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Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2008)

Partie polityczne i przywodcy - wybierz rok:
- Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2001) (porownaj)
- Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2002) (porownaj)
- Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2003) (porownaj)
- Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2004) (porownaj)
- Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2005) (porownaj)
- Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2006) (porownaj)
- Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2007) (porownaj)


Informacje o Partie polityczne i przywodcy w 2008 rok

AfganistanAfganistan Afganistan Peoples' Treaty Party (Hizb-e-Wolesi Tarhun Afganistan) [Sayyed Amir TAHSEEN]; Afganistan's Islamic Mission Organization (Tanzim Daawat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Rasoul SAYYAF]; Afganistan's Islamic Nation Party (Hezb-e-Umat-e-Islam-e-Afganistan) [Toran Noor Aqa Ahmad ZAI]; Afganistan's National Islamic Party (Hezb-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Rohullah LOUDIN]; Afganistan's Welfare Party (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Afganistan) [Meer Asef ZAEEFI]; Afghan Social Democratic Party (Hezb-e-Afghan Melat) [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; Afghan Society dla the Call to the Koran and Sunna (Hezb-e-Jamahat-ul-Dawat ilal Quran-wa-Sunat-e-Afganistan) [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Comprehensive Movement of Democracy and Development of Afganistan Party (Hizb-e-Nahzat Faragir Democracy wa Taraqi-e-Afganistan) [Sher Mohammad BAZGAR]; Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Democracy Afganistan) [Tawos ARAB]; Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Domcrat-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Kabir RANJBAR]; Elites People of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Nakhbagan-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Hamid JAWAD]; Freedom and Democracy Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Nahzat-e-Aazadee Wa Democracy-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Raqib Jawid KOHISTANEE]; Freedom Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Azadee-e-Afganistan) [Ilaj Abdul MALEK]; Freedom Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Isteqlal-e-Afganistan) [Dr. Ghulam Farooq NEJRABEE]; Hizullah-e-Afganistan [Qari Ahmad ALI]; Human Rights Protection and Development Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqooq-e-Bashar Wa Inkishaf-e-Afganistan) [Baryalai NASRATI]; Islamic Justice Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Kabir MARZBAN]; Islamic Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e Harakat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Ali JAWID]; Islamic Movement of Afganistan Party (Hizb-e-Nahzat-e-Melli Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Mukhtar MUFLEH]; Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Khalid FAROOQI]; Islamic Party of the Afghan Land (De Afghan Watan Islami Gond) [Mohammad Hassan FEROZKHEL]; Islamic People's Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Islami Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ilhaj Said Hussain ANWARY]; Islamic Society of Afganistan (Hezb-e Jamihat-e-Islami) [Ustad RABBANI]; Islamic Unity of the Nation of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami-e-Melat-e-Afganistan) [Qurban Ali URFANI]; Islamic Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Karim KHALILI]; Islamic Unity Party of the People of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ]; Labor and Progress of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Kar Wa Tawsiha-e-Afganistan) [Zulfiqar OMID]; Muslim People of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Mardom-e-Mosalman-e-Afganistan) [Besmellah JOYAN]; Muslim Unity Movement Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Tahreek Wahdat-ul-Musimeen Afganistan) [Wazir Mohammad WAHDAT]; National and Islamic Sovereignty Movement Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Eqtedar-e-Melli wa Islami Afganistan) [Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai]; National Congress Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Kangra-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Latif PEDRAM]; National Country Party (Hezb-e-Mili Heward) [GHULAM MOHAMMAD]; National Development Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Taraqee Mili Afganistan) [Dr. Aref BAKTASH]; National Freedom Seekers Party (Hezb-e-Aazaadi Khwahan Maihan) [Abdul Hadi DABEER]; National Niepodleglosc Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e Esteqlal-e-Mili Afganistan) [Taj Mohammad WARDAK]; National Islamic Fighters Party of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Mili Mubarizeeno Islami Gond) [Amanat NINGARHAREE]; National Islamic Front of Afganistan (Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afganistan) [Pir Sayed Ahmad GAILANEE]; National Islamic Moderation Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Eatedal-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Qara Bik Eized YAAR]; National Islamic Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Junbish Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Sayed NOORULLAH]; National Islamic Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad AKBAREE]; National Movement of Afganistan (Nahzat-e-Mili Afganistan) [Ahmad Wali MASOOUD]; National Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mili Afganistan) [Abdul Rashid ARYAN]; National Patch of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e Paiwand Mihahani Afganistan) [Sayed Kamal SADAT]; National Peace Islamic Party of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Solay Mili Islami Gond) [Shah Mohammood Popal ZAI]; National Peace & Islamic Party of the Tribes of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Qaher SHARIATEE]; National Peace & Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Qader IMAMI]; National Prosperity and Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Osman SALEKZADA]; National Prosperity Party (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mili Afganistan) [Mohammad Hassan JAHFAREE]; National Solidarity Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Nahzat-e-Hambastagee Mili-e-Afganistan) [Pir Sayed Eshaq GAILANEE]; National Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Paiwand Mili Afganistan) [Sayed Mansoor NADREEI]; National Sovereignty Party (Hezb-e-Eqtedar-e-Mili) [Sayed Mustafa KAZEMI]; National Stability Party (Hezb-e-Subat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Same KHAROTI]; National Stance Party (Hizb-e-Melli Dareez) [Habibullah JANEBDAR]; National Tribal Unity Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANI]; National United Front (Jumbah-e Mutahed-e Milli) [Burhanuddin RABBANI] (a coalition); National Unity Movement (Hezb-e-Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Sultan Mohammad GHAZI]; National Unity Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Nadir AATASH]; National Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afganistan) [Abdul Rashid JALILI]; New Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Afganistan-e-Naween) [Mohammad Yunis QANUNI]; Peace and National Welfare Activists Society (Hezb-e-Majmeh Mili Faleen-Sulh-e-Afganistan) [Shamsul Haq Noor SHAMS]; Peace Movement (De Afganistan De Solay Ghorzang Gond) [Shahnawaz TANAI]; People's Aspirations Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ilhaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; People's Freedom Seekers Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Aazadee Khwahan Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Feda Mohammad EHSAS]; People's Liberal Freedom Seekers Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Lebral-e-Aazadee Khwa-e-Afganistan) [Ajmal SUHAIL]; People's Message Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Resalat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Noor Aqa WAINEE]; People's Movement of the National Unity of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Mili Wahdat Wolesi Tahreek) [Abdul Hakim NOORZAI]; People's Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ahmad Shah ASAR]; People's Prosperity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ustad Mohammad ZAREEF]; People's Sovereignty Movement of Afganistan (Nahzat-e-Hakemyat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Hayatullah SUBHANEE]; People's Uprising Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Sayed Zahir Qayed Omul BELADI]; People's Welfare Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Mia Gul WASIQ]; People's Welfare Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ]; Progressive Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Taraqee Democrat Afganistan) [Wali ARYA]; Republican Party (Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahane-Afganistan) [Sebghatullah SANJAR]; Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Hambastagee-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT]; The Afganistan's Mujahid Nation's Islamic Unity Movement (Da Afganistan Mujahid Woles Yaowaali Islami Tahreek) [Saeedullah SAEED]; The People of Afganistan's Democratic Movement (Hezb-e-Junbish Democracy Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Sharif NAZARI]; Tribes Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e Hambastagee Mili Aqwam-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Zarif NASERI]; Understanding and Democracy Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Tafahum Wa Democracy-e-Afganistan) [Ahamad SHAHEEN]; United Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Afganistan-e-Wahid) [Mohammad Wasil RAHIMEE]; United Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Mutahed Islami Afganistan) [Wahidullah SABAWOON]; Young Afganistan's Islamic Organization (Hezb-e-Islami-e-Afganistan-e-Jawan) [Sayed Jawad HUSSINEE]; Youth Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili Jawanan-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Jamil KARZAI]; note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of Justice
AlbaniaAlbania Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nard NDOKA]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or AD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIA]; Liberal Union Party or BLD [Arjan STAROVA]; Movement dla National Development or LZhK [Dashamir SHEHI]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Adriatik ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party of Albania or PDSSh [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement dla Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union dla Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE]
AlgieriaAlgieria Ahd 54 [Ali Fauzi REBAINE]; Algierian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed kwiecien 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Mohamed BOULAHIA]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Mohamed BENSMAIL]; Rally dla Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]


