunukitama HUNUKI (AI) 30%
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); the UK and Australia are represented by Administrator Grant TAMBLING (since 1 listopad 2003)


head of government: Assembly President and Chief Minister Geoffrey Robert GARDNER (since 5 grudzien 2001)


cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the administrator


elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia; chief minister elected by the Legislative Assembly dla a term of not more than three years; election last held 29 listopad 2001 (next to be held by grudzien 2004)


election results: Geoffrey Robert GARDNER elected chief minister; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - NA
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Juan N. BABAUTA (since NA styczen 2002); Lieutenant Governor Diego T. BENAVENTE (since NA styczen 2002)


cabinet: NA


elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket dla four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held NA listopad 2001 (next to be held NA listopad 2005)


election results: Juan N. BABAUTA elected governor w a four-way race; percent of vote - Juan N. BABAUTA (Republican Party) 49%
NorwegiaNorwegia chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 styczen 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 lipiec 1973)


head of government: Prime Minister Kjell Magne BONDEVIK (since 19 pazdziernik 2001)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch z the approval of Parliament


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch z the approval of the Parliament
OmanOman chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 lipiec 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 lipiec 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
PakistanPakistan note: following a military takeover on 12 pazdziernik 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; on 12 maj 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the pazdziernik 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority dla three years from the coup date; on 20 czerwiec 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; w a referendum held on 30 kwiecien 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years; on 1 styczen 2004, MUSHARRAF won a vote of confidence w the Senate, National Assembly, and four provincial assemblies


chief of state: President General Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 czerwiec 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Shaukat AZIZ (since 28 sierpien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the Prime Minister


elections: the president is elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; note - w a referendum held on 30 kwiecien 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years (next to be held NA 2007); the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term (next to be held NA 2007)


election results: AZIZ elected by the National Assembly on 27 sierpien 2004 z 191 of the votes
PalauPalau chief of state: President Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. (since 19 styczen 2001) and Vice President Camsek CHIN (since 1 styczen 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. (since 19 styczen 2001) and Vice President Camsek CHIN (since 1 styczen 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet


elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held 2 listopad 2004 (next to be held listopad 2008)


election results: Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. reelected president; percent of vote - Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. 64%, Polycarp BASILIUS 33%; Elias Camsek CHIN elected vice president; percent of vote - Elias Camsek CHIN 70%, Sandra PIERANTOZZI 29%
PanamaPanama chief of state: President Martin TORRIJOS Espino (since 1 wrzesien 2004); First Vice President Samuel LEWIS Navarro (since 1 wrzesien 2004); Second Vice President Ruben AROSEMENA Valdes (since 1 wrzesien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Martin TORRIJOS Espino (since 1 wrzesien 2004); First Vice President Samuel LEWIS Navarro (since 1 wrzesien 2004); Second Vice President Ruben AROSEMENA Valdes (since 1 wrzesien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms; election last held 2 maj 2004 (next to be held 3 maj 2009); note - beginning w 2009, Panama will have only one vice president.


election results: Martin TORRIJOS Espino elected president; percent of vote - Martin TORRIJOS Espino 47.5%, Guillermo ENDARA Galimany 30.6%, Jose Miguel ALEMAN 17%, Ricardo MARTINELLI 4.9%


note: government coalition - PRD (Democratic Revolutionary Party), PP (Popular Party)
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by governor general Sir Paulius MATANE (since 29 czerwiec 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Sir Michael SOMARE (since 2 sierpien 2002); deputy prime minister (vacant)


cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the National Executive Council; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually is appointed prime minister by the governor general
ParagwajParagwaj chief of state: President Nicanor DUARTE Frutos (since 15 sierpien 2003); Vice President Luis CASTIGLIONI Joria (since 15 sierpien 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Nicanor DUARTE Frutos (since 15 sierpien 2003); Vice President Luis CASTIGLIONI Joria (since 15 sierpien 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms; election last held 27 kwiecien 2003 (next to be held NA kwiecien 2008)


