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System telefoniczny (2008)

System telefoniczny - wybierz rok:
- System telefoniczny (2001) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2002) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2003) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2004) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2005) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2006) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2007) (porownaj)


Informacje o System telefoniczny w 2008 rok

AfganistanAfganistan general assessment: limited landline telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks w major cities


domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service is improving rapidly


international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed w Kabul, Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2007)
AlbaniaAlbania general assessment: despite new investment w fixed lines, the density of main lines remains low z roughly 10 lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density is approximately 60 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors; Internet broadband services initiated w 2005; internet cafes are popular w Tirana and have started to spread outside the capital


international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Wlochy, Chorwacja, and Grecja; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turcja; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Wlochy and Grecja (2007)
AlgieriaAlgieria general assessment: a weak network of fixed-main lines, which remains low at less than 10 telephones per 100 persons, is partially offset by the rapid increase w mobile cellular subscribership; w 2006, combined fixed-line and mobile telephone density surpassed 70 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: privatization of Algieria's telecommunications sector began w 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, w 2005, a consortium led by Egipt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network w Algieria; the license will allow Orascom to develop high-speed data and other specialized services and contribute to meeting the large unfulfilled demand dla basic residential telephony; internet broadband services began w 2003 z approximately 200,000 subscribers w 2006


international: country code - 213; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber- optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East and Asia; microwave radio relay to Wlochy, Francja, Hiszpania, Maroko, and Tunezja; coaxial cable to Maroko and Tunezja; participant w Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2007)
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie general assessment: NA


domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system z 1 Comsat earth station


international: country code - 1-684; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat-Ocean Spokojny)
AndoraAndora general assessment: NA


domestic: modern system z microwave radio relay connections between exchanges


international: country code - 376; landline circuits to Francja and Hiszpania
AngolaAngola general assessment: system inadequate; fewer than one fixed-line per 100 persons; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density approached 20 telephones per 100 persons w 2006


domestic: state-owned telecom had monopoly dla fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity and prices were high and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator w Angola's fixed-line telephone network; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service w Luanda w 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately-owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations w 2001


international: country code - 244; landing point dla the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2007)
AnguillaAnguilla general assessment: NA


domestic: modern internal telephone system


international: country code - 1-264; landing point dla the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable z links to 13 other islands w the eastern Caribbean extending from the Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Gwadelupa and Antyle Holenderskie) (2007)
AntarktydaAntarktyda general assessment: local systems at some research stations


domestic: commercial cellular networks operating w a small number of locations


international: country code - 672; via satellite (including mobile Inmarsat and Iridium systems) from all research stations, ships, aircraft, and most field parties (2001)
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda general assessment: NA


domestic: good automatic telephone system


international: country code - 1-268; landing point dla the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable z links to 13 other islands w the eastern Caribbean extending from the Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Antyle Holenderskie) and Gwadelupa (2007)
ArgentynaArgentyna general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment z the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentyna encouraged the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving; fixed-line telephone density is gradually increasing reaching nearly 25 lines per 100 people w 2006; mobile telephone density has been increasing rapidly and has reached a level of 80 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system z 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding; broadband services are gaining ground


international: country code - 54; landing point dla the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, and South America-1 optical submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2007)
ArmeniaArmenia general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads w modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated w late 2004 and a second provider began operations w mid-2005


domestic: reliable modern landline and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan w major cities and towns; significant, but ever-shrinking gaps remain w mobile-cellular coverage w rural areas


international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)
ArubaAruba general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system


domestic: increased competition through privatization; 3 wireless service providers are now licensed


international: country code - 297; landing site dla the PAN-AM submarine telecommunications cable system that extends from the US Wyspy Dziewicze through Aruba to Wenezuela, Kolumbia, Panama, and the west coast of South America; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links (2007)
AustraliaAustralia general assessment: excellent domestic and international service


domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone w areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones


international: country code - 61; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable z links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Southern Cross fiber optic submarine cable provides links to Nowa Zelandia and the Stany Zjednoczone; satellite earth stations - 19 (10 Intelsat - 4 Ocean Indyjski and 6 Ocean Spokojny, 2 Inmarsat - Indien and Ocean Spokojny regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2007)
AustriaAustria general assessment: highly developed and efficient


domestic: fixed-line subscribership has been w decline since the mid-1990s z mobile-cellular subscribership elipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available


international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; w addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2007)
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 15 main lines per 100 persons is low; mobile cellular penetration is increasing and is currently about 40 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: fixed-line telephony and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecoms monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists w the mobile-cellular market z three providers w 2006; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch w its exclave of Naxcivan


international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2007)
BahamyBahamy general assessment: modern facilities


domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed; the Bahamas Domestic Submarine Network links 14 of the islands and is designed to satisfy increasing demand dla voice and broadband internet services


international: country code - 1-242; landing point dla the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 2 (2007)
BahrajnBahrajn general assessment: modern system


domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network z rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones


international: country code - 973; landing point dla the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Katar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska; satellite earth stations - 1 (2007)
BangladeszBangladesz general assessment: totally inadequate dla a modern country; fixed-line telephone density of less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of 13 per 100 persons


domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable w cities


international: country code - 880; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2007)
BarbadosBarbados general assessment: fixed-line teledensity of roughly 50 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of 75 per 100 persons


domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system


international: country code - 1-246; landing point dla the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable z links to 13 other islands w the eastern Caribbean extending from the Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 1 (Intelsat -Ocean Atlantycki); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia (2007)
BialorusBialorus general assessment: Bialorus lags behind its neighbors w upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; state-owned Beltelcom is the sole provider of fixed-line local and long distance service; fixed-line teledensity of 33 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of 58 per 100 persons; modernization of the network progressing z roughly two-thirds of switching equipment now digital


domestic: fixed-line penetration is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; 4 GSM wireless networks are experiencing rapid growth; strict government controls on telecommunications technologies


international: country code - 375; Bialorus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Lotwa, Polska, Rosja, and Ukraina; worldwide service is available to Bialorus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Rosja; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations (2007)
BelgiaBelgia general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities


domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 32; landing point dla a number of submarine cables that provide links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat - 3) (2007)
BelizeBelize general assessment: above-average system; fixed-line teledensity of 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of about 40 per 100 persons


domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay


international: country code - 501; landing point dla the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2007)
BeninBenin general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line network is almost saturated z fixed-line teledensity stuck at a meager 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership is increasing


domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections; four mobile-cellular providers


international: country code - 229; landing point dla the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth station - 7 (Intelsat-Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
BermudyBermudy general assessment: good


domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber-optic trunk lines


international: country code - 1-441; landing point dla the Atlantica-1 telecommunications submarine cable that extends from the US to Brazylia; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)
BhutanBhutan general assessment: urban towns and district headquarters have telecommunications services


domestic: very low teledensity; domestic service is very poor especially w rural areas; wireless service available since 2003


international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through Indie; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2007)
BoliwiaBoliwia general assessment: privatization beginning w 1995; reliability has steadily improved; new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated w La Paz and other cities; mobile- cellular telephone use expanding rapidly; fixed-line teledensity of 7 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of 27 per 100 persons


domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded


international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted z services w other former Yugoslav republics


domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density is about 22 per 100 persons


international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2006)
BotswanaBotswana general assessment: the system is expanding z the growth of mobile-cellular service and participation w regional development; system is fully digital z fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers w the east; fixed-line connections declined w recent years and now stand at 8 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density currently is about 60 per 100 persons


domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile-cellular service is growing fast


international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Republika Poludniowej Afryki; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) (2007)
BrazyliaBrazylia general assessment: good working system; fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable w recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density has risen to nearly 55 per 100 persons


domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 64 earth stations; mobile-cellular usage has more than tripled w the past 5 years


international: country code - 55; landing point dla a number of submarine cables that provide direct links to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazyliasat B3 satellite earth station (2007)
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu IndyjskiegoBrytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego general assessment: separate facilities dla military and public needs are available


domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internet


international: country code (Diego Garcia) - 246; international telephone service is carried by satellite (2000)
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze general assessment: worldwide telephone service


domestic: NA


international: country code - 1-284; connected via submarine cable to Bermudy; the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable provides connectivity to 13 other islands w the eastern Caribbean (2007)
BruneiBrunei general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US


domestic: every service available


international: country code - 673; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network, scheduled dla completion by late 2008, will provide new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Spokojny) (2007)
BulgariaBulgaria general assessment: an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; quality has improved; the Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated w 2005 when alternative fixed-line operators were given access to its network; a drop w fixed-line connections w recent years has been offset by a sharp increase w mobile-cellular telephone use fostered by multiple service providers


domestic: a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers w most of the regions; the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay


international: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraina and Rosja; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Wlochy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions) (2007)
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso general assessment: services only fair; w 2006 the government sold a 51 percent stake w the national telephone company and ultimately plans to retain only a 23 percent stake w the company; fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly from a low base


domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations


international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
BirmaBirma general assessment: meets minimum requirements dla local and intercity service dla business and government; international service is good


domestic: system capable of providing basic service; cellular mobile phone system functions more efficiently than traditional lines


international: country code - 95; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2, Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski), and ShinSat (2007)
BurundiBurundi general assessment: primitive system; telephone density one of the lowest w the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing but remains at a meager 2 per 100 persons


domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay


international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) (2007)
KambodzaKambodza general assessment: mobile-phone systems are widely used w urban areas to bypass deficiencies w the fixed-line network; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by increasing competition among service providers, is increasing and stands at about 8 per 100 persons


domestic: adequate landline and/or cellular service w Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding w rural areas


international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) (2007)
KamerunKamerun general assessment: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated, and connections z many parts of the country are unreliable; mobile-cellular usage, w part a reflection of the poor condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network, has been increasing steadily and currently stands at 14 per 100 persons


domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter


international: country code - 237; landing point dla the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
KanadaKanada general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology


domestic: domestic satellite system z about 300 earth stations


international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Spokojny) and 2 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region) (2007)
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka general assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization w 1995


domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber-optic ring, completed w 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced w 1998; broadband services launched w 2004


international: country code - 238; landing point dla the Atlantis-2 fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Senegal, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Gwinea Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
KajmanyKajmany general assessment: reasonably good system


domestic: liberalization of telecom market w 2003; introduction of competition w the mobile-cellular market w 2004


international: country code - 1-345; landing point dla the MAYA-1 submarine telephone cable network that provides links to the US and parts of Central and South America; submarine cable provides connectivity to Jamajka; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie general assessment: limited telephone service; fixed-line connections dla well less than 1 per 100 persons coupled z mobile-cellular usage of only about 3 per 100 persons


domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication


international: country code - 236; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
CzadCzad general assessment: primitive system z high costs and low telephone density


domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations


international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
ChileChile general assessment: privatization began w 1988; advanced telecommunications infrastructure; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; fixed-line connections have dropped w recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching a level of 75 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system z 3 earth stations


international: country code - 56; submarine cables provide links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
ChinyChiny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; Chiny continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure, and is partnering z foreign providers to expand its global reach; 3 of Chiny's 6 major telecommunications operators are part of an international consortium which, w grudzien 2006, signed an agreement z Verizon Business to build the first next-generation fiber optic submarine cable system directly linking the US mainland and Chiny


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of internet users reached 162 million w 2007; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions) (2007)
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia general assessment: service provided by the Australian network


domestic: GSM mobile telephone service replaced older analog system w luty 2005


international: country code - 61-8; satellite earth stations - 1 INTELSAT earth station provides telephone and telex service (2005)
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe general assessment: connected within Australia's telecommunication system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 61; telephone, telex, and facsimile communications z Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 INTELSAT satellite earth station (2001)
KolumbiaKolumbia general assessment: modern system w many respects; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services; fixed-line connections stand at about 18 per 100 persons; mobile cellular usage is about 70 per 100 persons


