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System telefoniczny (2006)

System telefoniczny - wybierz rok:
- System telefoniczny (2001) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2002) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2003) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2004) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2005) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2007) (porownaj)
- System telefoniczny (2008) (porownaj)


Informacje o System telefoniczny w 2006 rok

AfganistanAfganistan general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service


domestic: telephone service is improving z the licensing of four wireless telephone service providers by 2005; approximately 4 w 100 Afghans own a wireless telephone; telephone main lines remain limited.


international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed w Kabul, Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity
AlbaniaAlbania general assessment: despite new investment w fixed lines, the density of main lines remains the lowest w Europe z roughly seven lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective


domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors


international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines; adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by fiber optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Wlochy and Grecja (2003)
AlgieriaAlgieria general assessment: telephone density w Algieria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased w the last few years to nearly 2.6 million, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient


domestic: good service w north but sparse w south; domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned)


international: country code - 213; submarine cables - 5; microwave radio relay to Wlochy, Francja, Hiszpania, Maroko, and Tunezja; coaxial cable to Maroko and Tunezja; participant w Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2005)
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie general assessment: NA


domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system z 1 Comsat earth station


international: country code - 684; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat-Ocean Spokojny)
AndoraAndora general assessment: NA


domestic: modern system z microwave radio relay connections between exchanges


international: country code - 376; landline circuits to Francja and Hiszpania
AngolaAngola general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively dla military links


domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter


international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 29; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia (2005)
AnguillaAnguilla general assessment: NA


domestic: modern internal telephone system


international: country code - 1-264; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Gwadelupa and Antyle Holenderskie)
AntarktydaAntarktyda general assessment: local systems at some research stations


domestic: commercial cellular networks operating w a small number of locations


international: country code - 672; via satellite (including mobile Inmarsat and Iridium systems) from all research stations, ships, aircraft, and most field parties
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda general assessment: NA


domestic: good automatic telephone system


international: country code - 1-268; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Antyle Holenderskie) and Gwadelupa
ArgentynaArgentyna general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment z the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentyna encouraged the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving; however, telephone density is presently minimal, and making telephone service universally available will take time


domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system z 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding


international: country code - 54; satellite earth stations - 112; Atlantis II and Unisur submarine cables; two international gateways near Buenos Aires (2005)
ArmeniaArmenia general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion


domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are w Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)


international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2005)
ArubaAruba general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system


domestic: increased competition through privatization; 3 wireless service providers are now licensed


international: country code - 297; 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Antyle Holenderskie); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links
AustraliaAustralia general assessment: excellent domestic and international service


domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone w areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones


international: country code - 61; submarine cables to Nowa Zelandia, Papua-Nowa Gwinea, and Indonezja; satellite earth stations - 19 (10 Intelsat - 4 Ocean Indyjski and 6 Ocean Spokojny, 2 Inmarsat - Indien and Ocean Spokojny regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2005)
AustriaAustria general assessment: highly developed and efficient


domestic: there are 45 main lines dla every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available


international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; w addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2005)
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 14 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002)


domestic: the majority of telephones are w Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch w its exclave of Naxcivan


international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2005)
BahamyBahamy general assessment: modern facilities


domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed


international: country code - 1-242; tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 2 (2005)
BahrajnBahrajn general assessment: modern system


domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network z rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones


international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Katar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska; submarine cable to Katar, UAE, and Arabia Saudyjska; satellite earth stations - 1 (1997)
BangladeszBangladesz general assessment: totally inadequate dla a modern country


domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable w cities


international: country code - 880; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2005)
BarbadosBarbados general assessment: NA


domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system


international: country code - 1-246; satellite earth stations - 1 (Intelsat -Ocean Atlantycki); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia
BialorusBialorus general assessment: Bialorus lags behind its neighbors w upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; state-owned Beltelcom, is the sole provider of fixed line local and long distance service; modernization of the network to digital switching progressing slowly


domestic: fixed line penetration is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; four GSM wireless networks are experiencing rapid growth; strict government controls on telecommunications technologies


international: country code - 375; Bialorus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Lotwa, Polska, Rosja, and Ukraina; worldwide service is available to Bialorus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Rosja; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations
BelgiaBelgia general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities


domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 32; submarine cables - 5; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat - 3) (2005)
BelizeBelize general assessment: above-average system


domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay


international: country code - 501; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2005)
BeninBenin general assessment: NA


domestic: fair system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections


international: country code - 229; satellite earth station - 7 (Intelsat-Ocean Atlantycki); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
BermudyBermudy general assessment: good


domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber optic trunk lines


international: country code - 1-441; submarine cables - 3 (fiber optic); satellite earth stations - 3 (2005)
BhutanBhutan general assessment: telecommunications facilities are poor


domestic: very low teledensity; domestic service is very poor especially w rural areas; wireless service available since 2003


