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Sadownictwo (2008)

Sadownictwo - wybierz rok:
- Sadownictwo (2001) (porownaj)
- Sadownictwo (2002) (porownaj)
- Sadownictwo (2003) (porownaj)
- Sadownictwo (2004) (porownaj)
- Sadownictwo (2005) (porownaj)
- Sadownictwo (2006) (porownaj)
- Sadownictwo (2007) (porownaj)


Informacje o Sadownictwo w 2008 rok

AfganistanAfganistan the constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed dla 10-year terms by the president z approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate High Courts and Appeals Courts; there is also a minister of justice; a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by the Bonn Agreement is charged z investigating human rights abuses and war crimes
AlbaniaAlbania Konstytucjaal Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly dla a four-year term), and multiple appeals and district courts
AlgieriaAlgieria Supreme Court
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)
AndoraAndora Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andora or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andora; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Konstytucjaal Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
AngolaAngola Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)
AnguillaAnguilla High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based w Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice
ArgentynaArgentyna Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president z approval by the Senate)


note: the Supreme Court currently has two unfilled vacancies, and the Argentine Congress is considering a bill to reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five
ArmeniaArmenia Konstytucjaal Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
ArubaAruba Common Court of Justice of Aruba (judges are appointed by the monarch)
AustraliaAustralia High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
AustriaAustria Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Konstytucjaal Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan Supreme Court
BahamyBahamy Privy Council (London); Courts of Appeal; Supreme (lower) Court; magistrates courts
BahrajnBahrajn High Civil Appeals Court
BangladeszBangladesz Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
BarbadosBarbados Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions dla the Judicial and Legal Services); Caribbean Court of Justice is the highest court of appeal
BialorusBialorus Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Konstytucjaal Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
BelgiaBelgia Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed dla life by the government; candidacies have to be submitted by the High Justice Council)
BelizeBelize Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)
BeninBenin Konstytucjaal Court or Cour Konstytucjanelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice
BermudyBermudy Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
BhutanBhutan Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch); note - the draft constitution establishes a Supreme Court, which will serve as chief court of appeal
BoliwiaBoliwia Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed dla 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one w each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases); Konstytucjaal Tribunal (5 primary or titulares and 5 alternate or suplente magistrates appointed by Congress; to rule on constitutional issues); National Electoral Court (6 members elected by Congress, Supreme Court, the President, and the political party z the highest vote w the last election dla 4-year terms)
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina BH Konstytucjaal Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated w the entities); a War Crimes Chamber opened w marzec 2005


note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts w the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
BotswanaBotswana High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one w each district)
BrazyliaBrazylia Supreme Federal Tribunal or STF (11 ministers are appointed dla life by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed dla life); note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction
BruneiBrunei Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn w by monarch dla three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council w London is final court of appeal dla civil cases; Shariah courts deal z Islamic laws (2006)
BulgariaBulgaria Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Konstytucjaal Court (12 justices appointed or elected dla nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible dla appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates w the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected dla five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso Supreme Court; Appeals Court
BirmaBirma remnants of the British-era legal system are w place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive
BurundiBurundi Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Konstytucjaal Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three w separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
KambodzaKambodza Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided dla w the constitution and formed w grudzien 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
KamerunKamerun Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and six substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)
KanadaKanada Supreme Court of Kanada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Kanada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
KajmanyKajmany Summary Court; Grand Court; Kajmany Court of Appeal
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Konstytucjaal Court (3 judges appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Inferior Courts
CzadCzad Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
ChileChile Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected every three years by the 20-member court); Konstytucjaal Tribunal
ChinyChiny Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and basic courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts)
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court
KolumbiaKolumbia four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council dla eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council dla eight-year terms); Konstytucjaal Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress dla eight-year terms)
KomoryKomory Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one elected by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of the republic)
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna Konstytucjaal Court; Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation; Council of State; High Military Court; plus civil and military courts and tribunals
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka High Court
KostarykaKostaryka Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected dla renewable eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber dla criminal cases, Audit Chamber dla financial cases, Konstytucjaal Chamber dla judicial review cases, and Administrative Chamber dla civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members
ChorwacjaChorwacja Supreme Court; Konstytucjaal Court; judges dla both courts appointed dla eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly
KubaKuba People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)
CyprCypr Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president)


