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Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2008)

Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow - wybierz rok:
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2001) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2002) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2003) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2004) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2005) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2006) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2007) (porownaj)

Informacje o Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow w 2008 rok

AlbaniaAlbania Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front dla Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
AlgieriaAlgieria The Algierian Human Rights League or LADDH [Hocine ZEHOUANE]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie NA
AndoraAndora NA
AngolaAngola Front dla the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]

note: FLEC's small-scale, highly factionalized armed struggle dla the independence of Cabinda Province ended after BEMBE's faction signed a peace accord w sierpien 2006; other factions have since demobilized under provisions of the accord, although the two main faction leaders have not acceded to the accord
AnguillaAnguilla NA
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
ArgentynaArgentyna Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union dla employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); Roman Catholic Church; students
ArmeniaArmenia Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN], Aylentrank (Impeachment) [Nikol PASHINYAN]
ArubaAruba NA
AustriaAustria Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations w the areas of environment and human rights
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbejdzani Forces (UPAF); Karabakh Liberation Organization
BahamyBahamy NA
BahrajnBahrajn Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically w 1994-97 and have recently engaged w protests z occasional low-level violence; protests related to a host of issues, including the 2002 constitution, elections, unemployment, and release of detainees; Sunni Islamist legislators support a greater role dla Shari'a w daily life; several small leftist and other groups are active
BangladeszBangladesz NA
BarbadosBarbados Barbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Patrick FROST]; Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Herbert GITTENS]; Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, which includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]; National Union of Public Workers [Joseph GODDARD]
BialorusBialorus Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Bialorusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]; Bialorusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Bialorusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV]; For Freedom (unregistered) [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the Bialorusian Party of Communists or PKB); National Strike Committee of Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV, Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dmitriy DASHKEVICH, Sergey BAKHUN]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS]
BelgiaBelgia Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Przemysl; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
BelizeBelize Society dla the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Gustavo PERERA]; Association of Concerned Belizeans or ACB [David VASQUEZ]; National Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUC/B [Rene GOMEZ]
BeninBenin NA
BermudyBermudy Bermudy Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermudy Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermudy Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL]; Bermudy Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
BhutanBhutan Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indien merchant community; United Front dla Democracy (exiled)
BoliwiaBoliwia Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Boliwia or CSUTCB
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina NA
BotswanaBotswana NA
BrazyliaBrazylia Landless Workers' Movement or MST; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze NA
BruneiBrunei NA
BulgariaBulgaria Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups z various agendas
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON]; Burkinabe Movement dla Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]; Group of 14 luty [Benewende STANISLAS]; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO]; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE]; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country w both organizations and communities
BirmaBirma Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC (based w Tajlandia); Federation of Trade Unions-Birma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates); National Coalition Government of the Union of Birma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government w exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly w 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents w grudzien 1990 to form parallel government w exile); Kachin Niepodleglosc Organization or KIO; Karen National Union or KNU; Karenni National People's Party or KNPP; National Council-Union of Birma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (pro-regime, a social and political mass-member organization) [HTAY OO, general secretary]; 88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement) [MIN KO NAING]
BurundiBurundi none
KambodzaKambodza NA
KamerunKamerun Southern Kamerun National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]
KanadaKanada NA
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka NA
KajmanyKajmany NA
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie NA
CzadCzad NA
ChileChile revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
ChinyChiny no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia none
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe none
KolumbiaKolumbia two largest insurgent groups active w Kolumbia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Kolumbia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN
KomoryKomory NA
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna NA
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka NA
KostarykaKostaryka Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Kostarykan Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Kostarykan Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO; Kostarykan Solidarity Movement; Kostarykan Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP [Rafael CARRILLO]; Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association dla Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP [Albino VARGAS]; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert BROWN]
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Serges KOFFI]; Rally of Houphouetists dla Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]; Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE]
ChorwacjaChorwacja NA
KubaKuba NA
CyprCypr Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
CzechyCzechy Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Milan STECH]
DaniaDania NA
DzibutiDzibuti Union dla Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union dla Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, and UDJ)
DominikaDominika Dominika Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania); Collective of Popular Organizations or COP; Foundation dla Institution-Building and Justice (FINJUS)
EkwadorEkwador Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ekwador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ekwador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]
EgiptEgipt despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK has alternated between tolerating limited political activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained w practical terms; only trade unions and professional associations affiliated z the government are officially sanctioned
SalwadorSalwador labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of Salwador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of Salwador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa NA
ErytreaErytrea Erytrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ (also including Erytrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM (also known as the Abu Sihel Movement)); Erytrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement); Erytrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Erytrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF, and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Erytrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]; Erytrean Democratic Party (EDP) [HAGOS, Mesfin]
EstoniaEstonia Nochnoy Dozor/Night Watch anti-fascist movement (leader Alexander KOROBOV)
EtiopiaEtiopia Etiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
FalklandyFalklandy none
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze NA
FidziFidzi NA
FrancjaFrancja historically-Communist labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, approximately 700,000 members (claimed); left-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, approximately 803,000 members (claimed); independent labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail - Force Ouvriere) or FO, 300,000 members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) or CGC, 196,000 members (claimed); employers' union (Mouvement des Entreprises de Francja) or MEDEF, 750,000 companies as members (claimed)