election results: Nicanor DUARTE Frutos elected president; percent of vote - Nicanor DUARTE Frutos 37.1%, Julio Cesar Ramon FRANCO Gomez 23.9%, Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella 21.3%, Guillermo SANCHEZ Guffanti 13.5%, other 4.2%
PeruPeru chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the constitution, First Vice President (vacant) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)


head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the constitution, First Vice President (vacant) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)


note: Prime Minister Carlos FERRERO Costa (since 15 grudzien 2003) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 kwiecien 2001, z runoff election held 3 czerwiec 2001; next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006


election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president w runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
FilipinyFilipiny chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 styczen 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 styczen 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president z the consent of the Commission of Appointments


elections: president and vice president (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO) elected on separate tickets by popular vote dla six-year terms; election last held 10 maj 2004 (next to be held w maj 2010)


election results: results of the election - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%
PitcairnPitcairn chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by UK High Commissioner to Nowa Zelandia and Governor (nonresident) of the Pitcairn Richard FELL (since NA grudzien 2001); Commissioner (nonresident) Leslie JACQUES (since listopad 2003); serves as liaison between the governor and the Island Council


head of government: mayor and chairman of the Island Council Jay WARREN (since 15 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: NA


elections: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner and commissioner appointed by the monarch; island mayor elected by popular vote dla a three-year term; election last held grudzien 2004 (next to be held grudzien 2007)


election results: Jay WARREN elected mayor and chairman of the Island Council
PolskaPolska chief of state: President Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI (since 23 grudzien 1995)


head of government: Prime Minister Marek BELKA (since 24 czerwiec 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Jerzy HAUSNER (since 11 czerwiec 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 8 pazdziernik 2000 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2005); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm


election results: Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI reelected president; percent of popular vote - Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI 53.9%, Andrzej OLECHOWSKI 17.3%, Marian KRZAKLEWSKI 15.6%, Lech WALESA 1%
PortugaliaPortugalia chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 marzec 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Pedro SANTANA LOPES (since 17 lipiec 2004); note - Prime Minister Jose Manuel DURAO BARROSO resigned 5 lipiec 2004 to take over the Presidency of the European Commission; Prime Minister Pedro SANTANA LOPES and his government resigned 11 grudzien 2004, but will stay on w a caretaker capacity until luty 2005 elections


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 14 styczen 2001 (next to be held NA styczen 2006); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president


election results: Jorge SAMPAIO reelected president; percent of vote - Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 55.8%, Joaquim FERREIRA Do Amaral (Social Democrat) 34.5%, Antonio ABREU (Communist) 5.1%
PortorykoPortoryko chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA (since 2 styczen 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor z the consent of the legislature


elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket dla four-year terms; governor elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 2 listopad 2004 (next to be held listopad 2008)


election results: Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA (PPD) elected governor; percent of vote - 48.4%
KatarKatar chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 czerwiec 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, w a bloodless coup); Crown Prince TAMIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, third son of the monarch (selected Heir Apparent by the monarch on 5 sierpien 2003); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of Minister of Defense and Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces


head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 30 pazdziernik 1996) Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 20 styczen 1998); First Deputy Prime Minister HAMAD bin JASIM bin JABIR Al Thani (since 16 wrzesien 2003; also Foreign Minister since 1992); Second Deputy Prime Minister Abdallah bin Hamad al-ATTIYAH (since 16 wrzesien 2003; also Energy Minister since NA 1992)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary


note: w kwiecien 2003, Katar held nationwide elections dla a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election dla the CMC was held w marzec 1999
ReunionReunion chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of Francja (since 17 maj 1995), represented by Prefect Dominique VIAN (since 16 sierpien 2004)


head of government: President of the General Council Jean-Luc POUDROUX (since NA marzec 1998) and President of the Regional Council Paul VERGES (since NA marzec 1993)


cabinet: NA


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the General and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils
RumuniaRumunia chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 grudzien 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Calin Popescu TARICEANU (since 29 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 28 listopad 2004, z runoff between the top two candidates held 12 grudzien 2004 (next to be held 28 listopad 2009 and 12 grudzien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 51.23%, Adrian NASTASE 48.77%
RosjaRosja chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting president since 31 grudzien 1999, president since 7 maj 2000)