note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted w marzec 1997
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]; Republican Party [Tautai A. F. FAALEVAO]
AndoraAndora Andoran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party or PD); Century 21 or S21 [Enric TARRADO]; Liberal Party of Andora or PLA [Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA] (formerly Liberal Union or UL); Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY] (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND)
AngolaAngola Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front dla the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed between Ngola KABANGU and Lucas NGONDA]; National Union dla the Total Niepodleglosc of Angola or UNITA (largest opposition party) [Isaias SAMAKUVA]; Popular Movement dla the Liberation of Angola or MPLA (ruling party w power since 1975) [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS]; Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]


note: about a dozen minor parties participated w the 1992 elections but only won a few seats; they and over 100 other smaller parties have little influence w the National Assembly
AnguillaAnguilla Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]; The Anguilla United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS] (a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA); Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Roy ROGERS]; Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans dla a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement dla Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
ArgentynaArgentyna Coalicion Civica (a broad coalition loosely affiliated z Elisa CARRIO); Front dla Victory or FV (a broad coalition, including elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including PRO); Justicialist Front or FJ; Justicialist Party or PJ (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Gerardo MORALES]; Republican Proposal or PRO (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY] and Commitment dla Change or CPC [Mauricio MACRI]); Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial parties
ArmeniaArmenia Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABYAN]; Armenian People's Party [Tigran KARAPETYAN]; Armenian Ramkavar Azadagan Party Alliance or HRAK (includes former Dashink Party, National Revival Party, and Ramkavar Liberal Party); Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISYAN]; National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSAROUKYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Republican Party of Armenia or HHK [Serzh SARGSYAN]; Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARYAN]; Union of Konstytucjaal Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]
ArubaAruba Aliansa/Aruban Social Movement or MSA [Robert WEVER]; Aruban Liberal Organization or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Movement or MPA [Monica ARENDS-KOCK]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Mike EMAN]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; Real Democracy or PDR [Andin BIKKER]; RED [Rudy LAMPE]; Workers Political Platform or PTT [Gregorio WOLFF]
AustraliaAustralia Australian Democrats [Lyn ALLISON]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Australian Labor Party [Kevin RUDD]; Country Liberal Party [Jodeen CARNEY]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [Brendan NELSON]; The Nationals [Warren TRUSS]
AustriaAustria Alliance dla the Future of Austria or BZOe [Peter WESTENTHALER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wilhelm MOLTERER]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan Azadliq ("Freedom") coalition (Popular Front Party, Liberal Party, Citizens' Development Party); Azerbejdzan Democratic Party (ADP) [Sardar JALALOGLU]; Azerbejdzan Democratic Reforms Party (ADRP) Youth Movement [Ramin HAJILI]; Azerbejdzan Popular Front or APF, now split w two [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" APF party; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" APF party]; Azerbejdzan Public Forum [Eldar NAMAZOV]; Citizens' Development Party [Ali ALIYEV]; Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Dalga Youth Movement [Vafa JAFAROVA]; Green Party [Mais GULALIYEV and Tarana MAMMADOVA]; Hope (Umid) Party [Iqbal AGAZADE]; Ireli Youth Movement [Jeyhun OSMANLI, Roya TALIBOVA, Farhad MAMMADOV, Elnara GARIBOVA, Elnur MAMMADOV, Ziya ALIYEV]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbejdzan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA]; Magam Youth Movement [Emin HUSEYNOV]; Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]; Musavat ("Equality") [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Musavat Party Youth Movement [Elnur MAMMADLI]; National Democratic Party or "Grey Wolves" (Nationalist, Pan-Turkic) [Iskender HAMIDOV]; Open Society Party [Rasul GULIYEV, w exile w the US]; Party dla National Niepodleglosc of Azerbejdzan or PNIA [Ayaz RUSTAMOV]; Popular Front Party Youth Movement [Seymur KHAZIYEV]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbejdzan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV (in exile)]; Turkish Nationalist Party [Vugar BAYTURAN]; United Azerbejdzan Party [Karrar ABILOV]; United Azerbejdzan National Unity Party [Hajibaba AZIMOV]; United Party [Tahir KARIMLI]; Yeni (New) Azerbejdzan Party [President Ilham ALIYEV]; Yeni Azerbejdzan Party Youth Movement [Ramil HASANOV]; Yox (No) Youth Movement [Ali ISMAYILOV]


note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties;
BahamyBahamy Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert INGRAHAM]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]
BahrajnBahrajn political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a lipiec 2005 law
BangladeszBangladesz Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesz Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesz Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesz or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED]
BarbadosBarbados Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David THOMPSON]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [David COMISSIONG]
BialorusBialorus pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Bialorusian Communist Party or KPB; Bialorusian Patriotic Movement (Bialorusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolay ULAKHOVICH, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party of Bialorus [Sergey GAYDUKEVICH]; Party of Labor and Justice [Viktor SOKOLOV]; Social-Sports Party [Vladimir ALEXANDROVICH]


opposition parties: Bialorusian Christian Democracy Party (unregistered) [Pavel SEVERINETS]; Bialorusian Party of Communists or PKB [Sergey KALYAKIN]; Bialorusian Party of Labor (unregistered) [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV, Leonid LEMESHONAK]; Bialorusian Popular Front or BPF [Vintsyuk VYACHORKA]; Bialorusian Social-Democratic Gramada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]; Bialorusian Social Democratic Party Hramada (People's Assembly) or BSDPH [Aleksandr KOZULIN; Anatoliy LEVKOVICH, acting]; Green Party [Oleg GROMYKO]; Party of Freedom and Progress (unregistered) [Vladimir NOVOSYAD]; United Civic Party or UCP [Anatoliy LEBEDKO]; Women's Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina MATUSEVICH, chairperson]


other opposition includes: Christian Conservative BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; Ecological Party of Greens [Mikhail KARTASH]; Party of Popular Accord [Sergey YERMAKK]; Republican Party [Vladimir BELAZOR]
BelgiaBelgia Flemish parties: Christian Democratic and Flemish or CDV [Etienne SCHOUPPE]; Dedecker List [Jean-Marie DEDECKER]; Flemish Liberals and Democrats or Open VLD [Bart SOMERS]; Groen! [Mieke VOGELS] (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens); New Flemish Alliance or N-VA [Bart DE WEVER]; Social Progressive Alternative or SP.A [Caroline GENNEZ]; Spirit [Geert LAMBERT] (new party now associated z SP.A); Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Bruno VALKENIERS]