Gujana Francuska: NA

Gwadelupa: Christian Movement dla the Liberation of Gwadelupa or KLPG; General Federation of Gwadelupa Workers or CGT-G; General Union of Gwadelupa Workers or UGTG; Movement dla an Independent Gwadelupa or MPGI; The Socialist Renewal Movement

Martynika: Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union dla Martynika Workers or CSTM; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Proletarian Action Group or GAP

Reunion: NA
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska NA
GabonGabon NA
GambiaGambia NA
GeorgiaGeorgia Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government w exile; separatists w the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
NiemcyNiemcy business associations and employers' organizations; religious, trade unions, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
GhanaGhana NA
GibraltarGibraltar Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
GrecjaGrecja General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]; Federation of Greek Przemysl or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]; Civil Servants Confederation or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
GrenlandiaGrenlandia NA
GrenadaGrenada NA
GuamGuam NA
GwatemalaGwatemala Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee dla Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM
GuernseyGuernsey none
GwineaGwinea National Confederation of Gwinean Workers - Labor Union of Gwinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance: National Confederation of Gwinean Workers [Rabiatou Sarah DIALLO] and Labor Union of Gwinean Workers [Dr. Ibrahima FOFANA]; Syndicate of Gwinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG [Dr. Louis M'Bemba SOUMAH]; National Council of Civil Society Organizations of Gwinea CNOSCG [Ben Sekou SYLLA]
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau NA
GujanaGujana Amerindian People's Association; Gujana Citizens Initiative; Gujana Bar Association; Gujana Human Rights Association; Gujana Public Service Union or GPSU; Private Sector Commission; Trades Union Congress
HaitiHaiti Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]; Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church; Protestant Federation of Haiti
WatykanWatykan none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
HondurasHonduras Committee dla the Defense of Human Rights w Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
Hong KongHong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-Chiny); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Przemysl; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU (pro-Chiny) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance w Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement w Chiny [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Tajwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Neighborhood and Workers' Service Center or NWSC (pro-democracy); The Alliance [Bernard CHARNWUT, exco member]
WegryWegry NA
IslandiaIslandia NA
IndieIndie numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference w the Kashmir Valley and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland w the Northeast
IndonezjaIndonezja NA
IranIran the Islamic Republic Party (IRP) was Iran's sole political party until its dissolution w 1987; Iran now has a variety of groups engaged w political activity; some are oriented along political lines or based on an identity group; others are more akin to professional political parties seeking members and recommending candidates dla office; some are active participants w the Revolution's political life while others reject the state; political pressure groups conduct most of Iran's political activities; groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader, Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh), Islamic Engineers Society, and Tehran Militant Clergy Association (Ruhaniyat); active pro-reform student groups include the Office of Strengthening Unity (OSU); opposition groups include Freedom Movement of Iran, the National Front, Marz-e Por Gohar, Baluchistan People's Party (BPP), and various ethnic and Monarchist organizations; armed political groups that have been repressed by the government include Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI), Komala, Mujahidin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO), People's Fedayeen, Jundallah, and the People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan (PJAK)
IrakIrak an insurgency against the Government of Irak and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated w Baghdad and w areas north, northeast, and west of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency consists principally of Sunni Arabs z a shared desire to oust the Coalition, end US influence w Irak, and reassert Sunni Arab dominance; a number of predominantly Shia militias, some associated z political parties, challenge governmental authority w Baghdad and southern Irak
IrlandiaIrlandia NA
Wyspa ManWyspa Man none
IzraelIzrael Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial concessions w the Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza; YESHA Council of Settlements [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director] monitors human rights abuses
WlochyWlochy Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Guglielmo EPIFANI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNO], which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist)
JamajkaJamajka New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
JaponiaJaponia NA
JerseyJersey none
JordaniaJordania Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Jordania Bar Association [Hussein Mujalli, chairman]; Jordaniaian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Salem AL-FALAHAT, controller general]
KazachstanKazachstan Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Group [Ninel FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For a Just Kazachstan [Bolat ABILOV]; For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]; Kazachstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazachstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAI]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of International Monitors [Dos KUSHIM]; Transparency International [Sergei ZLOTNIKOV]
KeniaKenia Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenia or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]; Kenia Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]; labor unions; Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Ndung'u WAINANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenia or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenia Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
KiribatiKiribati NA
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea none
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea Federation of Korean Przemysl; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations
KuwejtKuwejt a number of political groups act as de facto parties; several legislative blocs operate w the National Assembly: tribal groups, merchants, Shi'a activists, Islamists, secular liberals and pro-government deputies; w mid-2006, a coalition of Islamists, liberals, and Shia campaigned successfully dla electoral reform to reduce corruption
KirgistanKirgistan Adilet Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]; Coalition dla Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]; Interbilim [Asiya SASYKBAYEVA]
LaosLaos political parties and groups other than LPRP are proscribed
LotwaLotwa Headquarters dla the Protection of Rosjan Schools (SHTAB) [Aleksandr KAZAKOV]
LibanLiban none
LesothoLesotho NA
LiberiaLiberia Demobilized former military officers
LibiaLibia various Arab nationalist movements z almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements; an anti-QADHAFI Libian exile movement exists, primarily based w London, but has little influence
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein NA
LitwaLitwa NA
LuksemburgLuksemburg ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
MakauMakau NA