international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through Indie; satellite earth station - 1 (2005)
BoliwiaBoliwia general assessment: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most telephones are concentrated w La Paz and other cities; mobile cellular telephone use expanding rapidly


domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded


international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted z services w other former Yugoslav republics


domestic: NA


international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations
BotswanaBotswana general assessment: the system is expanding z the growth of mobile cellular service and participation w regional development


domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast


international: country code - 267; two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Republika Poludniowej Afryki; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
BrazyliaBrazylia general assessment: good working system


domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 64 earth stations


international: country code - 55; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazyliasat B3 satellite earth station
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu IndyjskiegoBrytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego general assessment: separate facilities dla military and public needs are available


domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internet


international: international telephone service is carried by satellite (2000)
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze general assessment: worldwide telephone service


domestic: NA


international: country code - 1-284; submarine cable to Bermudy
BruneiBrunei general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US


domestic: every service available


international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Spokojny); digital submarine cable links to Malezja, the Filipiny, and Singapur (2001)
BulgariaBulgaria general assessment: extensive but antiquated


domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available w most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers w most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay


international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions)
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso general assessment: all services only fair


domestic: microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations


international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
BirmaBirma general assessment: barely meets minimum requirements dla local and intercity service dla business and government; international service is fair


domestic: NA


international: country code - 95; satellite earth station - 2, Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski), and ShinSat
BurundiBurundi general assessment: primitive system


domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay


international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
KambodzaKambodza general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service w Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile phone coverage is rapidly expanding w rural areas


domestic: NA


international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region)
KamerunKamerun general assessment: available only to business and government


domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter


international: country code - 237; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
KanadaKanada general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology


domestic: domestic satellite system z about 300 earth stations


international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Spokojny) and 2 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region)
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka general assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization w 1995


domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber optic ring, completed w 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced w 1998


international: country code - 238; 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Gwinea Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
KajmanyKajmany general assessment: reasonably good system


domestic: liberalization of telecom market w 2003 reflected w falling prices and improving services


international: country code - 1-345; 2 submarine fiber optic cables (Maya-1, Cayman-Jamajka); satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie general assessment: fair system


domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication


international: country code - 236; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
CzadCzad general assessment: primitive system


domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations


international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
ChileChile general assessment: modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities


domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system z three earth stations


international: country code - 56; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
ChinyChiny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia general assessment: service provided by the Australian network


domestic: GSM mobile telephone service replaced older analog system w luty 2005


international: country code - 61-8; satellite earth stations - one INTELSAT earth station provides telephone and telex service (2005)
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe general assessment: connected within Australia's telecommunication system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 61; telephone, telex, and facsimile communications z Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 INTELSAT satellite earth station
KolumbiaKolumbia general assessment: modern system w many respects


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system z 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities


international: country code - 57; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables
KomoryKomory general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations


domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 269; HF radiotelephone communications to Madagaskar and Reunion
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna general assessment: poor


domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service w and between urban areas; domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika general assessment: services barely adequate dla government use; key exchanges are w Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order


domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable


international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka general assessment: Telecom Wyspy Cooka offers international direct dialing, Internet, email, fax, and Telex


domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable


international: country code - 682; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
KostarykaKostaryka general assessment: good domestic telephone service w terms of breadth of coverage; restricted cellular telephone service


domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available


international: country code - 506; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); two submarine cables (1999)
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire general assessment: well developed by African standards but operating well below capacity


domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized


international: country code - 225; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski); 2 submarine cables (czerwiec 1999)
ChorwacjaChorwacja general assessment: NA


domestic: reconstruction plan calls dla replacement of all analog circuits z digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included w the plan dla the main trunk


international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch w Zagreb; Chorwacja participates w the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections z Slowenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Chorwacja is also investing w ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project z Niemcy, Albania, and Grecja
KubaKuba general assessment: greater investment beginning w 1994 and the establishment of a new Ministry of Information Technology and Communications w 2000 has resulted w improvements w the system; wireless service is expensive and remains restricted to foreigners and regime elites, many Kubans procure wireless service illegally z the help of foreigners


domestic: national fiber-optic system under development; 85% of switches digitized by end of 2004; telephone line density remains low, at less than 10 per 100 inhabitants; domestic cellular service expanding


international: country code - 53; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region)
CyprCypr general assessment: excellent w both Republic of Cypr and north Cypr areas


domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turcja - 90); tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat
CzechyCzechy general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth w the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous


domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced z Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar
DaniaDania general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services


domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems


international: country code - 45; 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Dania z Kanada, Wyspy Owcze, Niemcy, Islandia, Holandia, Norwegia, Polska, Rosja, Szwecja, and UK; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Islandia, Norwegia, and Szwecja) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norwegia, station dla worldwide Inmarsat access (1997)
DzibutiDzibuti general assessment: telephone facilities w the city of Dzibuti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country


domestic: microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 253; submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseille, Colombo, and Singapur; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network
DominikaDominika general assessment: NA


domestic: fully automatic network


international: country code - 1-767; microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martynika and Gwadelupa; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska general assessment: NA


domestic: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 1-809; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni NA
EkwadorEkwador general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded


domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable


international: country code - 593; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
EgiptEgipt general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available


domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 20; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki and Ocean Indyjski), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Izrael; a participant w Medarabtel
SalwadorSalwador general assessment: NA