Francophone parties: Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUX, Isabelle DURANT, Claude BROUIR]; Humanist and Democratic Center or CDH [Joelle MILQUET]; National Front or FN [Michel BELACROIX]; Reform Movement or MR [Didier REYNDERS]; Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; other minor parties
BelizeBelize National Alliance dla Belizean Rights or NABR; National Reform Party or NRP [Cornelius DUECK]; People's National Party or PNP [Wil MAHEIA]; People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW]; Vision Inspired by the People or VIP [Paul MORGAN]; We the People Reform Movement or WTP [Hipolito BAUTISTA]
BeninBenin Alliance dla Dynamic Democracy or ADD; Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP; African Movement dla Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Benin Renaissance or RB [Rosine SOGLO]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Force Cowrie dla an Emerging Benin or FCBE; Impulse dla Progress and Democracy or IPD [Theophile NATA]; Key Force or FC [Lazare SČHOUÉTO]; Movement dla the People's Alternative or MAP [Olivier CAPO-CHICHI]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Dominique HOUNGNINOU]; Social Democrat Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Union dla the Relief or UPR [Issa SALIFOU]; Union dla Democracy and National Solidarity or UDS [Sacca LAFIA]


note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
BermudyBermudy Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermudy Party or UBP [Wayne FURBERT]
BhutanBhutan Druk Pheunsum Tshogpa or DPT [Jigme THINLEY]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Sangay NGEDUP]
BoliwiaBoliwia Free Boliwia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; National Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Mirta QUEVEDO]; National Unity [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]; Poder Democratico Nacional or PODEMOS [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Social Alliance [Rene JOAQUINO]
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia i Hercegowina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union of Bosnia i Hercegowina or HDZ-BH [Dragan COVIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]; Chorwacjan Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party dla Bosnia i Hercegowina or SBH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party dla Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
BotswanaBotswana Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF


note: a number of minor parties joined forces w 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Niepodleglosc Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
BrazyliaBrazylia Brazyliaian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel TEMER]; Brazyliaian Labor Party or PTB [Roberto JEFFERSON]; Brazyliaian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]; Brazyliaian Republican Party or PRB [Vitor Paulo Araujo DOS SANTOS]; Brazyliaian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Sergio GUERRA]; Brazyliaian Socialist Party or PSB [Governor Eduardo Henrique Accioly CAMPOS]; Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]; Communist Party of Brazylia or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]; the Democrats or DEM (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL) [Federal Deputy Rodrigo MAIA]; Freedom and Socialism Party or PSOL [Heloisa HELENA]; Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Paulo Roberto MATOS]; Labor Party of Brazylia or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]; Liberal Front Party or PFL (now known as the Democrats or DEM); National Mobilization Party or PMN [Oscar Noronha FILHO]; Party of the Republic or PR [Sergio TAMER]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Federal Deputy Fernando CORUJA]; Progressive Party or PP [Francisco DORNELLES]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]; Workers' Party or PT [Ricardo Jose Ribeiro BERZOINI]
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory MADURO]; Wyspy Dziewicze Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]
BruneiBrunei National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]


note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered; parties are small and have limited activity
BulgariaBulgaria ATAKA (Attack Coalition) (coalition of parties headed by the Attack National Union); Attack National Union [Volen SIDEROV]; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia MOZER]; Bulgarian New Democracy [Borislav RALCHEV]; Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and BANU); Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Citizens dla the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV]; Coalition dla Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Democrats dla a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement dla Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement dla Stability and Progress or NDSV [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Petar STOYANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF)
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso African Democratic Rally-Alliance dla Democracy and Federation or ADF-RDA [Gilbert OUEDRAOGO]; Citizen's Popular Rally or RPC [Antoine QUARE]; Coalition of Democratic Forces of Burkina or CFD-B [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress dla Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement dla Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party dla African Niepodleglosc or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party dla Democracy and Progress/Socialist Party or PDP/PS [Ali LANKOANDE]; Party dla Democracy and Socialism or PDS [Felix SOUBEIGA]; Party dla National Rebirth or PAREN [Oumar DJIGUIMDE]; Rally dla the Development of Burkina or RDB [Antoine KARGOUGOU]; Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Ram OUEDRAGO]; Republican Party dla Integration and Solidarity or PARIS [Cyril GOUNGOUNGA]; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Fidele HIEN]; Union dla Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende STANISLAS]; Union dla the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]; Union of Sankarist Parties or UPS [Ernest Nongma OUEDRAOGO]
BirmaBirma National League dla Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, AUNG SAN SUU KYI]; National Unity Party or NUP (pro-regime) [TUN YE]; Shan Nationalities League dla Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; and other smaller parties
BurundiBurundi governing parties: Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA]; National Council dla the Defense of Democracy - Front dla the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Jeremie NGENDAKUMANA]; Unity dla National Progress or UPRONA [Aloys RUBUKA]


note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council dla the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA]; National Resistance Movement dla the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party dla National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
KambodzaKambodza Kambodzan People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front dla an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Kambodza or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [Norodom RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]
KamerunKamerun Kamerunian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]; Kamerun People's Democratic Movement or RDPC [Paul BIYA]; Movement dla the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement dla the Liberation and Development of Kamerun or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]; National Union dla Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]; Progressive Movement or MP; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Peoples of Kamerun or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]
KanadaKanada Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Kanada [Stephen HARPER] (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party); Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka African Party dla Niepodleglosc of Republika Zielonego Przyladka or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance dla Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]; Democratic and Independent Republika Zielonego Przyladkaan Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Movement dla Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES]; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]
KajmanyKajmany United Democratic Party or UDP [McKeeva BUSH]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Kurt TIBBETTS]; note - no national teams (loose groupings of political organizations) were formed dla the 2000 elections
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie Alliance dla Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum dla Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement dla Democracy and Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement dla the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [Ange-Felix PATASSE] (the party of deposed president); National Convergence or KNK; Patriotic Front dla Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union dla the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]
CzadCzad Federation Action dla the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally dla Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union dla Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party dla Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union dla Democracy and Republic or UDR [Jean ALINGUE]; Union dla Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
ChileChile Alliance dla Chile ("Alianza") or APC (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena] and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Hernan LARRAIN Fernandez]); Coalition of Parties dla Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Soledad ALVEAR], Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA Medina], Party dla Democracy or PPD [Sergio BITAR Chacra], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia]); Communist Party or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER]; Humanist Party [Marilen CABRERA Olmos]
ChinyChiny Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia none
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe none
KolumbiaKolumbia Kolumbian Conservative Party or PC [Julio MANZUR Abdala]; Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz]; Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo]; Radical Change or CR [German VARGAS Lleras]; Social National Unity Party or U Party [Carlos GARCIA Orjuela]