MacedoniaMacedonia Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; Swiat Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
MadagaskarMadagaskar Committee dla the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee dla National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
MalawiMalawi NA
MalezjaMalezja NA
MalediwyMalediwy various unregistered political parties
MaltaMalta NA
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla NA
MauretaniaMauretania Arab nationalists; Ba'thists; General Confederation of Mauretanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]; Independent Confederation of Mauretanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]; Islamists; Mauretanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]
MauritiusMauritius various labor unions
MajottaMajotta NA
MeksykMeksyk Broad Progressive Front or FAP; Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE; Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator dla Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Przemysl or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE; National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE; National Union of Workers or UNT; Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO; Roman Catholic Church
MoldawiaMoldawia NA
MonakoMonako NA
MongoliaMongolia NA
MontserratMontserrat NA
MarokoMaroko Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Maroko or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
MozambikMozambik Institute dla Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement dla Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
NamibiaNamibia NA
NauruNauru NA
NepalNepal Maoist guerrilla-based insurgency [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA, chairman; Dr. Baburam BHATTARAI]; numerous small, left-leaning student groups w the capital; several small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups
HolandiaHolandia Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Rene PAAS]; Confederation of Holandia Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES]; Federation dla Small and Medium-sized businesses or MBK [Loek HERMANS]; Holandia Trade Union Federation or FNV [Agnes JONGERIUS]; Social Economic Council or SER [ Alexander RINNOOY Kan]; Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Ad VERHOEVEN]
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie Unions (AVBO) and Employers Association (VBC)
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia NA
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia NA
NikaraguaNikaragua National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nikaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nikaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nikaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nikaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups
NigerNiger The Nigerien Movement dla Justice or MNJ, a predominantly Tuareg rebel group demanding concessions including a greater share of the country's uranium revenues from the government
NigeriaNigeria NA
NiueNiue NA
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk none
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne NA
NorwegiaNorwegia NA
OmanOman none
PakistanPakistan military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
PalauPalau NA
PanamaPanama Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea NA
ParagwajParagwaj Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]; National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]; National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]; Paragwajan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
PeruPeru leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
FilipinyFilipiny AKBAYAN [Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, and Risa HONTIVEROS-BARAQUIEL]; ALAGAD [Rodante MARROLITA]; ALIF [Acmad TOMAWIS]; An Waray [Horencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Crispin BELTRAN and Rafael MARIANO]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Sunny Rose MADAMBA, Ernesto PABLO, and Edgar VALDEZ]; AVE [Eulogio MAGSAYSAY]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO, Joel VIRADOR, and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE and Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Guillermo CUA]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA]; Partido Ng Manggagawa [Renato MAGTUBO]; Veterans Federation of the Filipiny [Ernesto GIDAYA]
PitcairnPitcairn none
PolskaPolska All Polska Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]; Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK]; Solidarity Trade Union [Janusz SNIADEK]
PortugaliaPortugalia NA
PortorykoPortoryko Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros); note - the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces dla National Liberation or FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
KatarKatar none
RumuniaRumunia various human rights and professional associations
RosjaRosja NA
RuandaRuanda IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena none
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis NA
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia NA
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon NA
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny NA
SamoaSamoa NA
San MarinoSan Marino NA
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca NA
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska none
SenegalSenegal labor; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; students; teachers
SeszeleSeszele Roman Catholic Church; trade unions
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone trade unions and student unions
SingapurSingapur NA
SlowacjaSlowacja Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK; Entrepreneurs Association of Slowacja or ZPS; The Business Alliance of Slowacja or PAS
SloweniaSlowenia NA
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM); Malaita Eagle Force (MEF); note - these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Wyspy Salomona w a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003
SomaliaSomalia numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both w support and w opposition to the transitional government
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki Congress of Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are w a formal alliance z the ANC
HiszpaniaHiszpania Association dla Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Basta Ya (Spanish dla "Enough is Enough"; grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized w kwiecien 1977); Nunca Mais (Galician dla "Never Again"; formed w response to the oil Tanker Prestige oil spill); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Sri LankaSri Lanka Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting dla a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) or "Karuna group" [Vinayagamurthi MURALITHARAN] (paramilitary breakaway from LTTE and fighting LTTE)
SudanSudan Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
SurinamSurinam Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]; Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]; Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD]
SuaziSuazi NA
SzwecjaSzwecja NA
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria NA
SyriaSyria Damascus Declaration National Council [Riyad SEIF, secretary general] (a broad alliance of opposition groups and individuals including: Committee dla Revival of Civil Society [Michel KILO, Riyad SEIF]; Communist Action Party [Fateh JAMOUS]; Kurdish Democratic Alliance; Kurdish Democratic Front; Liberal Nationalists' Movement; National Democratic Front; National Democratic Rally; and Syrian Human Rights Society or HRAS [Fawed FAWUZ]); National Salvation Front (alliance between former Vice President Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, the SMB, and other small opposition groups); Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Sadr al-Din al-BAYANUNI]; (operates w exile w London; endorsed the Damascus Declaration but is not an official member)
TajwanTajwan Tajwan independence movement, various business and environmental groups