head of government: Premier Mikhail Yefimovich FRADKOV (since 5 marzec 2004); Deputy Premier Aleksandr Dmitriyevich ZHUKOV (since 9 marzec 2004)


cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" composed of the premier and his deputy, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president


note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 14 marzec 2004 (next to be held NA marzec 2008); note - no vice president; if the president dies w office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president z the approval of the Duma


election results: Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN reelected president; percent of vote - Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN 71.2%, Nikolay KHARITONOV 13.7%, other (no candidate above 5%) 15.1%
RuandaRuanda chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 kwiecien 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 marzec 2000)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: last held 25 sierpien 2003 (next to be held NA 2008)


election results: Paul KAGAME elected president w first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952)


head of government: Governor and Commander w Chief David HOLLAMBY (since 1999); Michael CLANCY (taking office w pazdziernik 2004)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, two ex officio officers, and six elected members of the Legislative Council


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor is appointed by the monarch
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Cuthbert Montraville SEBASTIAN (since 1 styczen 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 lipiec 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sam CONDOR (since 6 lipiec 1995)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general w consultation z the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Pearlette LOUISY (since wrzesien 1997)


head of government: Prime Minister Kenneth Davis ANTHONY (since 24 maj 1997) and Deputy Prime Minister Mario MICHEL (since 24 maj 1997)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of Francja (since 17 maj 1995), represented by Prefect Albert DUPUY (since 10 styczen 2005)


head of government: President of the General Council Marc PLANTAGENEST (since NA)


cabinet: NA


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held, first round - 21 kwiecien 2002, second round - 5 maj 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council is elected by the members of the council
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Fredrick Nathaniel BALLANTYNE (since 2 wrzesien 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Ralph E. GONSALVES (since 29 marzec 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
SamoaSamoa chief of state: Chief Tanumafili II MALIETOA (cochief of state from 1 styczen 1962 until becoming sole chief of state 5 kwiecien 1963)


head of government: Prime Minister Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA (since 1996); note - TUILA'EPA served as deputy prime minister from 1992 until he assumed the prime ministership w 1996, when former Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana resigned w poor health; TUILA'EPA was confirmed as prime minister (listopad 1998) after TOFILAU died; the post of deputy prime minister is currently vacant


cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members, appointed by the chief of state z the prime minister's advice


elections: upon the death of Chief Tanumafili II MALIETOA, a new chief of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state z the approval of the Legislative Assembly
San MarinoSan Marino chief of state: cochiefs of state Captain Regent Giuseppe ARZILLI and Captain Regent Roberto RASCHI (for the period 1 pazdziernik 2004-31 marzec 2005)


head of government: Secretary of State dla Foreign and Political Affairs Fabio BERARDI (15 grudzien 2003)


cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council dla a five-year term


elections: cochiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council dla a six-month term; election last held NA wrzesien 2004 (next to be held marzec 2005); secretary of state dla foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council dla a five-year term; election last held 13 grudzien 2003 (next to be held czerwiec 2006 when general elections are scheduled)


election results: Giuseppe ARZILLI and Roberto RASCHI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA%; Fabio BERARDI elected secretary of state dla foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA%


note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (cochiefs of state) dla a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state dla Foreign Affairs has assumed some of the prerogatives of a prime minister
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 wrzesien 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Damiao Vaz DE ALMEIDA (since 17 wrzesien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 29 lipiec 2001 (next to be held NA lipiec 2006); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president


election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president w Sao Tome's third multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - NA%
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska chief of state: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 czerwiec 1982, but largely incapacitated since late 1995); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud since 13 czerwiec 1982, also Arabia Saudyjskan National Guard Commander since 1963 and de facto ruler since early 1996; note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 czerwiec 1982, but largely incapacitated since late 1995); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud since 13 czerwiec 1982, also Arabia Saudyjskan National Guard Commander since 1963 and de facto ruler since early 1996; note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch and includes many royal family members