note: Kolumbia has 15 formally recognized political parties, and numerous unofficial parties that did not meet the vote threshold w the marzec 2006 legislative elections required dla recognition
KomoryKomory Convention dla the Renewal of the Komory or CRC [AZALI Assowmani]; Camp of the Autonomous Islands or CdIA (a coalition of parties organized by the islands' presidents w opposition to the Union President); Front National pour la Justice or FNJ [Ahmed RACHID] (Islamic party w opposition); Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress or MDP-NGDC [Abbas DJOUSSOUF]; Parti Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP [Ali MROUDJAE]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND [Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE]
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]; Congolese Rally dla Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]; Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC; Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]; Movement dla the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]; People's Party dla Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Joseph KABILA]; Social Movement dla Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]; Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI]; Union of Mobutuist Democrats or UDEMO [MOBUTU Nzanga]
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika Action Movement dla Renewal or MAR; Congolese Movement dla Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Congolese Labour Party or PCT; Movement dla Solidarity and Development or MSD; Pan-African Union dla Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally dla Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally dla Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Union dla Democracy and Republic or UDR; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]; many less important parties
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka Wyspy Cooka Party or CIP [Henry PUNA]; Democratic Party or Demo [Dr. Terepai MAOATE]
KostarykaKostaryka Authentic Member from Heredia [Jose SALAS]; Citizen Action Party or PAC [Epsy CAMPBELL Barr]; Kostarykan Renovation Party or PRC [Gerardo Justo OROZCO Alvarez]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Marco NUNEZ Gonzalez]; General Union Party or PUGEN [Carlos Alberto FERNANDEZ Vega]; Homeland First or PP [Juan Jose VARGAS Fallas]; Independent Worker Party or PIO [Jose Alberto CUBERO Carmona]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Juan Carlos CHAVEZ Mora]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Francisco Antonio PACHECO Fernandez]; National Patriotic Party or PPN [Daniel Enrique REYNOLDS Vargas]; National Restoration Party or PRN [Fabio Enrique DELGADO Hernandez]; National Union Party or PUN [Arturo ACOSTA Mora]; Nationalist Democratic Alliance or ADN [Jose Miguel VILLALOBOS Umana]; Patriotic Union or UP [Jose Miguel CORRALES Bolanos]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis FISHMAN Zonzinski]; Union dla Change Party or UPC [Antonio ALVAREZ Desanti]; United Leftist Coalition or IU [Humberto VARGAS Carbonel]
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Theodore MEL EG]; Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire-African Democratic Rally or PDCI-RDA [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascale Affi N'GUESSAN]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Opposition Movement of the Future or MFA [Innocent sierpienin ANAKY]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]; Union dla Democracy and Peace w Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Toikeuse MABRI]; over 144 smaller registered parties
ChorwacjaChorwacja Chorwacjan Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Vladimir SISLJAGIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Chorwacjan Party of the Right or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Chorwacjan Peasant Party or HSS [Josip FRISCIC]; Chorwacjan Pensioner Party or HSU [Vladimir JORDAN]; Chorwacjan People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Chorwacjan Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Djurdja ADLESIC]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Social Democratic Party of Chorwacja or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]
KubaKuba Kuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]
CyprCypr area under government control: Democratic Party or DIKO [Marios KAROYIAN]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; European Democracy or EURO.DI [Prodromos PRODROMOU] (evolved from For Europe which merged z New Horizons); European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cypr [George PERDIKIS]; Movement dla Social Democrats or EDEK [Yannakis OMIROU]; Political Movement of Hunters [Michalis PAFITANIS]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; United Democrats or EDI [Michalis PAPAPETROU]


area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Huseyin ANGOLEMLI]; Cypr Socialist Party or KSP [Kazim ONGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Serder DENKTASH]; Freedom and Reform Party or OP [Turgay AVCI]; National Unity Party or UBP [Tahsin ERTUGRULOGLU]; Nationalist Justice Party or MAP [Ata TEPE]; New Party or YP [Huseyin TURAN]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Oguz OZEN]; Peace and Democratic Movement or BDH [Mustafa AKINCI]; Renewal Progress Party or YAP [Ertugrul HASIPOGLU]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Ferdi Sabit SOYER]; United Cypr Party or BKP [Isset IZCAN]
CzechyCzechy Association of Independent Candidates-European Democrats or SNK-ED [Helmut DOHNALEK]; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Jiri CUNEK]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Jiri PAROUBEK]; Union of Freedom-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Jan CERNY]; Green Party [Martin BURSIK]; Independent Democrats (NEZDEM) [Vladimir ZELEZNY]; Party of Open Society (SOS) [Pavel NOVACEK]; Path of Change [Jiri LOBKOWITZ]
DaniaDania Christian Democrats [Bodil KORNBEK] (was Christian People's Party); Conservative Party [Bendt BENDTSEN] (sometimes known as Conservative People's Party); Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; New Alliance [Naser KHADER]; Red-Green Unity List (Alliance) [collective leadership] (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Dania, Socialist Workers' Party); Social Democratic Party [Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT]; Social Liberal Party [Margrethe VESTAGER]; Socialist People's Party [Villy SOEVNDAL]
DzibutiDzibuti Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; Dzibuti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]; Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party); Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]; Republican Alliance dla Democracy or ARD; Union dla a Presidential Majority or UMP (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD); Union dla Democracy and Justice or UDJ
DominikaDominika Dominika Freedom Party or DFP [Charles SAVARIN]; Dominika Labor Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT]; Dominika United Workers Party or UWP [Earl WILLIAMS]
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska Dominikan Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominikan Revolutionary Party or PRD [Ramon ALBURQUERQUE]; National Progressive Front [Vincent CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Enrique ANTUN]
EkwadorEkwador Alianza PAIS Movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]; Christian Democratic Union or UDC [Diego ORDONEZ Guerrero]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP; Democratic Left or ID [Andres PAEZ Benalcazar]; Ethical and Democratic Network or RED [Leon ROLDOS]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement - New Country or MUPP-NP [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Ciro GUZMAN Aldaz]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Gustavo AYALA Cruz]
EgiptEgipt National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Moussa Mustafa MOUSSA]