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system


international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); connected to Central American Microwave System
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa general assessment: poor system z adequate government services


domestic: NA


international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
ErytreaErytrea general assessment: inadequate


domestic: inadequate; most telephones are w Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system (2002)


international: country code - 291; note - international connections exist
EstoniaEstonia general assessment: foreign investment w the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic w the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country


domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country


international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finlandia, Szwecja, Lotwa, and Rosja provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located w Tallinn (2001)
EtiopiaEtiopia general assessment: adequate dla government use


domestic: open-wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication w the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service


international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Dzibuti; microwave radio relay to Kenia and Dzibuti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Spokojny)
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska note - see individual country entries of member states
FalklandyFalklandy general assessment: NA


domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands


international: country code - 500; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) z links through London to other countries
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze general assessment: good international communications; good domestic facilities


domestic: digitalization was completed w 1998; both NMT (analog) and GSM (digital) mobile telephone systems are installed


international: country code - 298; satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic submarine cable to the Shetland Islands, linking the Wyspy Owcze z Dania and Islandia; fiber-optic submarine cable connection to Kanada-Europe cable
FidziFidzi general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center


domestic: NA


international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Kanada as well as between NZ and Australia; 2 satellite earth stations - 2 INMARSAT (Ocean Spokojny)
FinlandiaFinlandia general assessment: modern system z excellent service


domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs


international: country code - 358; 1 submarine cable (Finlandia Estonia Connection); satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Finlandia shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Islandia, Norwegia, and Szwecja)
FrancjaFrancja general assessment: highly developed


domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system


international: country code - 33; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 dla Ocean Indyjski and 3 dla Ocean Atlantycki), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region); HF radiotelephone communications z more than 20 countries
Gujana FrancuskaGujana Francuska general assessment: NA


domestic: fair open-wire and microwave radio relay system


international: country code - 594; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 689; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
GabonGabon general assessment: adequate service by African standards and improving z the help of the growing mobile cell system


domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: country code - 241; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
GambiaGambia general assessment: adequate; a packet switched data network is available


domestic: adequate network of microwave radio relay and open-wire


international: country code - 220; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Gwinea Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
GazaGaza general assessment: NA


domestic: Izraeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible dla fixed line services w the Gaza; the Palestinian JAWAL company provides cellular services


international: country code - 970
GeorgiaGeorgia general assessment: NA


domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available


international: country code - 995; Georgia and Rosja are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Rosja); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available
NiemcyNiemcy general assessment: Niemcy has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to Swiat War II, has been modernized and integrated z that of the western part


domestic: Niemcy is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries


international: country code - 49; Niemcy's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations w the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2001)
GhanaGhana general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway


domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed


international: country code - 233; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
GibraltarGibraltar general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities


domestic: automatic exchange facilities


international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
GrecjaGrecja general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service


domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands


international: country code - 30; tropospheric scatter; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region)
GrenlandiaGrenlandia general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized w 1995


domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite


international: country code - 299; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Ocean Atlantycki)
GrenadaGrenada general assessment: automatic, islandwide telephone system


domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links


international: country code - 1-473; new SHF radiotelephone links to Trynidad i Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad
GwadelupaGwadelupa general assessment: domestic facilities inadequate


domestic: NA


international: country code - 590; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); microwave radio relay to Antigua i Barbuda, Dominika, and Martynika
GuamGuam general assessment: modern system, integrated z US facilities dla direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers


domestic: modern digital system, including cellular mobile service and local access to the Internet


international: country code - 1-671; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny); submarine cables to US and Japonia (Guam is a trans-Pacific communications hub dla MCI, Sprint, AT&T, IT&E, and GTE, linking the US and Asia)
GwatemalaGwatemala general assessment: fairly modern network centered w the city of Gwatemala


domestic: NA


international: country code - 502; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
GuernseyGuernsey general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: 1 submarine cable
GwineaGwinea general assessment: poor to fair system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system


domestic: microwave radio relay and radiotelephone communication


international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau general assessment: small system


domestic: combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and cellular communications


international: country code - 245
GujanaGujana general assessment: fair system dla long-distance service


domestic: microwave radio relay network dla trunk lines


international: country code - 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
HaitiHaiti general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better


domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service


international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
WatykanWatykan general assessment: automatic digital exchange


domestic: connected via fiber optic cable to Telecom Italia network


international: country code - 39; uses Italian system
HondurasHonduras general assessment: inadequate system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 504; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); connected to Central American Microwave System
Hong KongHong Kong general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services


domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network


international: country code - 852; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Spokojny and 2 Ocean Indyjski); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, Chiny; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japonia, Tajwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe
WegryWegry general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests dla telecommunication service


domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program dla fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated w 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones


international: country code - 36; Wegry has fiber-optic cable connections z all neighboring countries; the international switch is w Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki and Ocean Indyjski regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
IslandiaIslandia general assessment: extensive domestic service


domestic: the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic cables and microwave radio relay links


international: country code - 354; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Islandia shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Norwegia, and Szwecja)
IndieIndie general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid change; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but telephone density remains low at about seven dla each 100 persons nationwide but only one per 100 persons w rural areas and a national waiting list of over 1.7 million; fastest growth is w cellular service z modest growth w fixed lines


domestic: expansion of domestic service, although still weak w rural areas, resulted from increased competition and dramatic reductions w price led w large part by wireless service; mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced w 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan cities and 19 telecom circles each z about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; w recent years significant trunk capacity added w the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indien National Satellite system (INSAT), z five satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)


international: country code - 91; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 5 submarine cables, including Sea-Me-We-3 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), Republika Poludniowej Afryki - Far East (SAFE) z landing site at Cochin, i2icn linking to Singapur z landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapur and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase w the bandwidth available dla both voice and data traffic (2004)
IndonezjaIndonezja general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good


domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system


international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Spokojny)
IranIran general assessment: inadequate, but currently being modernized and expanded z the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages, not presently connected


domestic: as a result of heavy investing w the telephone system since 1994, the number of long-distance channels w the microwave radio relay trunk has grown substantially; many villages have been brought into the net; the number of main lines w the urban systems has approximately doubled; thousands of mobile cellular subscribers are being served; moreover, the technical level of the system has been raised by the installation of thousands of digital switches


international: country code - 98; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turcja, Azerbejdzan, Pakistan, Afganistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwejt, Tadzykistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE z access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbejdzan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan z expansion to Georgia and Azerbejdzan; satellite earth stations - 9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat
IrakIrak general assessment: the 2003 war severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Irak including international connections; USAID is overseeing the repair of switching capability and the construction of mobile and satellite communication facilities


domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during the 2003 war continue, but sabotage remains a problem; additional switching capacity is improving access; cellular service is available and centered on three regional GSM networks, improving country-wide connectivity


international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; despite a new satellite gateway, international calls outside of Baghdad remain problematic
IrlandiaIrlandia general assessment: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay


domestic: microwave radio relay


international: country code - 353; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Wyspa ManWyspa Man general assessment: NA


domestic: landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system


international: fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable
IzraelIzrael general assessment: most highly developed system w the Middle East although not the largest


domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital


international: country code - 972; 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski)
WlochyWlochy general assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services


domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks


international: country code - 39; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 dla Ocean Atlantycki and 2 dla Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables
JamajkaJamajka general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network


domestic: NA


international: country code - 1-876; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); 3 coaxial submarine cables
JaponiaJaponia general assessment: excellent domestic and international service


domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind


international: country code - 81; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); submarine cables to Chiny, Filipiny, Rosja, and US (via Guam) (1999)
JerseyJersey general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: 3 submarine cables
JordaniaJordania general assessment: service has improved recently z increased use of digital switching equipment, but better access to the telephone system is needed w the rural areas and easier access to pay telephones is needed by the urban public


domestic: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; considerable use of mobile cellular systems; Internet service is available


international: country code - 962; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals; fiber-optic cable to Arabia Saudyjska and microwave radio relay link z Egipt and Syria; connection to international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); participant w MEDARABTEL; international links total about 4,000
KazachstanKazachstan general assessment: service is poor; equipment antiquated


domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; mobile cellular systems are available w most of Kazachstan


international: country code - 7; international traffic z other former Soviet republics and Chiny carried by landline and microwave radio relay and z other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
KeniaKenia general assessment: unreliable; little attempt to modernize except dla service to business


domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system


international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
KiribatiKiribati general assessment: generally good quality national and international service


domestic: wire line service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; wireless service available w Tarawa since 1999


international: country code - 686; Kiribati is being linked to the Ocean Spokojny Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 850; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Rosjan (Ocean Indyjski region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea general assessment: excellent domestic and international services


domestic: NA


international: country code - 82; 10 fiber-optic submarine cables - 1 Korea-Rosja-Japonia, 1 Korea-Japonia-Hong Kong, 3 Korea-Japonia-Chiny, 1 Korea-Japonia-Chiny-Europe, 1 Korea-Japonia-Chiny-US-Tajwan, 1 Korea-Japonia-Chiny, 1 Korea-Japonia-Hong Kong-Tajwan, 1 Korea-Japonia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Spokojny and 2 Ocean Indyjski) and 3 Inmarsat (1 Ocean Spokojny and 2 Ocean Indyjski)
KuwejtKuwejt general assessment: the quality of service is excellent


domestic: new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity dla new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and open-wire and fiber-optic cable; a cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwejt, and the country is well supplied z pay telephones