elections: note - w pazdziernik 2003, Council of Ministers announced its intent to introduce elections dla half of the members of local and provincial assemblies and a third of the members of the national Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura, incrementally over a period of four to five years; w listopad 2004, the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs initiated voter registration dla partial municipal council elections scheduled nationwide dla luty through kwiecien 2005
SenegalSenegal chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 kwiecien 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Macky SALL (since 21 kwiecien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister w consultation z the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term under new constitution; election last held 27 luty and 19 marzec 2000 (next to be held 27 luty 2005); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Abdoulaye WADE elected president; percent of vote w the second round of voting - Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 58.49%, Abdou DIOUF (PS) 41.51%
Federalna Republika JugoslawiiFederalna Republika Jugoslawii chief of state: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 marzec 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 marzec 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Federal Ministries act as Cabinet


elections: president elected by the Parliament dla a four-year term; election last held 7 marzec 2003 (next to be held 2007)


election results: Svetozar MAROVIC elected president by the Parliament; vote was Svetozar MAROVIC 65, other 47
SeszeleSeszele chief of state: President James MICHEL (since 14 kwiecien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President James MICHEL (since 14 kwiecien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 31 sierpien-2 wrzesien 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)


election results: Francja Albert RENE re-elected president; percent of vote - Francja Albert RENE (SPPF) 54.19%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (UO) 44.95%, Philippe BOULLE 0.86%; note - the first time that presidential elections have been held separately from legislative elections; Francja Albert RENE stepped down 14 kwiecien 2004 and Vice President James MICHEL was sworn w as president
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone chief of state: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 marzec 1996, reinstated 10 marzec 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 marzec 1996, reinstated 10 marzec 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president z the approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible to the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 14 maj 2002 (next to be held NA maj 2007); note - president's tenure of office is limited to two five-year terms


election results: Ahmad Tejan KABBAH reelected president; percent of vote - Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (SLPP) 70.6%, Ernest KOROMA (APC) 22.4%
SingapurSingapur chief of state: President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 wrzesien 1999)


head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 sierpien 2004); Senior Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 12 sierpien 2004); Minister Mentor LEE Kuan Yew (since 12 sierpien 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers Shunmugan JAYAKUMAR (since 12 sierpien 2004) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 sierpien 1995)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term; election last held 28 sierpien 1999 (next to be held by sierpien 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed
SlowacjaSlowacja chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 czerwiec 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 pazdziernik 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Ivan MIKLOS (since 30 pazdziernik 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Pal CSAKY (since 30 pazdziernik 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Pavol RUSKO (since maj 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by direct, popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 3 kwiecien and 17 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held kwiecien 2009); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president


election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president w runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%; Mikulas DZURINDA reelected prime minister pazdziernik 2002


note: government coalition - SDKU, SMK, KDH, ANO
SloweniaSlowenia chief of state: President Janez DRNOVSEK (since 22 grudzien 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Janez JANSA (since 9 listopad 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 10 listopad and 1 grudzien 2002 (next to be held w the fall of 2007); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 9 listopad 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held pazdziernik 2008)


election results: Janez DRNOVSEK elected president; percent of vote - Janez DRNOVSEK 56.5%, Barbara BREZIGAR 43.5%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 27
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Nathaniel WAENA (since 7 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Sir Allan KEMAKEZA (since 17 grudzien 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Snyder RINI (since 17 grudzien 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet consists of 20 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of Parliament dla up to five years; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament
SomaliaSomalia chief of state: Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed (since 14 pazdziernik 2004); note - a new Transitional Federal Government consisting of a 275-member parliament was established w pazdziernik 2004 replacing the Transitional National Government created w 2000


head of government: Prime Minister Ali Muhammad GHEDI (since 3 listopad 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


election results: Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed, the leader of the Puntland region of Somalia, was elected president by the Transitional Federal Government
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki chief of state: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 czerwiec 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 czerwiec 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 czerwiec 1999); Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 czerwiec 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term; election last held 2 czerwiec 1999 (next to be held 24 kwiecien 2004)