note: debate on Tajwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Tajwan; political liberalization and the increased representation of opposition parties w Tajwan's legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity; a broad popular consensus has developed that the island currently enjoys sovereign independence and - whatever the ultimate outcome regarding reunification or independence - that Tajwan's people must have the deciding voice; public opinion polls consistently show a substantial majority of Tajwan people supports maintaining Tajwan's status quo dla the foreseeable future; advocates of Tajwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify z mainland Chiny; goals of the Tajwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Tajwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting Tajwan independence include the Swiat United Formosans dla Niepodleglosc and the Organization dla Tajwan Nation Building
TadzykistanTadzykistan unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Party of Justice [Abdurahim KARIMOV]; People's Unity Party [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; note - this is a SPT that was disbanded, another pro-government SPT (listed above under political parties) replaced it; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
TanzaniaTanzania NA
TajlandiaTajlandia NA
TogoTogo NA
TokelauTokelau none
TongaTonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]; Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]
TunezjaTunezja 18 pazdziernik Group [collective leadership]; Tunezjan League dla Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]; note - the Islamist Party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
TurcjaTurcja Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Ismail Hakki TOMBUL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan NA
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos NA
TuvaluTuvalu none
UkrainaUkraina Committee of Voters of Ukraina [Ihor POPOV]; Peoples' Self-Defense [Yuriy LUTSENKO]
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie NA
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania Campaign dla Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone NA
UrugwajUrugwaj Architect's Society of Urugwaj (professional organization); Catholic Church; Chamber of Urugwajan Przemysl (manufacturer's association); Chemist and Pharmaceutical Association (professional organization); PIT-CNT (powerful federation of Urugwajan unions); Rural Association of Urugwaj (rancher's association); students; Urugwajan Construction League
UzbekistanUzbekistan Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee dla the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 grudzien 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
VanuatuVanuatu NA
WenezuelaWenezuela FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Wenezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action)
WietnamWietnam groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by government - 8406 Bloc; Democratic Party of Wietnam or DPV; People's Democratic Party Wietnam or PDP-VN; Alliance dla Democracy (2006)
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze NA
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna NA
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia none
JemenJemen NA
ZambiaZambia NA
ZimbabweZimbabwe Crisis w Zimbabwe Coalition [Xolani ZITHA]; National Konstytucjaal Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]; Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenny WILLIAMS]; Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE]
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