note: there is also a Supreme Court w the area administered by Turkish Cypriots
CzechyCzechy Supreme Court; Konstytucjaal Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president dla a 10-year term
DaniaDania Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch dla life)
DzibutiDzibuti Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
DominikaDominika Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the Court of Appeal and the High Court (located w Saint Lucia; one of the six judges must reside w Dominika and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the National Judicial Council comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, and an additional non-governing party congressional representative)
EkwadorEkwador Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (according to the Konstytucja, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; w grudzien 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
EgiptEgipt Supreme Konstytucjaal Court
SalwadorSalwador Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (15 judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly; the 15 judges are assigned to four Supreme Court chambers - constitutional, civil, penal, and administrative conflict)
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa Supreme Tribunal
ErytreaErytrea High Court - regional, subregional, and village courts; also have military and special courts
EstoniaEstonia National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament dla life)
EtiopiaEtiopia Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; dla other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives dla appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska Court of Justice of the European Communities (ensures that the treaties are interpreted and applied uniformly throughout the EU; resolve constitutional issues among the EU institutions) - 27 justices (one from each member state) appointed dla a six-year term; note - dla the sake of efficiency, the court can sit z 13 justices known as the "Grand Chamber"; Court of First Instance - 27 justices appointed dla a six-year term
FalklandyFalklandy Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze none
FidziFidzi Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts
FinlandiaFinlandia Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
FrancjaFrancja Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary); Konstytucjaal Council or Conseil Konstytucjanel (three members appointed by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the Senate); Council of State or Conseil d'Etat
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Court of the First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Administrative Law or Tribunal Administratif
GabonGabon Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three chambers - Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts; Konstytucjaal Court; Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; County Courts
GambiaGambia Supreme Court
GeorgiaGeorgia Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's or chairman of the Supreme Court's recommendation); Konstytucjaal Court; first and second instance courts
NiemcyNiemcy Federal Konstytucjaal Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
GhanaGhana Supreme Court
GibraltarGibraltar Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
GrecjaGrecja Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed dla life by the president after consultation z a judicial council
GrenlandiaGrenlandia High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court w Copenhagen)
GrenadaGrenada Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of a court of Appeal and a High Court of Justice (a High Court judge is assigned to and resides w Grenada)
GuamGuam Federal District Court (judge is appointed by the president); Territorial Superior Court (judges appointed dla eight-year terms by the governor)
GwatemalaGwatemala Konstytucjaal Court or Corte de Constitutcionalidad is Gwatemala's highest court (five judges are elected dla concurrent five-year terms); Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms)
GuernseyGuernsey Royal Court
GwineaGwinea Court of First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal da Justica (consists of nine justices appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure; final court of appeals w criminal and civil cases); Regional Courts (one w each of nine regions; first court of appeals dla Sectoral Court decisions; hear all felony cases and civil cases valued at over $1,000); 24 Sectoral Courts (judges are not necessarily trained lawyers; they hear civil cases under $1,000 and misdemeanor criminal cases)
GujanaGujana Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of the High Court and the Judicial Court of Appeal, z right of final appeal to the Caribbean Court of Justice
HaitiHaiti Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation
WatykanWatykan there are three tribunals responsible dla civil and criminal matters within Vatican City; three other tribunals rule on issues pertaining to the Holy See