international: country code - 965; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska; linked to Bahrajn, Katar, UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG) cable; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki, 2 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki), and 2 Arabsat
KirgistanKirgistan general assessment: development of telecommunications infrastructure is slow; fixed line penetration remains low and concentrated w Bishkek


domestic: two wireless telephony service providers, but penetration remains low


international: country code - 996; connections z other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and z other countries by leased connections z Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line
LaosLaos general assessment: service to general public is poor but improving; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate z remote areas


domestic: radiotelephone communications


international: country code - 856; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region)
LotwaLotwa general assessment: recent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector, beginning w 2003; the number of fixed lines is decreasing as wireless telephony expands


domestic: two wireless service providers w addition to Lattelekom, the incumbent monopoly


international: country code - 371; the Lotwan network is now connected via fiber optic cable to Estonia, Finlandia, and Szwecja
LibanLiban general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete


domestic: two commercial wireless networks provide good service; political instability hampers privatization and deployment of new technologies


international: country code - 961; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; 3 submarine coaxial cables
LesothoLesotho general assessment: rudimentary system


domestic: consists of a modest but growing number of landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a minor radiotelephone communication system; a cellular mobile telephone system is growing


international: country code - 266; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
LiberiaLiberia general assessment: the limited services available are found almost exclusively w the capital Monrovia


domestic: fully automatic system z very low density of .23 fixed main lines per 100 persons; limited wireless service available


international: country code - 231; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
LibiaLibia general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational w 1996


domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to Francja and Wlochy; microwave radio relay to Tunezja and Egipt; tropospheric scatter to Grecja; participant w Medarabtel (1999)
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein general assessment: automatic telephone system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
LitwaLitwa general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access


domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications


international: country code - 370; landline connections to Lotwa and Polska; major international connections to Dania, Szwecja, and Norwegia by submarine cable dla further transmission by satellite
LuksemburgLuksemburg general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables


domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable


international: country code - 352; 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)
MakauMakau general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained dla domestic and international services


domestic: NA


international: country code - 853; HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and Chiny; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
MacedoniaMacedonia general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 389
MadagaskarMadagaskar general assessment: system is above average dla the region


domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links connect regions


international: country code - 261; submarine cable to Bahrajn; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region)
MalawiMalawi general assessment: NA


domestic: system employs open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations


international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki)
MalezjaMalezja general assessment: modern system; international service excellent


domestic: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malezja mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; domestic satellite system z 2 earth stations


international: country code - 60; submarine cables to Indie, Hong Kong, and Singapur; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Spokojny) (2001)
MalediwyMalediwy general assessment: minimal domestic and international facilities


domestic: interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands are connected z telephone and fax service


international: country code - 960; satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
MaliMali general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service


domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay w progress


international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski)
MaltaMalta general assessment: automatic system satisfies normal requirements


domestic: submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands


international: country code - 356; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla general assessment: digital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits


domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by high frequency radiotelephone (used mostly dla government purposes) and mini-satellite telephones


international: country code - 692; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2001)
MartynikaMartynika general assessment: domestic facilities are adequate


domestic: NA


international: country code - 596; microwave radio relay to Gwadelupa, Dominika, and Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
MauretaniaMauretania general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations (improvements being made)


domestic: mostly cable and open-wire lines; a recently completed domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott z regional capitals


international: country code - 222; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 2 Arabsat
MauritiusMauritius general assessment: small system z good service


domestic: primarily microwave radio relay trunk system


international: country code - 230; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC/SAFE) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
MajottaMajotta general assessment: small system administered by French Department of Posts and Telecommunications


domestic: NA


international: country code - 269; microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communications to Komory
MeksykMeksyk general assessment: low telephone density z about 18 main lines per 100 persons; privatized w grudzien 1990; the opening to competition w styczen 1997 improved prospects dla development, but Telmex remains dominant


domestic: adequate telephone service dla business and government, but the population is poorly served; mobile subscribers far outnumber fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system z 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable


international: country code - 52; satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Meksyk improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections; high capacity Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable z access to the US, Wyspy Dziewicze, Canary Islands, Maroko, Hiszpania, and Wlochy (2005)
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji general assessment: adequate system


domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly dla government purposes), satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; cellular service available on Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap


international: country code - 691; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny) (2002)
MoldawiaMoldawia general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way


domestic: new subscribers face long wait dla service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced


international: country code - 373; service through Rumunia and Rosja via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
MonakoMonako general assessment: modern automatic telephone system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system
MongoliaMongolia general assessment: network is improving z international direct dialing available w many areas


domestic: very low density of about 5.5 main lines per 100 persons; two wireless providers cover all but two provinces


international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski Region)
CzarnogoraCzarnogora general assessment: modern telecommunications system z access to European satellites


domestic: GSM wireless service, available through two providers z national coverage, is growing rapidly