note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties z representation w elected bodies are listed
SalwadorSalwador Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo PARKER]; Democratic Convergence or CD [Ruben ZAMORA] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU); Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez]; Popular Social Christian Party or PPSC [Rene AGUILUZ]; Revolutionary Democratic Front or FDR [Julio Cesar HERNANDEZ Carcamo]
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa Convergence Party dla Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido MICO Abogo]; Democratic Party dla Gwinea Równikowa or PDGE (ruling party) [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]; Party dla Progress of Gwinea Równikowa or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Gwinea Równikowa or APGE [Avelino MOCACHE]; Popular Union or UP
ErytreaErytrea People's Front dla Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afworki] (the only party recognized by the government); note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties w styczen 2001, but the full National Assembly has not yet debated or voted on it
EstoniaEstonia Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR]; Estonian Greens (Rohelised) [Marek STRANDBERG]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Rosjan People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR]; Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) [Mart LAAR]
EtiopiaEtiopia Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition dla Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP [AYELE Chamisso] (awarded to AYELE 11 styczen 2008, but AYELE has virtually no support among former CUD MPs, other CUD MPs must now be affiliated z their original CUD-precursor parties); Etiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM, Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO, the South Etiopian People's Democratic Front or SEPDF, and Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front or TPLF); Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement or GNDM; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Omoro People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP; United Etiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska Confederal Group of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left or EUL/NGL [Francis WURTZ]; European People's Party-European Democrats or EPP-ED [Joseph DAUL]; Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats dla Europe or ALDE [Graham R. WATSON]; Group of Greens/European Free Alliance or Greens/EFA [Monica FRASSONI and Daniel Marc COHN-BENDIT]; Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty Group or ITS [Bruno GOLLNISCH]; Niepodleglosc/Democracy Group or IND/DEM [Jens-Peter BONDE and Nigel FARAGE]; Socialist Group w the European Parliament or PES [Martin SCHULZ]; Union dla Europe of the Nations Group or UEN [Brian CROWLEY and Cristiana MUSCARDINI]
FalklandyFalklandy none; all independents
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze Center Party [Jenis A. RANA]; Niepodleglosc Party [Kari P. HOJGAARD]; People's Party [Jorgen NICLASEN]; Republican Party [Hogni HOYDAL]; Social Democratic Party [Joannes EIDESGAARD]; Union Party [Kaj Leo JOHANNESEN]
FidziFidzi Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [Fereti S. DEWA]; Fidzi Democratic Party or FDP [Filipe BOLE] (a merger of the Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [Poesci Waqalevu BUNE], Fidzian Association Party or FAP, Fidzian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fidzian) [Sitiveni RABUKA], and New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Ofa SWANN]); Fidzi Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; General Voters Party or GVP (became part of United General Party); Girmit Heritage Party or GHP; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indien) [Pramond RAE]; Nationalist Vanua Takolavo Party or NVTLP [Saula TELAWA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [Ponipate LESAVUA]; Party of the Truth or POTT; United Fidzi Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United Peoples Party or UPP [Millis Mick BEDDOES]
FinlandiaFinlandia Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green Party or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS [Martti KORHONEN] (composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative); National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]
FrancjaFrancja Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union dla French Democracy or UDF); Democratic and Social European Rally or RDSE [Pierre LAFFITTE] (mainly Radical Republican and Socialist Parties, and PRG); French Communist Party or PCF [Marie-George BUFFET]; Greens [Cecile DUFLOT]; Left Radical Party or PRG [Jean-Michel BAYLET] (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG); Movement dla Francja or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]; National Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; New Center or NC [Herve MORIN]; Rally dla Francja or RPF [Charles PASQUA]; Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT and Georges SARRE]; Socialist Party or PS [Francois HOLLANDE]; Union dla a Popular Movement or UMP [Patrick DEVEDJIAN, Jean-Claude GAUDIN, Jean-Pierre RAFFARIN, Pierre MEHAIGNERIE]; Radical Party [Jean-Louis BORLOO]
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska Alliance dla a New Democracy or ADN [Nicole BOUTEAU and Philip SCHYLE](includes the parties The New Star and This Country is Yours); Independent Front dla the Liberation of Polynesia (Tavini Huiraatira) [Oscar TEMARU]; New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api) [Emile VERNAUDON]; Our Home alliance; People's Rally dla the Republic of Polynesia or RPR (Tahoeraa Huiraatira) [Gaston FLOSSE]; Union dla Democracy alliance or UPD [Oscar TEMARU]
GabonGabon Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Congress dla Democracy and Justice or CDJ [Jules Aristide Bourdes OGOULIGUENDE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG (former sole party) [Simplice Nguedet MANZELA]; Gabonese Party dla Progress or PGP [Benoit Mouity NZAMBA]; Gabonese Union dla Democracy and Development or UGDD [Zacherie MYBOTO]; National Rally of Woodcutters or RNB; National Rally of Woodcutters-Rally dla Gabon or RNB-RPG (Bucherons) [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]; Party of Development and Social Solidarity or PDS [Seraphin Ndoat REMBOGO]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]; Union dla Democracy and Social Integration or UDIS; Union of Gabonese Patriots or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU]
GambiaGambia Alliance dla Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC (the ruling party) [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH]; Gambia People's Democratic Party or GPDP [Henry GOMEZ]; National Alliance dla Democracy and Development or NADD [Halifa SALLAH]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sheriff DIBBA]; National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic Organization dla Niepodleglosc and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]
GeorgiaGeorgia Burjanadze-Democrats [Nino BURJANADZE]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Georgia's Way Party [Salome ZOURABICHVILI]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA]; National Movement Democratic Front [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI] (bloc composed of National Movement and Burjanadze-Democrats); National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rights [David GAMKRELIDZE]; Republican Party [David USUPASHVILI]; Rightist Opposition [David GAMKRELIDZE] (bloc composed of Industrialists and New Right Party); Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]; Union of National Forces-Conservatives [Koba DAVITASHVILI and Zviad DZIDZIGURI]
NiemcyNiemcy Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Erwin HUBER]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE]; Left Party or Die Linke [Lothar BISKY and Oskar LAFONTAINE]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Kurt BECK]
GhanaGhana Convention People's Party or CPP [Ladi NYLANDER]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Alhaji Abudu Rahman ISSAKAH]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTEY]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter MAC-MANU]; People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Charles WAYO]
GibraltarGibraltar Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]
GrecjaGrecja Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Alekos ALAVANOS]; Communist Party of Grecja or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Yiorgos PAPANDREOU]; Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Yeoryios KARATZAFERIS]
GrenlandiaGrenlandia Atassut Party (Solidarity) [Finn KARLSEN] (a conservative party favoring continuing close relations z Dania); Demokratiit [Per BERTHELSEN]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood) [Josef MOTZFELDT] (a leftist party favoring complete independence from Dania rather than home rule); Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List) (an independent right-of-center party z no official platform); Siumut (Forward Party) [Hans ENOKSEN] (a social democratic party advocating more distinct Grenlandiaic identity and greater autonomy from Dania)
GrenadaGrenada Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Gloria Payne BANFIELD]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]; New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]
GuamGuam Democratic Party [leader Michael PHILLIPS]; Republican Party [Philip J. FLORES] (controls the legislature)
GwatemalaGwatemala Center of Social Action or CASA [Eduardo SUGER]; Democracy Front or FRENTE [Alfonso CABRERA]; Democratic Union or UD [Manuel CONDE Orellana]; Encounter dla Gwatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENGRO]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [Alfredo VILLA]; Gwatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector NUILA]; Gwatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Ruben Dario MORALES]; National Unity dla Hope or UNE [Alvaro COLOM Caballeros]; Patriot Party or PP [Ret. Gen. Otto PEREZ Molina]; Unionista Party or PU [Fritz GARCIA]; Unity of National Change or UCN [Sidney SHAW]
GuernseyGuernsey none; all independents
GwineaGwinea National Union dla Progress or UPN [Mamadou Bhoye BARRY]; Party dla Unity and Progress or PUP (the governing party) [Lansana CONTE]; People's Party of Gwinea or PPG [Charles Pascal TOLNO]; Rally dla the Gwinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union of Democratic Forces of Gwinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]; Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]; Union dla Progress of Gwinea or UPG [Jean-Marie DORE, secretary-general]; Union dla Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH]
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau African Party dla the Niepodleglosc of Gwinea Bissau and Republika Zielonego Przyladka or PAIGC [Carlos GOMES Junior]; Party dla Social Renewal or PRS [Kumba YALA]; Democratic Social Front or FDS; Electoral Union or UE; Gwinea Bissau Civic Forum/Social Democracy or FCGSD [Antonieta Rosa GOMES]; Gwinea Bissau Democratic Party or PDG; Gwinea Bissau Socialist Democratic Party or PDSG [Serifo BALDE]; Labor and Solidarity Party or PST [Iancuba INDJAI]; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Victor MANDINGA]; Party dla Renewal and Progress or PRP; Progress Party or PP [Ibrahima SOW]; Union dla Change or UM [Amine SAAD]; Union of Gwinean Patriots or UPG [Francisca VAZ]; United Platform or UP (coalition formed by PCD, FDS, FLING, and RGB-MB); United Popular Alliance or APU; United Social Democratic Party or PUSD
GujanaGujana Alliance dla Change or AFC [Raphael TROTMAN and Khemraj RAMJATTAN]; Gujana Action Party or GAP [Paul HARDY]; Justice dla All Party [C.N. SHARMA]; People's National Congress/Reform or PNC/R [Robert Herman Orlando CORBIN]; People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Bharrat JAGDEO]; Rise, Organize, and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; The Unity Party [Joey JAGAN]; Vision Gujana [Peter RAMSAROOP]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPNARAINE]
HaitiHaiti Artibonite w Action or LAAA [Youri LATORTUE]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convention dla Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Cooperative Action to Build Haiti or KONBA [Evans LESCOUFALIR]; Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH); Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative dla the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]; For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]; Front dla Hope or L'ESPWA [Rene PREVAL] (alliance of ESKAMP, PLB, and grass-roots organizations Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, the Central Plateau Peasants' Group, and Kombit Sudest); Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic and Reform Movement or MODEREH [Dany TOUSSAINT and Pierre Soncon PRINCE]; Heads Together or Tet-Ansanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Independent Movement dla National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]; Justice dla Peace and National Development or JPDN [Rigaud DUPLAN]; Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Rudy HERIVEAUX]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Gehy MICHEL]; Merging of Haitian Social Democratic Parties or FUSION or FPSDH [Serge GILLES] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements); Mobilization dla Haiti's Development or MPH [Samir MOURRA]; Mobilization dla National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Movement dla National Reconstruction or MRN [Jean Henold BUTEAU]; Movement dla the Installation of Democracy w Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; National Christian Union dla the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Marie Claude GERMAIN]; National Front dla the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]; New Christian Movement dla a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate Party or PLB [Anes LUBIN]; Popular Party dla the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]; Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNITE [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
WatykanWatykan none
HondurasHonduras Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Felicito AVILA]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [Cesar HAM]; Liberal Party or PL [Patricia RODAS]; National Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge AQUILAR Paredes]; National Party of Honduras or PN [Porfirio LOBO]
Hong KongHong Kong Association dla Democracy and People's Livelihood or ADPL [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Civic Party [KUAN Hsin-chi]; Democratic Alliance dla the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [TAM Yiu Cheng]; Democratic Party [Albert HO]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing]; League of Social Democrats [Raymond WONG]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun]