note: judicial duties were established by the Motu Proprio of Pope PIUS XII on 1 maj 1946
HondurasHonduras Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 judges are elected dla seven-year terms by the National Congress)
Hong KongHong Kong Court of Final Appeal w the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
WegryWegry Konstytucjaal Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly dla nine-year terms)
IslandiaIslandia Supreme Court or Haestirettur (justices are appointed dla life by the Minister of Justice); eight district courts (justices are appointed dla life by the Minister of Justice)
IndieIndie Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain w office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed dla "proved misbehavior")
IndonezjaIndonezja Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); a separate Konstytucjaal Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 sierpien 2003; w marzec 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility dla the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning w styczen 2006
IranIran The Supreme Court (Qeveh Qazaieh) and the four-member High Council of the Judiciary have a single head and overlapping responsibilities; together they supervise the enforcement of all laws and establish judicial and legal policies; lower courts include a special clerical court, a revolutionary court, and a special administrative court
IrakIrak the Irak Konstytucja calls dla the federal judicial power to be comprised of the Higher Juridical Council, Federal Supreme Court, Federal Court of Cassation, Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission and other federal courts that are regulated w accordance z the law
IrlandiaIrlandia Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)
Wyspa ManWyspa Man High Court of Justice (justices are appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor)
IzraelIzrael Supreme Court (justices appointed by Judicial Selection Committee - made up of all three branches of the government; mandatory retirement age is 70)
WlochyWlochy Konstytucjaal Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)
JamajkaJamajka Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
JaponiaJaponia Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch after designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)
JerseyJersey Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff)
JordaniaJordania Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final appeal)
KazachstanKazachstan Supreme Court (44 members); Konstytucjaal Council (7 members)
KeniaKenia Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
KiribatiKiribati Court of Appeal; High Court; 26 Magistrates' courts; judges at all levels are appointed by the president
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea Central Court (judges are elected by the Supreme People's Assembly)
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea Supreme Court (justices appointed by president z consent of National Assembly); Konstytucjaal Court (justices appointed by president based partly on nominations by National Assembly and Chief Justice of the court)
KosowoKosowo Supreme Court judges are appointed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); district courts judges are appointed by the SRSG; municipal courts judges are appointed by the SRSG
KuwejtKuwejt High Court of Appeal
KirgistanKirgistan Supreme Court; Konstytucjaal Court (judges of both the Supreme and Konstytucjaal Courts are appointed dla 10-year terms by the Jorgorku Kenesh on the recommendation of the president; their age limit is 70 years); Higher Court of Arbitration; Local Courts (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council on Legal Affairs dla a probationary period of five years, then 10 years)
LaosLaos People's Supreme Court (the president of the People's Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee; the vice president of the People's Supreme Court and the judges are appointed by the National Assembly Standing Committee)
LotwaLotwa Supreme Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament); Konstytucjaal Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament)
LibanLiban four Courts of Cassation (three courts dla civil and commercial cases and one court dla criminal cases); Konstytucjaal Council (called dla w Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
LesothoLesotho High Court (chief justice appointed by the monarch acting on the advice of the Prime Minister); Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts; customary or traditional court
LiberiaLiberia Supreme Court
LibiaLibia Supreme Court
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Court of Appeal or Obergericht
LitwaLitwa Konstytucjaal Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges dla all courts appointed by the President
LuksemburgLuksemburg judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Konstytucjaal Court); judges dla all courts are appointed dla life by the monarch
MakauMakau Court of Final Appeal w Makau Special Administrative Region
MacedoniaMacedonia Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Konstytucjaal Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
MadagaskarMadagaskar Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Konstytucjaal Court or Haute Cour Konstytucjanelle
MalawiMalawi Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts
MalezjaMalezja Civil Courts include Federal Court, Court of Appeal, High Court of Malaya on peninsula Malezja, and High Court of Sabah and Sarawak w states of Borneo (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister); Sharia Courts include Sharia Appeal Court, Sharia High Court, and Sharia Subordinate Courts at state-level and deal z religious and family matters such as custody, divorce, and inheritance, only dla Muslims; decisions of Sharia courts cannot be appealed to civil courts
MalediwyMalediwy High Court
MaliMali Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
MaltaMalta Konstytucjaal Court; Court of Appeal; judges dla both courts are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla Supreme Court; High Court; Traditional Rights Court
MauretaniaMauretania Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Court of Appeals; lower courts
MauritiusMauritius Supreme Court
MajottaMajotta Supreme Court or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
MeksykMeksyk Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (justices or ministros are appointed by the president z consent of the Senate)
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji Supreme Court
MoldawiaMoldawia Supreme Court; Konstytucjaal Court (the sole authority dla constitutional judicature)
MonakoMonako Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)
MongoliaMongolia Supreme Court (serves as appeals court dla people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
CzarnogoraCzarnogora Konstytucjaal Court (five judges z nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
MontserratMontserrat Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based w Saint Lucia, one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court)
MarokoMaroko Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)
MozambikMozambik Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts


note: although the constitution provides dla a separate Konstytucjaal Court, one has never been established; w its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
NamibiaNamibia Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission)
NauruNauru Supreme Court
NepalNepal Supreme Court or Sarbochha Adalat (chief justice is appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Konstytucjaal Council; the other judges are appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Judicial Council)
HolandiaHolandia Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (justices are nominated dla life by the monarch)
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie Joint High Court of Justice (judges appointed by the monarch)
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - judges appointed by the Governor-General
NikaraguaNikaragua Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (16 judges elected dla five-year terms by the National Assembly)
NigerNiger State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel
NigeriaNigeria Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
NiueNiue Supreme Court of Nowa Zelandia; High Court of Niue
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal District Court
NorwegiaNorwegia Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
OmanOman Supreme Court