international: country code - 382 (the old code of 381 used by Federalna Republika Jugoslawii will also remain w use until Feb 2007); two international switches connect the national system
MontserratMontserrat general assessment: modern and fully digitalized


domestic: NA


international: country code - 1-664
MarokoMaroko general assessment: modern system z all important capabilities; however, density is low z only 4 main lines available dla each 100 persons


domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay


international: country code - 212; 7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Hiszpania, and Sahara Zachodnia; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algieria; participant w Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algieria and Tunezja (1998)
MozambikMozambik general assessment: fair system but not available generally (extremely low density z less than 1 main line per 100 persons)


domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter


international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 3 Ocean Indyjski)
NamibiaNamibia general assessment: good system; about 6 telephones dla each 100 persons


domestic: good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by open wire; 100% digital


international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to Republika Poludniowej Afryki, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to Africa ONE and Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Far East (SAFE) submarine cables through Republika Poludniowej Afryki; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2002)
NauruNauru general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities


domestic: NA


international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
NepalNepal general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile cellular telephone network


domestic: NA


international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave landline to Indie; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
HolandiaHolandia general assessment: highly developed and well maintained


domestic: extensive fixed-line fiber-optic network; cellular telephone system is one of the largest w Europe z five major network operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System dla Mobile Communications (GSM)


international: country code - 31; 9 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 2 Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions) (2004)
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie general assessment: generally adequate facilities


domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links


international: country code - 599; submarine cables - 2; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 687; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems


domestic: NA


international: country code - 64; submarine cables to Australia and Fidzi; 8 satellite earth stations - 1 InMarSat (Ocean Spokojny), 7 other
NikaraguaNikaragua general assessment: inadequate system being upgraded by foreign investment


domestic: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System


international: country code - 505; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region) and 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
NigerNiger general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated w the southwestern area of Niger


domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system z 3 earth stations and 1 planned


international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski)
NigeriaNigeria general assessment: expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network has been slow due to faltering efforts at privatization


domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider w 2002 resulted w faster growth w this service; wireless telephony has grown rapidly, w part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; four wireless (GSM) service providers operate nationally; the combined growth resulted w a sharp increase w teledensity reported to be over 18% w marzec 2006


international: country code - 234; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
NiueNiue domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island


international: country code - 683
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk general assessment: adequate


domestic: free local calls


international: country code - 672; undersea coaxial cable links z Australia, Nowa Zelandia, and Kanada; satellite earth station
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 1-670; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
NorwegiaNorwegia general assessment: modern w all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks w Europe


domestic: Norwegia has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems


international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Norwegia shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Islandia, and Szwecja) (1999)
OmanOman general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable


domestic: open-wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system z 8 earth stations


international: country code - 968; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Arabsat
PakistanPakistan general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate dla government and business use, w part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment w the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements w trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population


domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks


international: country code - 92; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)
PalauPalau general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 680; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
PanamaPanama general assessment: domestic and international facilities well developed


domestic: NA


international: country code - 507; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); connected to the Central American Microwave System
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea general assessment: services are adequate; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services


domestic: mostly radiotelephone


international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny); international radio communication service
ParagwajParagwaj general assessment: meager telephone service; principal switching center is w Asuncion


domestic: fair microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
PeruPeru general assessment: adequate dla most requirements


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); Pan American submarine cable
FilipinyFilipiny general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and inter-island service adequate


domestic: domestic satellite system z 11 earth stations


international: country code - 63; 9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 2 Ocean Spokojny); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapur, Tajwan, and Japonia
PitcairnPitcairn general assessment: satellite phone services


domestic: domestic communication via radio (CB)


international: country code - 872; satellite earth station (Inmarsat)
PolskaPolska general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated z market based competition finalized w 2003; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth w wireless telephony


domestic: wireless service, available since 1993 (GSM service available since 1996) and provided by three nation-wide networks, has grown rapidly w response to the weak fixed-line coverage; third generation UMTS service available w urban areas; cellular coverage is generally good z more gaps w the east; fixed-line service is growing slowly and still lags w rural areas


international: country code - 48; international direct dialing z automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik)
PortugaliaPortugalia general assessment: Portugalia's telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network z broadband, high-speed capabilities


domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations


international: country code - 351; 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station dla Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region) is planned
PortorykoPortoryko general assessment: modern system integrated z that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat z high-speed data capability


domestic: digital telephone system; cellular telephone service


international: country code - 1-787, 939; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable to US
KatarKatar general assessment: modern system centered w Doha


domestic: NA


international: country code - 974; tropospheric scatter to Bahrajn; microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrajn and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Arabsat
ReunionReunion general assessment: adequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis


domestic: modern open-wire and microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 262; radiotelephone communication to Komory, Francja, Madagaskar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC/SAFE) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
RumuniaRumunia general assessment: rapidly improving domestic and international service, especially w wireless telephony


domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; liberalization w 2003 is transforming telecommunications; there has been 20% growth w fixed lines z a penetration rate of 58% of households; nation-wide wireless service is growing even faster z four major providers and a penetration rate of 32%