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system z 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities


international: country code - 57; submarine cables provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers (2007)
KomoryKomory general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations; fixed-line connections only about 2 per 100 persons; mobile cellular usage about 2 per 100 persons


domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 269; HF radiotelephone communications to Madagaskar and Reunion
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna general assessment: Inadequate; state-owned fixed-line operator has been unable to expand fixed-line connections and there are now fewer than 10,000 connections; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of cellular services has surged and subscribership now exceeds 4 million - roughly 7 per 100 persons


domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service w and between urban areas; domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika general assessment: services barely adequate dla government use; key exchanges are w Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order; fixed-line infrastructure inadequate providing less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has surged reaching 16 per 100 persons


domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable


international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka general assessment: Telecom Wyspy Cooka offers international direct dialing, Internet, email, fax, and Telex


domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable


international: country code - 682; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
KostarykaKostaryka general assessment: good domestic telephone service w terms of breadth of coverage; restricted cellular telephone service; state-run monopoly provider is struggling z the demand dla new lines, resulting w long waiting times


domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available


international: country code - 506; landing point dla the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable and the MAYA-1 submarine cable that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire general assessment: well developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized w late 1990s; mobile cellular usage has increased to 23 per 100 persons; fixed-line connections stand at about 2 per 100 persons


domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized


international: country code - 225; landing point dla the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski) (2007)
ChorwacjaChorwacja general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s; the number of fixed telephone lines has increased to about 40 per 100 persons; virtually 100 mobile cellular telephones per 100 persons


domestic: more than 90 percent of local lines are digital


international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch w Zagreb; Chorwacja participates w the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections z Slowenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Grecja (2007)
KubaKuba general assessment: greater investment beginning w 1994 and the establishment of a new Ministry of Information Technology and Communications w 2000 has resulted w improvements w the system; wireless service is expensive and must be paid w convertible pesos which effectively limits mobile cellular subscribership


domestic: national fiber-optic system under development; 95% of switches digitized by end of 2006; fixed telephone line density remains low, at less than 10 per 100 inhabitants; domestic cellular service expanding but remains at only about 2 per 100 persons


international: country code - 53; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region)
CyprCypr general assessment: excellent w both area under government control and area administered by Turkish Cypriots


domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turcja - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat
CzechyCzechy general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning w the mid-1990s and there are now about 120 mobile telephones per 100 persons


domestic: 93% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced z Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar (2007)
DaniaDania general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services


domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems


international: country code - 45; a series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Dania z Kanada, Wyspy Owcze, Niemcy, Islandia, Holandia, Norwegia, Polska, Rosja, Szwecja, and UK; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Islandia, Norwegia, and Szwecja) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norwegia, station dla worldwide Inmarsat access
DzibutiDzibuti general assessment: telephone facilities w the city of Dzibuti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country


domestic: microwave radio relay network; mobile cellular coverage is limited to the area w and around Dzibuti city


international: country code - 253; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable z links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network
DominikaDominika general assessment: NA


domestic: fully automatic network


international: country code - 1-767; landing point dla the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) submarine cable z links to 13 other islands w the eastern Caribbean extending from the Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze to Trinidad; microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martynika and Gwadelupa; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska general assessment: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network


domestic: fixed telephone line density is about 10 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile cellular service z a subscribership of roughly 50 per 100 persons


international: country code - 1-809; landing point dla the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
EkwadorEkwador general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded


domestic: fixed-line services provided by three state-owned enterprises; plans to transfer the state-owned operators to private ownership have repeatedly failed; fixed-line density stands at about 13 per 100 persons; mobile cellular use has surged and has a subscribership of nearly 65 per 100 persons


international: country code - 593; landing point dla the PAN-AM submarine telecommunications cable that provides links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Kolumbia, Wenezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Wyspy Dziewicze w the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
EgiptEgipt general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Telecom Egipt, the landline monopoly, has been increasing service availability and w 2006 fixed-line density stood at 14 per 100 persons; as of 2007 there were three mobile-cellular networks and service is expanding rapidly


domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 20; landing point dla both the SEA-ME-WE-3 AND SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki and Ocean Indyjski), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Izrael; a participant w Medarabtel
SalwadorSalwador general assessment: the four mobile-cellular service providers are expanding services rapidly and w 2006 mobile-cellular density stood at roughly 55 per 100 persons; growth w fixed-line services has slowed w the face of mobile-cellular competition


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system


international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); connected to Central American Microwave System
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa general assessment: digital fixed-line network w most major urban areas and good mobile coverage


domestic: fixed-line density is about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and w 2005 stood at about 20 percent of the population


international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
ErytreaErytrea general assessment: inadequate


domestic: inadequate; most telephones are w Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system (2002)


international: country code - 291; note - international connections exist
EstoniaEstonia general assessment: foreign investment w the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic w the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the internet, a large percentage of the population files income-tax returns online, and online voting was used dla the first time w the 2005 local elections


domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country


international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finlandia, Szwecja, Lotwa, and Rosja provide worldwide packet-switched service; 2 international switches are located w Tallinn (2001)
EtiopiaEtiopia general assessment: inadequate telephone system; the number of fixed lines and mobile telephones is increasing from a very small base; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is only about 2 per 100 persons


domestic: open-wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication w the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service


international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Dzibuti; microwave radio relay to Kenia and Dzibuti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Spokojny)
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska note - see individual country entries of member states
FalklandyFalklandy general assessment: NA


domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands


international: country code - 500; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) z links through London to other countries
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze general assessment: good international communications; good domestic facilities


domestic: digitalization was completed w 1998; both NMT (analog) and GSM (digital) mobile telephone systems are installed


international: country code - 298; satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic submarine cable to the Shetland Islands, linking the Wyspy Owcze z Dania and Islandia; fiber-optic submarine cable connection to Kanada-Europe cable
FidziFidzi general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center


domestic: telephone or radio telephone links to almost all inhabited islands; most towns and large villages have automatic telephone exchanges and direct dialing; combined fixed and mobile-cellular density is about 35 per 100 persons


international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Kanada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Ocean Spokojny)
FinlandiaFinlandia general assessment: modern system z excellent service


domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs


international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Szwecja; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Finlandia shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Islandia, Norwegia, and Szwecja)
FrancjaFrancja general assessment: highly developed


domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system


international: country code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 dla Ocean Indyjski and 3 dla Ocean Atlantycki), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region); HF radiotelephone communications z more than 20 countries


overseas departments: country codes: Gujana Francuska - 594; Gwadelupa - 590; Martynika - 596; Reunion - 262
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 689; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
GabonGabon general assessment: adequate service by African standards and improving z the help of a growing mobile cell network system z three providers; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeded 50 per 100 persons w 2006


domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: country code - 241; landing point dla the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
GambiaGambia general assessment: adequate; a packet switched data network is available; two mobile-cellular service providers


domestic: adequate network of microwave radio relay and open-wire; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 30 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 220; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Gwinea Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (1997)
GazaGaza general assessment: NA


domestic: Izraeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible dla fixed line services; the Palestinian JAWAL company provides cellular services


international: country code - 970 (2004)
GeorgiaGeorgia general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has only limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country


domestic: cellular telephone networks now cover the entire country; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available