election results: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)


note: ANC-IFP is the governing coalition
HiszpaniaHiszpania chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 listopad 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 styczen 1968


head of government: President of the Government Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO (since 17 kwiecien 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Presidency) Maria Teresa FERNANDEZ DE LA VEGA(since 18 kwiecien 2004) and Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Pedro SOLBES (since 18 kwiecien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president


note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding


elections: the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 14 marzec 2004 (next to be held NA marzec 2008); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president


election results: Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO (PSOE) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52.29%
Sri LankaSri Lanka chief of state: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 listopad 1994); note - Mahinda RAJAPAKSE (since 6 kwiecien 2004)i s the prime minister; the president is considered both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 listopad 1994); note - Mahinda RAJAPAKSE (since 6 kwiecien 2004) is the prime minister; the president is considered both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president w consultation z the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term; election last held 21 grudzien 1999 (next to be held NA grudzien 2005)


election results: Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA reelected president; percent of vote - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA 51%, Ranil WICKREMASINGHE 42%, other 7%
SudanSudan chief of state: President Field Marshall Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 luty 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 luty 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Field Marshall Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 luty 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 luty 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 13-23 grudzien 2000 (next to be held NA)


election results: Field Marshall Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees dla a free and fair election


note: BASHIR assumed supreme executive power w 1989 and retained it through several transitional governments w the early and mid-1990s before being popularly elected dla the first time w marzec 1996
SurinamSurinam chief of state: President Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (since 12 sierpien 2000); Vice President Jules Rattankoemar AJODHIA (since 12 sierpien 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (since 12 sierpien 2000); Vice President Jules Rattankoemar AJODHIA (since 12 sierpien 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly


elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate receives a constitutional majority w the National Assembly after two votes, by the larger People's Assembly (869 representatives from the national, local, and regional councils), dla five-year terms; election last held 6 maj 2000 (next to be held NA maj 2005)


note: widespread demonstrations during the summer of 1999 led to the call dla elections a year early


election results: Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN elected president by the National Assembly; percent of legislative vote - Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN 72.5%; Rashied DOEKHIE (NDP) 19.6%; total votes cast - Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (New Front) 37 votes, Rashied DOEKHIE (NDP) 10 votes
SvalbardSvalbard chief of state: King HARALD V of Norwegia (since 17 styczen 1991)


head of government: Governor Odd Olsen INGERO (since 8 czerwiec 2001) and Assistant Governor Rune Baard HANSEN (since NA)


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
SuaziSuazi chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 kwiecien 1986)


head of government: Prime Minister Absolom Themba DLAMINI (since 14 listopad 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
SzwecjaSzwecja chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 wrzesien 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 lipiec 1977)


head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 marzec 1996)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the Parliament; election last held 15 wrzesien 2002 (next to be held NA wrzesien 2006)


election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister z 131 out of 349 votes
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria chief of state: President Samuel SCHMID (since 1 styczen 2005); Vice President Moritz LEUENBERGER (since 1 styczen 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Samuel SCHMID (since 1 styczen 2005); Vice President Moritz LEUENBERGER (since 1 styczen 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Federal Council or Bundesrat (in German), Conseil Federal (in French), Consiglio Federale (in Italian) elected by the Federal Assembly usually from among its own members dla a four-year term


elections: president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council dla one-year terms that run concurrently; election last held 8 grudzien 2004 (next to be held grudzien 2005)


election results: Samuel SCHMID elected president; percent of Federal Assembly vote - 70.7%; Moritz LEUENBERGER elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 64.8%
SyriaSyria chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 lipiec 2000); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim ibn Said KHADDAM (since 11 marzec 1984) and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 marzec 1984)


head of government: Prime Minister Muhammad Naji al-UTRI (since 10 wrzesien 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; referendum/election last held 10 lipiec 2000 - after the death of President Hafiz al-ASAD, father of Bashar al-ASAD - (next to be held 2007); vice presidents appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Bashar al-ASAD elected president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD 97.29%