international: country code - 40; satellite earth station - 10 (Intelsat 4); digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate w Bucharest (2005)
RosjaRosja general assessment: the telephone system underwent significant changes w the 1990s; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly w urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Rosja has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary dla a market economy; however, a large demand dla main line service remains unsatisfied


domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems w 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available w many areas; w rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density


international: country code - 7; Rosja is connected internationally by three undersea fiber-optic cables; digital switches w several cities provide more than 50,000 lines dla international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems
RuandaRuanda general assessment: telephone system primarily serves business and government


domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone


international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) w Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena general assessment: can communicate worldwide


domestic: automatic digital network


international: country code - 290; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations - 5 (Ascension Island - 4, Swieta Helena - 1)
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis general assessment: good inter-island and international connections


domestic: inter-island links via Eastern Caribbean Fiber Optic cable; construction of enhanced wireless infrastructure launched w listopad 2004


international: country code - 1-869; international calls are carried by submarine cable or Intelsat
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia general assessment: adequate system


domestic: system is automatically switched


international: country code - 1-758; direct microwave radio relay link z Martynika and Saint Vincent i Grenadyny; tropospheric scatter to Barbados; international calls beyond these countries are carried by Intelsat from Martynika
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon general assessment: adequate


domestic: NA


international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication z most countries w the world; 1 earth station w French domestic satellite system
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny general assessment: adequate system


domestic: islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the Grenadines


international: country code - 1-784; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; new SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and to Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station w Martynika through Saint Lucia
SamoaSamoa general assessment: adequate


domestic: NA


international: country code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
San MarinoSan Marino general assessment: adequate connections


domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system


international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca general assessment: adequate facilities


domestic: minimal system


international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska general assessment: modern system


domestic: extensive microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable systems


international: country code - 966; microwave radio relay to Bahrajn, Jordania, Kuwejt, Katar, UAE, Jemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwejt and Jordania; submarine cable to Dzibuti, Egipt and Bahrajn; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region)
SenegalSenegal general assessment: good system


domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable w trunk system


international: country code - 221; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
SerbiaSerbia general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has been slow as a result of damage stemming from the 1999 war and transition to a competitive market-based system; network was only 65% digitalized w 2005


domestic: teledensity remains below the average dla neighboring states; GSM wireless service, available through two providers z national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications service limited to urban centers


international: country code - 381
SeszeleSeszele general assessment: effective system


domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands w the archipelago


international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications z adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone general assessment: marginal telephone and telegraph service


domestic: the national microwave radio relay trunk system connects Freetown to Bo and Kenema


international: country code - 232; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
SingapurSingapur general assessment: excellent service


domestic: excellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service w luty 2005


international: country code - 65; 9 submarine cables provide direct connection to more than 100 countries; 4 satellite earth stations, supplemented by VSAT coverage
SlowacjaSlowacja general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time dla new subscribers, and generally improving service quality


domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged z fiber-optic cable, especially w the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added


international: country code - 421; three international exchanges (one w Bratislava and two w Banska Bystrica) are available; Slowacja is participating w several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
SloweniaSlowenia general assessment: NA


domestic: 100% digital (2000)


international: country code - 386
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 677; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
SomaliaSomalia general assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; private wireless companies offer service w most major cities and charge the lowest international rates on the continent


domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established w Mogadishu and w several other population centers


international: country code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki general assessment: the system is the best developed and most modern w Africa


domestic: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria


international: country code - 27; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 2 Ocean Atlantycki)
Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich PoludniowyGeorgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: coastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken
HiszpaniaHiszpania general assessment: generally adequate, modern facilities; teledensity is 45 main lines dla each 100 persons


domestic: NA


international: country code - 34; 22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries
Sri LankaSri Lanka general assessment: very inadequate domestic service, particularly w rural areas; likely improvement z privatization of national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good international service (1999)


domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now w use w Colombo area and two fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong w mobile cellular systems; telephone density remains low (1999)


international: country code - 94; submarine cables to Indonezja and Dzibuti; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) (1999)
SudanSudan general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started w 1996 and have expanded substantially


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
SurinamSurinam general assessment: international facilities are good


domestic: microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
SvalbardSvalbard general assessment: probably adequate


domestic: local telephone service


international: country code - 47-790; satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication z Norwegian mainland only)
SuaziSuazi general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system


domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay


international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
SzwecjaSzwecja general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system


domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels


international: country code - 46; 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Szwecja shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Islandia, and Norwegia)
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria general assessment: excellent domestic and international services


domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks


international: country code - 41; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki and Ocean Indyjski)
SyriaSyria general assessment: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology


domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 963; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region); 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Irak, Jordania, Liban, and Turcja; participant w Medarabtel
TajwanTajwan general assessment: provides telecommunications service dla every business and private need