international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Rosja fiber optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Rosja; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available
NiemcyNiemcy general assessment: Niemcy has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to Swiat War II, has been modernized and integrated z that of the western part


domestic: Niemcy is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries


international: country code - 49; Niemcy's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations w the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2001)
GhanaGhana general assessment: fixed-line infrastructure outdated and unreliable; competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth z subscribership about 25 per 100 persons and rising


domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed


international: country code - 233; landing point dla the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors
GibraltarGibraltar general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities


domestic: automatic exchange facilities


international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
GrecjaGrecja general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service


domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands


international: country code - 30; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cypr; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region)
GrenlandiaGrenlandia general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized w 1995


domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite


international: country code - 299; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Ocean Atlantycki) (2000)
GrenadaGrenada general assessment: automatic, islandwide telephone system


domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links


international: country code - 1-473; landing point dla the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) submarine cable z links to 13 other islands w the eastern Caribbean extending from the Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze to Trinidad; SHF radiotelephone links to Trynidad i Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad
GuamGuam general assessment: modern system, integrated z US facilities dla direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers


domestic: modern digital system, including cellular mobile service and local access to the Internet


international: country code - 1-671; major landing point dla submarine cables between Asia and the US (Guam is a trans-Pacific communications hub dla major carriers linking the US and Asia); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
GwatemalaGwatemala general assessment: fairly modern network centered w the city of Gwatemala


domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized w the late 1990s opening the way dla competition; fixed-line teledensity 11 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 60 per 100 persons


international: country code - 502; landing point dla both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
GuernseyGuernsey general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: 1 submarine cable
GwineaGwinea general assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system


domestic: Conakry reasonably well served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems dla nationwide links; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 2 per 100 persons


international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau general assessment: small system


domestic: combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and cellular communications; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 7 per 100 w 2005


international: country code - 245
GujanaGujana general assessment: fair system dla long-distance service


domestic: microwave radio relay network dla trunk lines; fixed-line teledensity is about 15 per 100 persons; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 37 per 100 persons w 2005


international: country code - 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
HaitiHaiti general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better; telephone density w Haiti remains the lowest w the Latin American and Caribbean region


domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 8 per 100 persons


international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
WatykanWatykan general assessment: automatic digital exchange


domestic: connected via fiber optic cable to Telecom Italia network


international: country code - 39; uses Italian system
HondurasHonduras general assessment: inadequate system


domestic: beginning w 2003, private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed-lines w order to expand telephone coverage; fixed-line teledensity has increased to about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone service has been increasing rapidly and subscribership w 2006 exceeded 30 per 100 persons


international: country code - 504; landing point dla both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); connected to Central American Microwave System
Hong KongHong Kong general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services


domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network


international: country code - 852; multiple international submarine cables provide connections to Asia, US, Australia, the Middle East, and Western Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Spokojny and 2 Ocean Indyjski); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, Chiny
WegryWegry general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests dla telecommunication service


domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program dla fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated w 1996; competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase w the use of mobile cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease w the number of fixed-line connections


international: country code - 36; Wegry has fiber-optic cable connections z all neighboring countries; the international switch is w Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki and Ocean Indyjski regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
IslandiaIslandia general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is modern and fully digitized, z satellite-earth stations, fiber-optic cables, and an extensive broadband network


domestic: liberalization of the telecommunications sector beginning w the late 1990s has led to increased competition especially w the mobile services segment of the market


international: country code - 354; the CANTAT-3 and FARICE-1 submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Kanada, the Wyspy Owcze, UK, Dania, and Niemcy; a planned new section of the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable will provide additional connectivity to Kanada, US, and Irlandia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Islandia shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Norwegia, and Szwecja)
IndieIndie general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid growth; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but combined fixed and mobile telephone density remains low at about 20 dla each 100 persons nationwide and much lower dla persons w rural areas; fastest growth is w cellular service z modest growth w fixed lines


domestic: mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced w 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles each z about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; w recent years significant trunk capacity added w the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indien National Satellite system (INSAT), z 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)


international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including Sea-Me-We-3 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Sea-Me-We-4 z a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), Republika Poludniowej Afryki - Far East (SAFE) z a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapur z landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapur and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase w the bandwidth available dla both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam
IndonezjaIndonezja general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good


domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located w remote areas


international: country code - 62; landing point dla both the SEA-ME-WE-3 AND SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Spokojny)
IranIran general assessment: currently being modernized and expanded z the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages, not presently connected


domestic: the addition of new fiber cables and modern switching and exchange systems installed by Iran's state-owned telecom company have improved and expanded the main line network greatly; main line availability has more than doubled to 22 million lines since 2000; additionally, mobile service has increased dramatically serving nearly 13.7 million subscribers w 2006


international: country code - 98; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE z access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbejdzan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan z expansion to Georgia and Azerbejdzan; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turcja, Azerbejdzan, Pakistan, Afganistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwejt, Tadzykistan, and Uzbekistan; satellite earth stations - 9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat (2006)
IrakIrak general assessment: the 2003 liberation of Irak severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Irak including international connections; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications through fiber optic links are w progress; the mobile cellular market has expanded rapidly z an estimated 10.9 million current users


domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during 2003 continue; additional switching capacity is improving access; cellular service is available and centered on 3 GSM networks which are being expanded beyond their regional roots, improving country-wide connectivity; wireless local loop licences have been issued z the hope of overcoming the lack of fixed-line infrastructure


international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; planned international fiber-optic connections to Iran (terrestrial) z a link to the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine fiber-optic cable (2007)
IrlandiaIrlandia general assessment: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay


domestic: microwave radio relay


international: country code - 353; landing point dla the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable z links to the US, Kanada, and UK; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Wyspa ManWyspa Man general assessment: NA


domestic: landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system


international: fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable
IzraelIzrael general assessment: most highly developed system w the Middle East although not the largest


domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; four privately-owned mobile-cellular service providers z countrywide coverage; mobile-cellular teledensity is more than 130 per 100 persons


international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cypr, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski)
WlochyWlochy general assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services


domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks


international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 dla Ocean Atlantycki and 2 dla Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), and NA Eutelsat
JamajkaJamajka general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network


domestic: the 1999 agreement to open the market dla telecommunications services resulted w rapid growth w mobile-cellular telephone usage; mobile-cellular teledensity now exceeds 100 per 100 persons; the number of fixed-lines w use has been declining