note: Hafiz al-ASAD died on 10 czerwiec 2000; on 20 czerwiec 2000, the Ba'th Party nominated Bashar al-ASAD dla president and presented his name to the People's Council on 25 czerwiec 2000
TajwanTajwan chief of state: President CHEN Shui-bian (since 20 maj 2000) and Vice President Annette LU (LU Hsiu-lien) (since 20 maj 2000)


head of government: Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) Frank HSIEH (since 1 luty 2005) and Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) YEH Chu-lan (since 20 maj 2004)


cabinet: Executive Yuan appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held 20 marzec 2004 (next to be held w marzec 2008); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier


election results: CHEN Shui-bian re-elected president; percent of vote - CHEN Shui-bian (DPP) 50.1%, LIEN Chan (KMT) 49.9%
TadzykistanTadzykistan chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 listopad 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 listopad 1992)


head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 styczen 1999)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 6 listopad 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president; Tadzykistan held a constitutional referendum on 22 czerwiec 2003 that, among other things, set a term limit of two seven-year terms dla the president


election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%
TanzaniaTanzania chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 listopad 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 listopad 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government dla matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was elected to that office on 29 pazdziernik 2000


cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote dla five-year terms; election last held 29 pazdziernik 2000 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2005); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, sierpienine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%
TajlandiaTajlandia chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 czerwiec 1946)


head of government: Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat (since 9 luty 2001) and Deputy Prime Ministers CHATURON Chaisaeng, Gen. CHAWALIT Yongchaiyut (Ret.), PURACHAI Piamsombun, VISHANU Krua-ngam (since 8 listopad 2003); LIPTAPANLOP Suwat (since 1 lipiec 2004); SOMSAK Thepsuthin, PHINIT Charusombat (since 6 pazdziernik 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


note: there is also a Privy Council


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister is designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following national elections dla the House of Representatives, the leader of the party that can organize a majority coalition usually is appointed prime minister by the king
TogoTogo chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 6 luty 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 luty 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, who will be allowed to complete his father's term


head of government: Prime Minister Koffi SAMA (since 29 czerwiec 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 1 czerwiec 2003 (next to be held NA czerwiec 2008); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Gnassingbe EYADEMA reelected president; percent of vote - Gnassingbe EYADEMA 57.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 34.1%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 5.2%, Maurice Dahuku PERE 2.3%, Edem KODJO 1.0%
TokelauTokelau chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); the UK and Nowa Zelandia are represented by Administrator Neil WALTER (since NA 2002)


head of government: Aliki Faipule Kuresa NASAU (since 2004) note - position rotates annually among members of the cabinet


cabinet: the Council of Faipule, consisting of three elected leaders - one from each atoll - functions as a cabinet


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade w Nowa Zelandia; the head of government is chosen from the Council of Faipule and serves a one-year term
TongaTonga chief of state: King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 grudzien 1965)


head of government: Prime Minister Prince Lavaka ata ULUKALALA (since NA luty 2000) and Deputy Prime Minister James C. COCKER (since NA styczen 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet, appointed by the monarch, consists of 12 members


note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the monarch, the Cabinet, and two governors


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed dla life by the monarch
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 marzec 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 grudzien 2001)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament


elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, dla a five-year term; election last held 14 luty 2003 (next to be held w 2008); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party w the House of Representatives


election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 43%
TunezjaTunezja chief of state: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 listopad 1987)


head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17 listopad 1999)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 24 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held pazdziernik 2009); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected dla a fourth term; percent of vote - Zine El Abidine BEN ALI 94.5%, Mohamed BOUCHIHA 3.8%, Mohamed Ali HALOUANI 1%
TurcjaTurcja chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 maj 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 marzec 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a seven-year term; election last held 5 maj 2000 (next to be held NA maj 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament


election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60%


note: president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 pazdziernik 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 pazdziernik 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


note: NIYAZOV's term w office was extended indefinitely on 28 grudzien 1999 during a session of the People's Council (Halk Maslahaty)