domestic: thoroughly modern; completely digitalized


international: country code - 886; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski); submarine cables to Japonia (Okinawa), Filipiny, Guam, Singapur, Hong Kong, Indonezja, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe (1999)
TadzykistanTadzykistan general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network


domestic: cable and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch w Ankara (Turcja); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat
TanzaniaTanzania general assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized dla better service; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction


domestic: trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital


international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki)
TajlandiaTajlandia general assessment: high quality system, especially w urban areas like Bangkok; WTO requirement dla privatization of telecom sector is planned to be complete by 2006


domestic: fixed line system provided by both a government owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly and outpacing fixed lines


international: country code - 66; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Spokojny); landing country dla APCN submarine cable
TogoTogo general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system


domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines dla conventional system


international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Symphonie
TokelauTokelau general assessment: modern satellite-based communications system;


domestic: radiotelephone service between islands


international: country code - 690; radiotelephone service to Samoa; government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok), z 3 satellite earth stations
TongaTonga general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communications Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; SCT recently granted authority to develop high-speed digital service dla telephone, Internet, and television


domestic: fully automatic switched network


international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny) (2004)
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago general assessment: excellent international service; good local service


domestic: NA


international: country code - 1-868; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Gujana
TunezjaTunezja general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available


domestic: trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 216; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algieria and Libia; participant w Medarabtel; two international gateway digital switches
TurcjaTurcja general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially z cellular telephones


domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase w subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly


international: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables w the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turcja z Wlochy, Grecja, Izrael, Bulgaria, Rumunia, and Rosja; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals w the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan general assessment: poorly developed


domestic: NA


international: country code - 993; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange w Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turcja via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos general assessment: fully digital system z international direct dialing


domestic: full range of services available; GSM wireless service available


international: country code - 1-649; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
TuvaluTuvalu general assessment: serves particular needs dla internal communications


domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands


international: country code - 688; international calls can be made by satellite
UgandaUganda general assessment: seriously inadequate; two cellular systems have been introduced, but a sharp increase w the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available


domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems dla short-range traffic


international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenia and Tanzania
UkrainaUkraina general assessment: Ukraina's telecommunication development plan, running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile cellular system


domestic: at independence w grudzien 1991, Ukraina inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and w disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications dla telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is rising slowly and the domestic trunk system is being improved; the mobile cellular telephone system is expanding at a high rate


international: country code - 380; two new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and three Ukrainian links have been installed w the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Wlochy-Turcja-Ukraina-Rosja (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations w the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie general assessment: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network z rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai


domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber optic and coaxial cable


international: country code - 971; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Arabsat; submarine cables to Katar, Bahrajn, Indie, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrajn; microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system


domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems


international: country code - 44; 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Ocean Atlantycki and 3 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system


domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country


international: country code - 1; 24 ocean cable systems w use; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Ocean Atlantycki and 16 Ocean Spokojny), 5 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Atlantycki regions) (2000)
UrugwajUrugwaj general assessment: fully digitalized


domestic: most modern facilities concentrated w Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 598; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2002)
UzbekistanUzbekistan general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; w serious need of modernization


domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly w Tashkent (Toshkent) and Samarqand, under contracts z prominent companies w industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed w operation - four of the GSM type (Global System dla Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)


international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay z CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Rosjan facilities dla international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)
VanuatuVanuatu general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 678; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Spokojny)
WenezuelaWenezuela general assessment: modern and expanding


domestic: domestic satellite system z 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement w telephone service w rural areas; substantial increase w digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services


international: country code - 58; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 PanAmSat; participating z Kolumbia, Ekwador, Peru, and Boliwia w the construction of an international fiber-optic network
WietnamWietnam general assessment: Wietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors


domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been substantially increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly


international: country code - 84; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region)
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze general assessment: modern system z total digital switching, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay


domestic: full range of services available


international: country code - 1-340; 2 submarine cable connections (Taino Carib, Americas-1); satellite earth stations - NA
WakeWake general assessment: satellite communications; 1 DSN circuit off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS)


domestic: NA


international: NA
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: country code - 681
Zachodni BrzegZachodni Brzeg general assessment: NA


domestic: Izraeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible dla fixed line services w the Gaza; the Palestinian JAWAL company provides cellular services


international: country code - 970
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia general assessment: sparse and limited system


domestic: NA


international: country code - 212; tied into Maroko's system by microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) linked to Rabat, Maroko
SwiatSwiat general assessment: NA


domestic: NA


international: NA
JemenJemen general assessment: since unification w 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network


domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM cellular mobile telephone systems


international: country code - 967; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Arabia Saudyjska and Dzibuti
ZambiaZambia general assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best w Sub-Saharan Africa


domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services w operation; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms


international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki)
ZimbabweZimbabwe general assessment: system was once one of the best w Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests dla connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available w Harare and planned dla all major towns and dla some of the smaller ones


international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; two international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
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