international: country code - 1-876; the Fibralink submarine cable network provides enhanced delivery of business and broadband traffic and is linked to the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) submarine cable w the Republika Dominikanska; the link to ARCOS-1 provides seamless connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
JaponiaJaponia general assessment: excellent domestic and international service


domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind


international: country code - 81; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions
JerseyJersey general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey and UK
JordaniaJordania general assessment: service has improved recently z increased use of digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage w both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; internet penetration remains modest and slow-growing


domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; w 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; mobile-cellular usage is increasing rapidly and teledensity is approaching 75 per 100 persons


international: country code - 962; landing point dla the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Arabia Saudyjska and microwave radio relay link z Egipt and Syria; participant w Medarabtel
KazachstanKazachstan general assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization


domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is gradually increasing and fixed-line teledensity is about 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing rapidly and subscriptions now exceed 50 per 100 persons


international: country code - 7; international traffic z other former Soviet republics and Chiny carried by landline and microwave radio relay and z other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
KeniaKenia general assessment: inadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system


domestic: no recent growth w fixed-line infrastructure and the sole provider, Telkom Kenia, is slated dla privatization; multiple providers w the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom w mobile-cellular telephone usage


international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
KiribatiKiribati general assessment: generally good quality national and international service


domestic: wire line service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; wireless service available w Tarawa since 1999


international: country code - 686; Kiribati is being linked to the Ocean Spokojny Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 850; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Rosjan (Ocean Indyjski region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea general assessment: excellent domestic and international services


domestic: NA


international: country code - 82; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Spokojny and 2 Ocean Indyjski) and 3 Inmarsat (1 Ocean Spokojny and 2 Ocean Indyjski)
KuwejtKuwejt general assessment: the quality of service is excellent


domestic: new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity dla new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and open-wire and fiber-optic cable; a cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwejt, and the country is well supplied z pay telephones


international: country code - 965; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); linked to Bahrajn, Katar, UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG) cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki, 2 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki), and 2 Arabsat
KirgistanKirgistan general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is growing; fixed line penetration remains low and concentrated w urban areas


domestic: 4 mobile cellular service providers z growing coverage


international: country code - 996; connections z other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and z other countries by leased connections z Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2006)
LaosLaos general assessment: service to general public is poor but improving; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate z remote areas


domestic: multiple service providers; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership about 10 per 100 persons


international: country code - 856; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region)
LotwaLotwa general assessment: recent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector; the number of fixed lines is decreasing as wireless telephony expands


domestic: number of telecommunications operators has grown rapidly since the fixed-line market opened to competition w 2003; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 125 per 100 persons


international: country code - 371; the Lotwan network is now connected via fiber optic cable to Estonia, Finlandia, and Szwecja
LibanLiban general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete


domestic: two wireless networks provide good service; political instability hampers privatization and deployment of new technologies; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership approaching 50 per 100 persons


international: country code - 961; submarine cable link to Cypr; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki); coaxial cable to Syria
LesothoLesotho general assessment: rudimentary system consisting of a modest but growing number of landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a small radiotelephone communication system; mobile-cellular telephone system is expanding


domestic: privatized w 2001, Telecom Lesotho tasked z providing an additional 50,000 fixed-line connections within five years, a target not met; mobile-cellular service is expanding z a subscribership approaching 15 per 100 persons; rural services are scant


international: country code - 266; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
LiberiaLiberia general assessment: the limited services available are found almost exclusively w the capital Monrovia; coverage extended to a number of other towns and rural areas by four mobile-cellular network operators


domestic: combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity only about 5 per 100 persons


international: country code - 231; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
LibiaLibia general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational w 1996; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density reached 75 telephones per 100 persons w 2006


domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to Francja and Wlochy; microwave radio relay to Tunezja and Egipt; tropospheric scatter to Grecja; participant w Medarabtel (1999)
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein general assessment: automatic telephone system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
LitwaLitwa general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access


domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted w a steady decline w the number of main line subscriptions; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to about 135 per 100 persons while fixed-line teledensity has dropped to 22 per 100 persons


international: country code - 370; major international connections to Dania, Szwecja, and Norwegia by submarine cable dla further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Lotwa and Polska
LuksemburgLuksemburg general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables


domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; market dla mobile-cellular phones is virtually saturated z roughly 150 cellular phones per 100 persons


international: country code - 352
MakauMakau general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained dla domestic and international services


domestic: termination of monopoly over mobile-cellular telephone services w 2001 spurred sharp increase w subscriptions z mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 140 per 100 persons w 2006; fixed-line teledensity about 40 per 100 persons


international: country code - 853; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
MacedoniaMacedonia general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop w fixed-line telephone subscriptions


domestic: combined fixed line and mobile telephone density exceeds 90 per 100 persons


international: country code - 389
MadagaskarMadagaskar general assessment: system is above average dla the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developed; planning to add 50,000 new private-subscriber fixed lines beginning w 2005


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile telephone density only about 7 per 100 persons


international: country code - 261; submarine cable to Bahrajn; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region)
MalawiMalawi general assessment: rudimentary


domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; privatization of Malawi Telecommunications (MTL), a necessary step w bringing improvement to telecommunications services, completed w 2006; mobile-cellular services are expanding but cellular network coverage is limited, and is based around the main urban areas


international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski, 1 Ocean Atlantycki)
MalezjaMalezja general assessment: modern system; international service excellent


domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malezja mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system z 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity approaching 100 per 100 persons


international: country code - 60; landing point dla several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski, 1 Ocean Spokojny) (2001)
MalediwyMalediwy general assessment: telephone services have improved; each island now has at least 1 public telephone, and there are mobile cellular networks z rapidly expanding subscribership


domestic: interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands and resorts are connected z telephone and fax service


international: country code - 960; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
MaliMali general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service


domestic: fixed-line availability is gradually increasing, but subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to 13 per 100 persons


international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki, 1 Ocean Indyjski)
MaltaMalta general assessment: automatic system satisfies normal requirements; fixed-line teledensity 50 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 90 per 100 persons


domestic: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands


international: country code - 356; submarine cable connects to Wlochy; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla general assessment: digital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits


domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by high frequency radiotelephone (used mostly dla government purposes) and mini-satellite telephones


international: country code - 692; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2001)
MauretaniaMauretania general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations; mobile-cellular services expanding rapidly