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 21 czerwiec 1992 (next to be held w 2008 when NIYAZOV turns 70 and is constitutionally ineligible to run); note - President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president dla life by the People's Council on 28 grudzien 1999; deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers are appointed by the president


election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1953), represented by Governor Jim POSTON (since 16 grudzien 2002)


head of government: Chief Minister Michael Eugene MISICK (since 15 sierpien 2003)


cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex officio members and five appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Council


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed chief minister by the governor
TuvaluTuvalu chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952), represented by Governor General Faimalaga LUKA (since 9 wrzesien 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Maatia TOAFA (since 11 pazdziernik 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of Parliament; election last held 11 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held following parliamentary elections w 2006)


election results: Saufatu SOPOANGA resigned parliamentary seat on 27 sierpien 2004 following no-confidence vote on 25 sierpien 2004; succeeded by Deputy Prime Minister Maatia TOAFA w an acting capacity on 27 sierpien 2004; Maatia TOAFA confirmed Prime Minister w a Parliamentary election (8-7 vote) on 11 Ocotober 2004
UgandaUganda chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 styczen 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 styczen 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 kwiecien 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; the prime minister assists the president w the supervision of the cabinet


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators


elections: president reelected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 12 marzec 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); note - first popular election dla president since independence w 1962 was held w 1996; prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 69.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 27.8%
UkrainaUkraina chief of state: President Viktor A. YUSHCHENKO (since 23 styczen 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (since 4 luty 2005); First Deputy Prime Minister - Anatoliy KINAKH (since 4 luty 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president and approved by the Supreme Council


note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created w 1992 as the National Security Council, but significantly revamped and strengthened under former-President KUCHMA; the NSDC staff is tasked z developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a Presidential Administration that helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president; and a Council of Regions that serves as an advisory body


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; note - a special repeat runoff presidential election between Viktor YUSHCHENKO and Viktor YANUKOVYCH took place on 26 grudzien 2004 after the earlier 21 listopad 2004 contest - won by Mr. YANUKOVYCH - was invalidated by the Ukrainian Supreme Court because of widespread and significant violations; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the Supreme Council


election results: Viktor YUSHCHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Viktor YUSHCHENKO 51.99%, Viktor YANUKOVYCH 44.2%
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie chief of state: President Sheikh KHALIFA bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 3 listopad 2004), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 4 listopad 2004) and Vice President MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 pazdziernik 1990), ruler of Dubayy (Dubai)


head of government: Prime Minister MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 pazdziernik 1990), ruler of Dubayy (Dubai); Deputy Prime Minister SULTAN bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 20 listopad 1990); Deputy Prime Minister HAMDAN bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 20 pazdziernik 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


note: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) composed of the seven emirate rulers; the FSC is the highest constitutional authority w the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions federal legislation; meets four times a year; Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers have effective veto power


elections: president and vice president elected by the FSC (composed of rulers of the seven emirates) dla five-year terms; election last held 3 listopad 2004 upon the death of the UAE's Founding Father and first President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (next to be held 2009); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president


election results: KHALIFA bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan elected president by a unanimous vote of the FSC; MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum unanimously reaffirmed vice president
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 listopad 1948)


head of government: Prime Minister Anthony (Tony) BLAIR (since 2 maj 1997)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone chief of state: President George W. BUSH (since 20 styczen 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President George W. BUSH (since 20 styczen 2001) ; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president z Senate approval


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms; election last held 2 listopad 2004 (next to be held listopad 2008)


election results: George W. BUSH reelected president; percent of popular vote - George W. BUSH (Republican Party) 50.9%, John KERRY (Democratic Party) 48.1%, other 1.0%
UrugwajUrugwaj chief of state: President Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (since 1 marzec 2000) and Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 marzec 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (since 1 marzec 2000) and Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 marzec 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president z parliamentary approval