note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - ADPL, Democratic Party, Frontier Party, League of Social Democrats; pro-Beijing - DAB, Liberal Party, The Alliance (a group of five generally pro-government and pro-business Legco members from functional constituencies); there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
WegryWegry Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Janos KOKA]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
IslandiaIslandia Niepodleglosc Party or IP [Geir H. HAARDE]; Left-Green Movement or LGM [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON]; Liberal Party or LP [Gudjon KRISTJANSSON]; Progressive Party or PP [Gudni AGUSTSSON]; Social Democratic Alliance or SDA [Ingibjorg Solrun GISLADOTTIR] (includes People's Alliance or PA, Social Democratic Party or SDP, Women's List)
IndieIndie Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie-Marxist or CPI-M [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADEV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKU]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrasekhar RAO]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; note - Indie has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties z four or more seats w the People's Assembly are listed
IndonezjaIndonezja Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [MS KABAN]; Democratic Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonezja Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [MUHAIMIN Iskander]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
IranIran formal political parties are a relatively new phenomenon w Iran and most conservatives still prefer to work through political pressure groups rather than parties, and often political parties or coalitions are formed prior to elections and disbanded soon thereafter; a loose pro-reform coalition called the 2nd Khordad Front, which includes political parties as well as less formal groups and organizations, achieved considerable success at elections to the sixth Majles w early 2000; groups w the coalition include: Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF), Executives of Construction Party (Kargozaran), Solidarity Party, Islamic Labor Party, Mardom Salari, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (MIRO), and Militant Clerics Society (Ruhaniyun); the coalition participated w the seventh Majles elections w early 2004; following his defeat w the 2005 presidential elections, former MCS Secretary General and sixth Majles Speaker Mehdi KARUBI formed the National Trust Party; a new conservative group, Islamic Iran Developers Coalition (Abadgaran), took a leading position w the new Majles after winning a majority of the seats w luty 2004; following the 2004 Majles elections, traditional and hardline conservatives have attempted to close ranks under the United Front of Principlists; the IIPF has repeatedly complained that the overwhelming majority of its candidates have been unfairly disqualified from the 2008 elections
IrakIrak Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yunadim KANNA]; Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]; Konstytucjaal Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa al-Islamiya Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; General Conference of Iraki People [Adnan al-DULAYMI]; Independent Iraki Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraki Communist Party [Hamid MAJEED]; Iraki Front dla National Dialogue [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; Iraki Hizballah [Karim Mahmud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraki Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraki Islamic Party or IIP [Tariq al-HASHIMI]; Iraki National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraki National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraki National Council dla Dialogue or INCD [Khalaf Ulayan al-Khalifawi al-DULAYMI]; Iraki National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI]; Islamic Action Organization or IAO [Ayatollah Muhammad al-MUDARRISI]; Islamic Supreme Council of Irak or ISCI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Muhammad Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Kurdistan Islamic Union [Salah ad-Din Muhammad BAHA al-DIN]; National Reconciliation and Liberation Party [Mishan al-JABBURI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Sadrist Trend [Muqtada al-SADR] (not an organized political party, but it fields independent candidates affiliated z Muqtada al-SADR); Sahawa al-Irak [Ahmed al-RISAWHI]