domestic: Mauritel, the national telecommunications company, was privatized w 2001 but remains the monopoly provider of fixed-line services; fixed-line teledensity 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular network coverage extends mainly to urban areas z a teledensity approaching 35 per 100 persons; mostly cable and open-wire lines; a domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott z regional capitals


international: country code - 222; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 2 Arabsat
MauritiusMauritius general assessment: small system z good service


domestic: monopoly over fixed-line services terminated w 2005; fixed-line teledensity roughly 30 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services launched w 1989 z teledensity w 2006 exceeding 60 per 100 persons


international: country code - 230; landing point dla the SAFE submarine cable that provides links to Asia and Republika Poludniowej Afryki where it connects to the SAT-3/WASC submarine cable that provides further links to parts of East Africa, and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries
MajottaMajotta general assessment: small system administered by French Department of Posts and Telecommunications


domestic: NA


international: country code - 269; microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communications to Komory
MeksykMeksyk general assessment: adequate telephone service dla business and government, but the population is poorly served; mobile subscribers far outnumber fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system z 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable


domestic: low telephone density z about 18 fixed lines per 100 persons; privatized w grudzien 1990; despite the opening to competition w styczen 1997, Telmex remains dominant; legal challenges to Telmex's alleged anti-competitive behavior w the mobile and fixed-line markets culminated w a Swiat Trade Organization ruling w 2004 against Meksyk prompting some strengthening of the powers granted Meksyk's telecom regulator


international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable z access to the US, Wyspy Dziewicze, Canary Islands, Hiszpania, and Wlochy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Meksyk improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2005)
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji general assessment: adequate system


domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly dla government purposes), satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; cellular service available on Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap


international: country code - 691; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny) (2002)
MoldawiaMoldawia general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way


domestic: depending on location, new subscribers may face long wait dla service; multiple private operators of GSM mobile cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations w 2007


international: country code - 373; service through Rumunia and Rosja via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik (2006)
MonakoMonako general assessment: modern automatic telephone system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system
MongoliaMongolia general assessment: network is improving z international direct dialing available w many areas


domestic: very low fixed-line density; there are multiple mobile cellular service providers and subscribership is increasing rapidly; a fiber-optic network is also being installed that will improve broadband and communication services between major urban centers


international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7
CzarnogoraCzarnogora general assessment: modern telecommunications system z access to European satellites


domestic: GSM wireless service, available through 2 providers z national coverage, is growing rapidly


international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system
MontserratMontserrat general assessment: modern and fully digitalized


domestic: NA


international: country code - 1-664; landing point dla the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable z links to 13 other islands w the eastern Caribbean extending from the Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze to Trinidad
MarokoMaroko general assessment: modern system z all important capabilities; however, density is low z only 4 fixed lines available dla each 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is approaching 50 per 100 persons


domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay


international: country code - 212; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Hiszpania, and Sahara Zachodnia; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algieria; participant w Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algieria and Tunezja
MozambikMozambik general assessment: fair system z an extremely low density of less than 1 fixed line per 100 persons


domestic: the telecommunications sector is shackled z a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges; stagnation w the fixed-line network contrasts z rapid growth w the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the Republika Poludniowej Afrykin and Suazi borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala


international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 3 Ocean Indyjski)
NamibiaNamibia general assessment: good system z a combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity of about 30 per 100 persons


domestic: core fiber-optic network links most centers and connections are now digital; Namibia's first mobile-phone network, launched w 1994, provides coverage to 86 percent of Namibia by area


international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to Republika Poludniowej Afryki, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Far East (SAFE) submarine cable through Republika Poludniowej Afryki; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
NauruNauru general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities


domestic: NA


international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
NepalNepal general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile cellular telephone network


domestic: NA


international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave landline to Indie; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
HolandiaHolandia general assessment: highly developed and well maintained


domestic: extensive fixed-line fiber-optic network; cellular telephone system is one of the largest w Europe z 5 major network operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System dla Mobile Communications (GSM)


international: country code - 31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 2 Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions) (2004)
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie general assessment: generally adequate facilities


domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links


international: country code - 599; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the Americas-2 submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia general assessment: NA


domestic: a submarine cable network connection between Nowa Kaledonia and Australia, scheduled dla completion w 2008, will improve high-speed connectivity and access to international networks


international: country code - 687; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems


domestic: NA


international: country code - 64; the Southern Cross submarine cable system provides links to Australia, Fidzi, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 InMarSat (Ocean Spokojny), 7 other
NikaraguaNikaragua general assessment: system being upgraded by foreign investment; nearly all installed telecommunications capacity now uses digital technology, owing to investments since privatization of the formerly state-owned telecoms company


domestic: since privatization, access to fixed-line and mobile-cellular services has improved but teledensity still lags behind other Central American countries; connected to Central American Microwave System


international: country code - 505; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber optic submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region) and 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
NigerNiger general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated w the southwestern area of Niger


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is less than 3 per 100 persons; domestic satellite system z 3 earth stations and 1 planned


international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski)
NigeriaNigeria general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed


domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider w 2002 resulted w faster growth of this service z fixed-line subscribership nearly tripling over the past five years; wireless telephony has grown rapidly, w part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple service providers operate nationally; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity reached 25 per 100 persons w 2006


international: country code - 234; landing point dla the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski)
NiueNiue domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island


international: country code - 683 (2001)
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk general assessment: adequate


domestic: free local calls


international: country code - 672; undersea coaxial cable links z Australia and Nowa Zelandia; satellite earth station
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 1-670; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
NorwegiaNorwegia general assessment: modern w all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks w Europe


domestic: Norwegia has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems


international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Norwegia shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Islandia, and Szwecja) (1999)
OmanOman general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable


domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing; open-wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system z 8 earth stations


international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski), 1 Arabsat
PakistanPakistan general assessment: the telecom infrastructure is improving dramatically z foreign and domestic investments into fixed-line and mobile networks; mobile cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, reaching some 63 million w mid-2007, up from only about 300,000 w 2000; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid w network growth; main line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting main line service to rural areas


domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks


international: country code - 92; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2006)
PalauPalau general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 680; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
PanamaPanama general assessment: domestic and international facilities well developed