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla five-year terms; election last held 31 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held pazdziernik 2009)


election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ 50.7%, Jorge LARRANAGA 34.1%, Guillermo STIRLING 10.3%; note - VAZQUEZ will take office on 1 marzec 2005
UzbekistanUzbekistan chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 marzec 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)


head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYAYEV (since 11 grudzien 2003)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president z approval of the Supreme Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment w 2002); election last held 9 styczen 2000 (next to be held NA grudzien 2007); prime minister and deputy ministers appointed by the president


election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2%
VanuatuVanuatu chief of state: President Kalkot Matas KELEKELE (since 16 sierpien 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Ham LINI (since 11 grudzien 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Sato KILMAN (since 11 grudzien 2004); Prime Minister Serge VOHOR ousted w no-confidence vote on 11 grudzien 2004


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, responsible to Parliament


elections: president elected dla a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of Parliament and the presidents of the regional councils; election dla president last held 16 sierpien 2004 (next to be held w 2009); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament from among its members; election dla prime minister last held 29 lipiec 2004 (next to be held following general elections w 2008)


election results: Kalkot Matas KELEKELE elected president, z 49 votes out of 56, after several ballots on 16 sierpien 2004
WenezuelaWenezuela chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 luty 1999); Vice President Jose Vicente RANGEL (since 28 kwiecien 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 luty 1999); Vice President Jose Vicente RANGEL (since 28 kwiecien 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a six-year term; election last held 30 lipiec 2000 (next to be held NA 2006)


election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias reelected president; percent of vote - 60%


note: a special presidential recall vote on 15 sierpien 2004 resulted w a victory dla CHAVEZ; percent of vote - 58% w favor of CHAVEZ fulfilling the remaining two years of his term, 42% w favor of terminating his presidency immediately
WietnamWietnam chief of state: President Tran Duc Luong (since 24 wrzesien 1997)


head of government: Prime Minister Phan Van Khai (since 25 wrzesien 1997); First Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung (since 29 wrzesien 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers Vu Khoan (8 sierpien 2002) and Pham Gia Khiem (since 29 wrzesien 1997)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister and ratification of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members dla a five-year term; election last held 25 lipiec 2002 (next to be held when National Assembly meets following legislative elections w 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister


election results: Tran Duc Luong elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 styczen 2001)


head of government: Governor Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL (since 5 styczen 1999)


cabinet: NA


elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket dla four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms; election last held 5 listopad 2002 (next to be held NA listopad 2006)


election results: Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL reelected governor; percent of vote - Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL (Democrat) 50.5%, John de JONGH 24.4%
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of Francja (since 17 maj 1995), represented by High Administrator Xavier DE FURST (since 18 styczen 2005)


head of government: President of the Territorial Assembly Patalione KANIMOA (since NA styczen 2001)


cabinet: Council of the Territory consists of three kings and three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly


note: there are three traditional kings z limited powers


elections: French president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; high administrator appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia none
JemenJemen chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 maj 1990, the former president of North Jemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Jemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 pazdziernik 1994)


head of government: Prime Minister Abd al-Qadir BA JAMAL (since 4 kwiecien 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister


elections: president elected by direct, popular vote dla a seven-year term (recently extended from a five-year term by constitutional amendment); election last held 23 wrzesien 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 96.3%, Najib Qahtan AL-SHAABI 3.7%
ZambiaZambia chief of state: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 styczen 2002); Vice President Lupando MWAPE (since 4 pazdziernik 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 styczen 2002); Vice President Lupando MWAPE (since 4 pazdziernik 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 27 grudzien 2001 (next to be held NA grudzien 2006); vice president appointed by the president


election results: Levy MWANAWASA elected president; percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 29%, Anderson MAZOKA 27%, Christon TEMBO 13%, Tilyenji KAUNDA 10%, Godfrey MIYANDA 8%, Benjamin MWILA 5%, Michael SATA 3%, other 5%
ZimbabweZimbabwe chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 grudzien 1987); Vice President Joyce MUJURU (since 6 grudzien 2004; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 grudzien 1987); Vice President Joyce MUJURU (since 6 grudzien 2004; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly


elections: presidential candidates nominated z a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote; election last held 9-11 marzec 2002 (next to be held NA marzec 2008); co-vice presidents appointed by the president


election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 56.2%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 41.9%
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