note: the Kurdistan Alliance, Iraki National List, Tawafuq Front, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue, and Unified Iraki Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraki political parties
IrlandiaIrlandia Fianna Fail [Bertie AHERN]; Fine Gael [Enda KENNY]; Green Party [John GORMLEY]; Labor Party [Eamon GILMORE]; Progressive Democrats [Mary HARNEY, acting leader]; Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; Socialist Party [Joe HIGGINS]; The Workers' Party [Sean GARLAND]
Wyspa ManWyspa Man Alliance dla Progressive Government; Liberal Vannin Party [Peter KARRAN]; Man Labor Party; Man Nationalist Party (Mec Vannin) [Bernard MOFFATT]


note: most members sit as independents
IzraelIzrael Democratic Front dla Peace and Equality (HADASH) [Muhammad BARAKA]; GIL (Pensioners) [Rafael "Rafi" EITAN]; Kadima [Ehud OLMERT]; Labor Party [Ehud BARAK]; Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]; Meretz-YAHAD [Yossi BEILIN]; National Democratic Assembly (Balad) [Jamal ZAHALKA]; National Union (NU)/National Religious Party (NRP) [Binyamin ELON]; SHAS [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Torah and Shabbat Judaism [Yaakov LITZMAN]; United Arab List [Ibrahim SARSOUR]; Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
WlochyWlochy Center-Left Union Coalition [Romano PRODI]: Ulivo Alliance (including Democrats of the Left or DS [Piero FASSINO] (along z the DL merged into the Democratic Party or PD); Daisy-Democracy is Freedom or DL [Francjasco RUTELLI] (along z the DS merged into the Democratic Party or PD)); Rose w the Fist (including Italian Social Democrats or SDI [Enrico BOSELLI]; Italian Radical Party [Emma BONINO]); Together z the Union (including Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Green Federation [Alfonso PECORARO SCANIO]; United Consumers); Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Wlochy of Values or IdV [Antonio DI PIETRO]; Union of Democrats dla Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; Republican European Movement or MRE [Luciana SBARBATI]


Center-Right Freedom House Coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI]: Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Union of Christian Democrats and Centrist Democrats or UDC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]; Northern League or LEGA [Umberto BOSSI]; Christian Democracy (Per la Autonomie) [Gianfranco ROTONDI]


other non-allied parties: New Italian Socialist Party or New PSI [Gianni DE MICHELIS]; Italian Republican Party or PRI [Giorgio LA MALFA]; Social Alternative [Alessandra MUSSOLINI]; Social Movement-Tricolor Flame or MSI-Fiamma [Luca ROMAGNOLI]; Social Idea Movement z Rauti or MIS [Pino RAUTI]; South Tyrol People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Elmar Pichler ROLLE]; Union of Valley Aosta Region or UV [Guido CESAL]
JamajkaJamajka Jamajka Labor Party or JLP [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [Portia SIMPSON-MILLER]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Michael WILLIAMS]
JaponiaJaponia Democratic Party of Japonia or DPJ [Ichiro OZAWA]; Japonia Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII]; Komeito [Akihiro OTA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Yasuo FUKUDA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mizuho FUKUSHIMA]
JerseyJersey two declared parties: Centre Party; Jersey Democratic Alliance


note: all senators and deputies elected w 2005 were independents
JordaniaJordania al-Ahd Party; Arab Islamic Democratic Movement [Yusuf ABU BAKR]; Arab Land Party [Dr. Ayishah Salih HIJAZAYN]; Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Taysir al-HIMSI]; Ba'th Arab Progressive Party [Fu'ad DABBUR]; Freedom Party; Future Party; Islamic Action Front or IAF [Zaki Sa'ed BANI IRSHEID]; Islamic Center Party [Marwan al-FAURI]; Jordaniaian Arab Ansar Party; Jordaniaian Arab New Dawn Party; Jordaniaian Arab Party; Jordaniaian Citizens' Rights Movement; Jordaniaian Communist Party [Munir HAMARINAH]; Jordaniaian Communist Workers Party; Jordaniaian Democratic Left Party [Musa MA'AYTEH]; Jordaniaian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id Dhiyab Ali MUSTAFA]; Jordaniaian Generations Party [Muhammad KHALAYLEH]; Jordaniaian Green Party [Muhammad BATAYNEH]; Jordaniaian Labor Party [Dr. Mazin Sulayman Jiryis HANNA]; Jordaniaian Peace Party; Jordaniaian People's Committees Movement; Jordaniaian People's Democratic Party (Hashd) [Ahmad YUSUF]; Jordaniaian Rafah Party; Jordaniaian Renaissance Party; Mission Party; Nation Party [Ahmad al-HANANDEH]; National Action Party (Haqq) [Tariq al-KAYYALI]; National Konstytucjaal Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI]; National Popular Democratic Movement [Mahmud al-NUWAYHI]; Progressive Party [Fawwaz al-ZUBI]
KazachstanKazachstan Adilet (Justice) [Maksut NARIKBAYEV, Zeynulla ALSHIMBAYEV, Bakhytbek AKHMETZHAN, Yerkin ONGARBAYEV, Tolegan SYDYKOV] (formerly Democratic Party of Kazachstan); Agrarian and Industrial Union of Workers Block or AIST (Agrarian Party and Civic Party); Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Alikhan BAIMENOV]; Auyl (Village) [Gani KALIYEV]; Communist Party of Kazachstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN]; Communist People's Party of Kazachstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]; National Social Democratic Party (NSDP)[Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Nur-Otan [Bakhytzhan ZHUMAGULOV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged z Otan); Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV]; Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) [Altynshash ZHAGANOVA]
KeniaKenia Forum dla the Restoration of Democracy-Kenia or FORD-Kenia [Musikari KOMBO]; Forum dla the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Simeon NYACHAE]; Kenia African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition-Kenia or NARC-Kenia [Raphael TUJU]; Orange Democratic Movement or ODM [Raila ODINGA]; Orange Democratic Movement-Kenia or ODM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]; Party of National Unity or PNU [Mwai KIBAKI]
KiribatiKiribati Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK [Taberannang TIMEON]; Maneaban Te Mauri Party or MTM [Teburoro TITO]; Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP; National Progressive Party or NPP [Dr. Harry TONG]