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is approaching 70 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 507; landing point dla the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), the MAYA-1, and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that together provide links to the US, and parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); connected to the Central American Microwave System
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea general assessment: services are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services


domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is less than 3 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny); international radio communication service
ParagwajParagwaj general assessment: meager telephone service; principal switching center is w Asuncion


domestic: the fixed-line market is a state monopoly; deficiencies w provision of fixed-line service has resulted w a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers


international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
PeruPeru general assessment: adequate dla most requirements


domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 8 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, has increased to about 30 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
FilipinyFilipiny general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and inter-island service adequate


domestic: domestic satellite system z 11 earth stations; cellular communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density exceeds 50 telephones per 100 persons z more than 10 mobile cellular subscribers dla every fixed-line subscriber


international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2006)
PitcairnPitcairn general assessment: satellite phone services


domestic: domestic communication via radio (CB)


international: country code - 872; satellite earth station - 1 (Inmarsat)
PolskaPolska general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated z market based competition finalized w 2003; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth w wireless telephony


domestic: mobile-cellular service available since 1993 and provided by three nation-wide networks z a fourth provider beginning operations w late 2006; cellular coverage is generally good z some gaps w the east; fixed-line service is growing slowly and still lags w rural areas


international: country code - 48; international direct dialing z automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 z access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik
PortugaliaPortugalia general assessment: Portugalia's telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network z broadband, high-speed capabilities


domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations


international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, Republika Poludniowej Afryki, the Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station dla Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region) is planned (1998)
PortorykoPortoryko general assessment: modern system integrated z that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat z high-speed data capability


domestic: digital telephone system; cellular telephone service


international: country code - 1-787, 939; submarine cables provide connectivity to the US, Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
KatarKatar general assessment: modern system centered w Doha


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is roughly 130 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 974; landing point dla the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrajn; microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Arabsat
RumuniaRumunia general assessment: rapidly improving domestic and international service, especially w wireless telephony


domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; liberalization w 2003 is transforming telecommunications; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is approaching 80 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turcja; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate w Bucharest (2005)
RosjaRosja general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly w urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Rosja has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary dla a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million w 1998 to 150 million w 2006; a large demand dla main line service remains unsatisfied, but fixed-line operators continue to grow their services


domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems w 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available w many areas; w rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density


international: country code - 7; Rosja is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; digital switches w several cities provide more than 50,000 lines dla international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems
RuandaRuanda general assessment: small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business and government


domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is only about 4 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) w Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Saint-BarthelemySaint-Barthelemy general assessment: fully integrated access


domestic: direct dial capability z both fixed and wireless systems


international: country code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Portoryko and Gwadelupa
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena general assessment: can communicate worldwide


domestic: automatic digital network


international: country code (Swieta Helena) - 290, (Ascension Island) - 247; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations - 5 (Ascension Island - 4, Swieta Helena - 1)
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis general assessment: good inter-island and international connections


domestic: inter-island links via Eastern Caribbean Fiber Optic cable; construction of enhanced wireless infrastructure launched w listopad 2004


international: country code - 1-869; z the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables providing connectivity, international calls are carried either by submarine cable or Intelsat
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia general assessment: adequate system


domestic: system is automatically switched


international: country code - 1-758; the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables, along z Intelsat from Martynika, carry calls internationally; direct microwave radio relay link z Martynika and Saint Vincent i Grenadyny; tropospheric scatter to Barbados
Saint MartinSaint Martin general assessment: fully integrated access


domestic: direct dial capability z both fixed and wireless systems


international: country code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Portoryko and Gudaloupe
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon general assessment: adequate


domestic: NA


international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication z most countries w the world; satellite earth station - 1 w French domestic satellite system
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny general assessment: adequate system


domestic: islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the Grenadines; mobile-cellular teledensity about 75 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 1-784; the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables carry international calls; connectivity also provided by VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station w Martynika through Saint Lucia
SamoaSamoa general assessment: adequate


domestic: NA


international: country code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
San MarinoSan Marino general assessment: adequate connections


domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 130 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca general assessment: adequate facilities


domestic: minimal system


international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska general assessment: modern system


domestic: extensive microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable systems; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly


international: country code - 966; landing point dla the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and dla both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; microwave radio relay to Bahrajn, Jordania, Kuwejt, Katar, UAE, Jemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwejt and Jordania; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region)
SenegalSenegal general assessment: good system


domestic: above-average urban system; more than half of all fixed-line connections are w Dakar z expansion of fixed-line services w rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable w trunk system


international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
SerbiaSerbia general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has been slow as a result of damage stemming from the 1999 war and transition to a competitive market-based system; network was only 65% digitalized w 2005


domestic: teledensity remains below the average dla neighboring states; GSM wireless service, available through multiple providers z national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications service limited to urban centers


international: country code - 381
SeszeleSeszele general assessment: effective system


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands w the archipelago


international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications z adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone general assessment: marginal telephone service


domestic: the national microwave radio relay trunk system connects Freetown to Bo and Kenema


international: country code - 232; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2000)
SingapurSingapur general assessment: excellent service


domestic: excellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service w luty 2005; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 150 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations -4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2003)
SlowacjaSlowacja general assessment: Slowacja has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically w recent years z the growth w cellular services


domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged z fiber-optic cable, especially w the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services


international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 w Bratislava and 2 w Banska Bystrica) are available; Slowacja is participating w several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
SloweniaSlowenia general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 130 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 386
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 677; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
SomaliaSomalia ngeneral assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private wireless companies offer service w most major cities and charge the lowest international rates on the continent


domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established w Mogadishu and w several other population centers


international: country code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite (2001)
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki general assessment: the system is the best developed and most modern w Africa


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria


international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber optic cable systems connect w Republika Poludniowej Afryki providing connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 2 Ocean Atlantycki)
Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich PoludniowyGeorgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: coastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken
HiszpaniaHiszpania general assessment: well developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity is 45 connections dla each 100 persons


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is 160 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries
Sri LankaSri Lanka general assessment: telephone services have improved significantly and are available w most parts of the country


domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now w use w Colombo area and 2 fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong w mobile cellular systems and mobile cellular subscribership is increasing; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is about 50 per 100 inhabitants


international: country code - 94; the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
SudanSudan general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started w 1996 and have expanded substantially


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 249; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Arabsat (2000)
SurinamSurinam general assessment: international facilities are good