note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has judges who practice secular and Shari'a law
PakistanPakistan Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
PalauPalau Supreme Court; Court of Common Pleas; Land Court
PanamaPanama Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed dla 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation z the minister responsible dla justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
ParagwajParagwaj Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges appointed on the proposal of the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)
PeruPeru Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
FilipinyFilipiny Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court dla hearing corruption cases of government officials)
PitcairnPitcairn Magistrate's Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Judicial Officers are appointed by the Governor
PolskaPolska Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary dla an indefinite period); Konstytucjaal Tribunal (judges are chosen by the Sejm dla nine-year terms)
PortugaliaPortugalia Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed dla life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
PortorykoPortoryko Supreme Court; Appellate Court; Court of First Instance composed of two sections: a Superior Court and a Municipal Court (justices dla all these courts appointed by the governor z the consent of the Senate)
KatarKatar Courts of First Instance, Appeal, and Cassation; an Administrative Court and a Konstytucjaal Court were established w 2007; note - all judges are appointed by Amiri Decree based on the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council dla renewable three-year terms
RumuniaRumunia Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed dla three-year terms by the president w consultation z the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Konstytucjaal Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, z three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies
RosjaRosja Konstytucjaal Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges dla all courts are appointed dla life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
RuandaRuanda Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena Magistrate's Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court resides w Saint Kitts i Nevis)
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (jurisdiction extends to Anguilla, Antigua i Barbuda, the Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze, Dominika, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts i Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent i Grenadyny)
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court resides w Saint Vincent i Grenadyny)
SamoaSamoa Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; District Court; Land and Titles Court
San MarinoSan Marino Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska Supreme Council of Justice
SenegalSenegal Konstytucjaal Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
SerbiaSerbia Konstytucjaal Court, Supreme Court (to become court of cassation under new constitution), appellate courts, district courts, municipal courts
SeszeleSeszele Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges dla both courts are appointed by the president
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone Supreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court
SingapurSingapur Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president z the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president z the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
SlowacjaSlowacja Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Konstytucjaal Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)
SloweniaSlowenia Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Konstytucjaal Court (judges elected dla nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona Court of Appeal
SomaliaSomalia following the breakdown of the central government, most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Shari'a (Islamic) law z a provision dla appeal of all sentences
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki Konstytucjaal Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts
HiszpaniaHiszpania Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo
Sri LankaSri Lanka Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges dla both courts are appointed by the president
SudanSudan Konstytucjaal Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
SurinamSurinam Cantonal Courts and a Court of Justice as an appellate court (justices are nominated dla life)
SuaziSuazi High Court; Supreme Court; judges dla both courts are appointed by the monarch
SzwecjaSzwecja Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria Federal Supreme Court (judges elected dla six-year terms by the Federal Assembly)
SyriaSyria Supreme Judicial Council (appoints and dismisses judges; headed by the President); national level - Supreme Konstytucjaal Court (adjudicates electoral disputes and rules on constitutionality of laws and decrees; justices appointed dla four-year terms by the President); Court of Cassation; Appeals Courts (Appeals Courts represent an intermediate level between the Court of Cassation and local level courts); local level - Magistrate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Juvenile Courts; Customs Courts; specialized courts - Economic Security Courts (hear cases related to economic crimes); Supreme State Security Court (hear cases related to national security); Personal Status Courts (religious; hear cases related to marriage and divorce)
TajwanTajwan Judicial Yuan (justices appointed by the president z consent of the Legislative Yuan)
TadzykistanTadzykistan Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
TanzaniaTanzania Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions w all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
TajlandiaTajlandia Supreme Court or Sandika (judges appointed by the monarch)
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni Supreme Court of Justice - constitution calls dla one judge to be appointed by National Parliament and rest appointed by Superior Council dla Judiciary; note - until Supreme Court is established, Court of Appeals is highest court
TogoTogo Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
TokelauTokelau Supreme Court w Nowa Zelandia exercises civil and criminal jurisdiction w Tokelau
TongaTonga Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (Chief Justice and high court justices from overseas chosen and approved by Privy Council)
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation z the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Caribbean Court of Appeals member; Court of Appeals; the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council w London
TunezjaTunezja Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation
TurcjaTurcja Konstytucjaal Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
TuvaluTuvalu High Court (a chief justice visits twice a year to preside over its sessions; its rulings can be appealed to the Court of Appeal w Fidzi); eight Island Courts (with limited jurisdiction)
UgandaUganda Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
UkrainaUkraina Supreme Court; Konstytucjaal Court
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie Union Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania House of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal w Ordinary are appointed by the monarch dla life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Irlandia (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of Session and Court of the Justiciary
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed z the advice and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve dla life); Stany Zjednoczone Courts of Appeal; Stany Zjednoczone District Courts; State and County Courts
UrugwajUrugwaj Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected dla 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
UzbekistanUzbekistan Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
VanuatuVanuatu Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation z the prime minister and the leader of the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission)
WenezuelaWenezuela Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly dla a single 12-year term)
WietnamWietnam Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected dla a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze US District Court of the Wyspy Dziewicze (under Third Circuit jurisdiction); Superior Court of the Wyspy Dziewicze (judges appointed by the governor dla 10-year terms)
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna justice generally administered under French law by the high administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary law and there is a magistrate w Mata-Utu; a court of appeal is located w Noumea, Nowa Kaledonia
JemenJemen Supreme Court
ZambiaZambia Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
ZimbabweZimbabwe Supreme Court; High Court
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