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 90 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
SvalbardSvalbard general assessment: probably adequate


domestic: local telephone service


international: country code - 47-790; satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication z Norwegian mainland only)
SuaziSuazi general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system


domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity about 25 telephones per 100 persons; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay


international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
SzwecjaSzwecja general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries dla fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration


domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels


international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Szwecja shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Islandia, and Norwegia)
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure z excellent domestic and international services


domestic: ranked among leading countries dla fixed-line teledensity and infrastructure; mobile-cellular subscribership roughly 100 per 100 persons; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks


international: country code - 41; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki and Ocean Indyjski)
SyriaSyria general assessment: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology


domestic: the number of fixed-line connections has increased markedly since 2000; mobile-cellular service growing rapidly and teledensity has reached 25 wireless telephones per 100 persons; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 963; submarine cable connection to Cypr; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Irak, Jordania, Liban, and Turcja; participant w Medarabtel
TajwanTajwan general assessment: provides telecommunications service dla every business and private need


domestic: thoroughly modern; completely digitalized


international: country code - 886; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; 2 satellite earth stations
TadzykistanTadzykistan general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network


domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; cellular telephone use is growing but coverage remains limited


international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch w Ankara (Turcja); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat (2006)
TanzaniaTanzania general assessment: telecommunications services are inadequate; system operating below capacity and being modernized dla better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction


domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate z less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital


international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski, 1 Ocean Atlantycki)
TajlandiaTajlandia general assessment: high quality system, especially w urban areas like Bangkok


domestic: fixed line system provided by both a government owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly and outpacing fixed lines


international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski, 1 Ocean Spokojny)
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni general assessment: rudimentary service limited to urban areas


domestic: system suffered significant damage during the violence associated z independence; extremely limited fixed-line services; mobile-cellular services and coverage limited primarily to urban areas


international: country code - 670; international service is available w major urban centers
TogoTogo general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system


domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines dla conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 15 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Symphonie
TokelauTokelau general assessment: modern satellite-based communications system


domestic: radiotelephone service between islands


international: country code - 690; radiotelephone service to Samoa; government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok), z 3 satellite earth stations
TongaTonga general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communications Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; SCT recently granted authority to develop high-speed digital service dla telephone, Internet, and television


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 40 telephones per 100 persons; fully automatic switched network


international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny) (2004)
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago general assessment: excellent international service; good local service


domestic: mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 150 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Gujana
TunezjaTunezja general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available


domestic: w an effort jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government has awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network z international connectivity; competition between the two mobile-cellular service providers has resulted w lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge w subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 85 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 216; a landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algieria and Libia; participant w Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches
TurcjaTurcja general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially z cellular telephones


domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase w subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly


international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables w the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turcja z Wlochy, Grecja, Izrael, Bulgaria, Rumunia, and Rosja; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 w the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan general assessment: poorly developed


domestic: Turkmenistan's telecommunications network remains woefully underdeveloped; Turkmentelekom, w cooperation z foreign investors, is planning to upgrade the country's telephone exchanges and install a new digital switching system



international: country code - 993; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange w Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turcja via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat (2006)
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos general assessment: fully digital system z international direct dialing


domestic: full range of services available; GSM wireless service available


international: country code - 1-649; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber optic telecommunications submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
TuvaluTuvalu general assessment: serves particular needs dla internal communications


domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands


international: country code - 688; international calls can be made by satellite
UgandaUganda general assessment: seriously inadequate; mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but a sharp increase w the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available


domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems dla short-range traffic


international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenia and Tanzania
UkrainaUkraina general assessment: Ukraina's telecommunication development plan, running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile cellular system


domestic: at independence w grudzien 1991, Ukraina inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and w disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications dla telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is rising and the domestic trunk system is being improved; about one-third of Ukraina's networks are digital and a majority of regional centers now have digital switching stations; improvements w local networks and local exchanges continue to lag; the mobile cellular telephone system is expanding rapidly


international: country code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed w the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Wlochy-Turcja-Ukraina-Rosja (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations w the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie general assessment: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network z rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai


domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber optic and coaxial cable


international: country code - 971; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); landing point dla both the SEA-ME-WE-3 AND SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Arabsat; tropospheric scatter to Bahrajn; microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system


domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems


international: country code - 44; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Ocean Atlantycki and 3 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system


domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country


international: country code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Ocean Atlantycki and 16 Ocean Spokojny), 5 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Atlantycki regions) (2000)
UrugwajUrugwaj general assessment: fully digitalized


domestic: most modern facilities concentrated w Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is approaching 100 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazylia and Argentyna; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2002)
UzbekistanUzbekistan general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; w serious need of modernization


domestic: the main line telecommunications system is dilapidated and telephone density is low; the state-owned telecom company, Uzbektelecom, is using a US$110 million loan from the Japoniaese government to improve main line services; mobile services are growing swiftly, z the subscriber base more than doubling w 2007 to 5.8 million


international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay z CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Rosjan facilities dla international communications (2006)
VanuatuVanuatu general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 678; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
WenezuelaWenezuela general assessment: modern and expanding


domestic: domestic satellite system z 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement w telephone service w rural areas; substantial increase w digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services; fixed-line teledensity, at 16 per 100 persons, is low by regional standards; mobile-cellular subscribership jumped 50 percent w 2006


international: country code - 58; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 PanAmSat; participating z Kolumbia, Ekwador, Peru, and Boliwia w the construction of an international fiber-optic network
WietnamWietnam general assessment: Wietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors


domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been substantially increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly


international: country code - 84; a landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Tajlandia-Wietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, scheduled dla completion by the end of 2008, will provide new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region)
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze general assessment: modern system z total digital switching, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay


domestic: full range of services available


international: country code - 1-340; submarine cable connections to US, the Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth stations - NA
WakeWake general assessment: satellite communications; 2 DSN circuits off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS)


domestic: NA


international: NA
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 681
Zachodni BrzegZachodni Brzeg general assessment: NA


domestic: Izraeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible dla fixed line services; the Palestinian JAWAL company provides cellular services


international: country code - 970 (2004)
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia general assessment: sparse and limited system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 212; tied into Maroko's system by microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) linked to Rabat, Maroko
SwiatSwiat general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: NA
JemenJemen general assessment: since unification w 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network


domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM cellular mobile telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standards


international: country code - 967; landing point dla the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska and Dzibuti
ZambiaZambia general assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best w Sub-Saharan Africa


domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services w operation and network coverage is improving; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms


international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki)
ZimbabweZimbabwe general assessment: system was once one of the best w Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests dla connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available w Harare and planned dla all major towns and dla some of the smaller ones


international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 2 international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
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