note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties w Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Jong Il]; minor parties - Chondoist Chongu Party [RYU Mi Yong] (under KWP control), Social Democratic Party [KIM Yong Dae] (under KWP control)
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea Creative Korea Party or CKP [MOON Kook-hyun]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [CHUN Young-se]; Grand National Party or GNP [KANG Jae-sup]; Liberty Forward Party or LFP [SIM Dae-pyung]; United Democratic Party or UDP [SOHN Hak-kyu]
KosowoKosowo Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosowo or PSHDK [Mark KRASNIQI]; Alliance dla the Future of Kosowo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats of Kososvo and Metohija or SDSKiM [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; Autonomous Liberal Party of SLS [Slobodan PETROVIC]; Bosniak Vakat Coalition [ Dzezair MURATI]; Citizens' Initiative of Gora or GIG [Murselj HALILI]; Council of Independent Social Democrats of Kosowo or SNSDKIM [Ljubisa ZIVIC]; Democratic League of Dardania or LDD [Nexhat DACI]; Democratic League of Kosowo or LDK [Fatmir SEJDIU]; Democratic Party of Ashkali of Kosowo or PDAK [Sabit RRAHMANI]; Democratic Party of Kosowo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Kosowo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; New Democratic Initiative of Kosowo or IRDK [Xhevdet Neziraj]; New Democratic Party or ND [Branislav GRBIC]; New Kosowo Alliance [Behgjet PACOLLI]; Popular Movement of Kosowo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]; Reform Party Ora; Serb National Party or SNS [Mihailo SCEPANOVIC]; Serbian Kosowo and Metohija Party or SKMS [Dragisa MIRIC]; United Roma Party of Kosowo or PREBK [Haxhi Zylfi MERXHA]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Numan BALIC]
KuwejtKuwejt none; formation of political parties is w practice illegal, but is not forbidden by law
KirgistanKirgistan Ak Jol [Avtandil ARABAYEV, Elmira IBRAIMOVA, Vladimir NIFADYEV, co-chairs]; Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Emil ALIYEV]; Asaba (Banner National Revival Party) [Azimbek BEKNAZAROV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Democratic Movement of Kirgistan or DDK [Viktor TCHETRNOMORETS]; Erkindik (Freedom) Party [Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV]; Moya Strana (My Country Party of Action) [Medet SADYRKULOV]; Party of Communists of Kirgistan or KCP [Ishak MASALIYEV]; Party of Justice and Progress [Muratbek IMANALIEV]; Party of Peasants [Esengul ISAKOV]; Republican Party of Labor and Unity [Tabaldy OROZALIYEV]; Sanjira (Tree of Life) [Ednan KARABAYEV]; Social Democratic Party [Almaz ATAMBAYEV]; Union of Democratic Forces [Kubatbek BAIBOLOV]
LaosLaos Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [CHOUMMALI Saignason]; other parties proscribed
LotwaLotwa First Party of Lotwa/Lotwa's Way or LPP/LC [Ainars SLESERS, Ivars GODMANIS]; For Human Rights w a United Lotwa or PCTVL [Jakovs PLINERS]; For the Fatherland and Freedom/Lotwan National Niepodleglosc Movement or TB/LNNK [Roberts ZILE, Maris GRINBLATS]; Harmony Center or SC [Janis URBANOVICS, Nils USAKOVS]; Lotwan Social Democratic Workers Party (Social Democrats) or LSDSP [Juris BOJARS]; Lotwan Socialist Party or LSP [Alfreds RUBIKS]; New Democrats or JD [Maris GULBIS]; New Era Party or JL [Einars REPSE, Krisjanis KARINS]; People's Party or TP [Aigars KALVITIS]; The Union of Lotwan Greens and Farmers Party or ZZS [Augusts BRIGMANIS]
LibanLiban 14 marzec Coalition: Democratic Gathering Bloc [Walid JUNBLATT, leader of Progressive Socialist Party]; Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]; Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]; Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad HARIRI]; Kataeb Party [Amine GEMAYEL]; Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA]; Tripoli Independent Bloc


Change and Reform Alliance Bloc: Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]; Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]; Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]; Tashnaq


Hizballah and Amal Alliance: Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, leader of Amal Movement]; Hizballah Party [Hassan NASRALLAH]; Loyalty to the Resistance [Mohammad RA'AD]; Nasserite Popular Movement [Ussama SAAD]; Syrian Ba'th Party [Sayez SHUKR]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO]
LesothoLesotho Alliance of Congress Parties or ACP; All Basotho Convention or ABC [Thomas THABANE]; Basotholand African Congress or BAC [Khauhelo RALITAPOLE]; Basotho Congress Party or BCP [Ntsukunyane MPHANYA]; Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj. Gen. Justin Metsing LEKHANYA]; Kopanang Basotho Party or KPB [Pheelo MOSALA]; Lesotho Congress dla Democracy or LCD (the governing party) [Pakalitha MOSISILI]; Lesotho Education Party or LEP [Thabo PITSO]; Lesotho Workers Party or LWP [Macaefa BILLY]; Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP [Vincent MALEBO]; National Independent Party or NIP [Anthony MANYELI]; New Lesotho Freedom Party or NLFP [Manapo MAJARA]; Popular Front dla Democracy or PFD [Lekhetho RAKUOANE]; Sefate Democratic Union or SDU [Bofihla NKUEBE]; Social Democratic Party of SDP [Masitise SELESO]
LiberiaLiberia Alliance dla Peace and Democracy or APD [Togba-na TIPOTEH]; Coalition dla the Transformation of Liberia or COTOL [H. Varney SHERMAN]; Congress dla Democratic Change or CDC [George WEAH]; Liberty Party or LP [Charles BRUMSKINE]; National Patriotic Party or NPP [Roland MASSAQUOI]; Unity Party or UP [Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF]
LibiaLibia none
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein Patriotic Union or VU [Adolf HEEB] (was Fatherland Union); Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Marcus VOGT]; The Free List or FL [Claudia HEEB-FLECK and Egon MATT]
LitwaLitwa Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Electoral Action of Litwan Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; National Farmer's Union or VLS [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party or DP [Viktor USPASKICH]; Liberal and Center Union [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Democrats/Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Liberal Movement or LLS [Petras AUSTREVICIUS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gediminas KIRKILAS]; Social Liberal/New Union [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Young Litwa and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS]
LuksemburgLuksemburg Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Robert MENLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Francois BILTGEN] (also known as Christian Social Party or PCS); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luksemburg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); other minor parties
MakauMakau Civil Service Union [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]; Development Union [KWAN Tsui-hang]; Makau Development Alliance [Angela LEONG On-kei]; Makau United Citizens' Association [CHAN Meng-kam]; New Democratic Makau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]; United Forces


note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
MacedoniaMacedonia Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Albanians or BDSh [BardYL MAHMUTI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs dla Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union dla Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party dla Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Gjorgji TRENDAFILOV]; League dla Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Jovan MANSIEVSKI]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Union or BDK [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party dla Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Party dla European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Party of Free Democrats or PSD [Ljubco JORDANOVSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Union of Romas or SR [Saliu SHABAN]; United Party dla Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
MadagaskarMadagaskar Association dla the Rebirth of Madagaskar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]; Democratic Party dla Union w Madagaskar or PSDUM [Jean LAHINIRIKO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action dla National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagaskar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
MalawiMalawi Alliance dla Democracy or AFORD; Congress dla National Unity or CONU; Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Bingu wa MUTHARIKA]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [John TEMBO]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA]; Malawi Forum dla Unity and Development or MAFUNDE [George MNESA]; Mgwirizano Coalition or MC [Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA] (coalition of MAFUNDE, MDP, MGODE, NUP, PETRA, PPM, RP); Movement dla Genuine Democratic Change or MGODE [Sam Kandodo BANDA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Brown MPINGANJIRA]; National Unity Party or NUP [Harry CHIUME]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Aleke BANDA]; People's Transformation Movement or PETRA [Kamuzu CHIBAMBO]; Republican Party or RP [Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI]
MalezjaMalezja National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN (ruling coalition) consists of the following parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malezja Party or PGRM [KOH Tsu Koon - acting]; Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]; Malezjan Chinese Association (Persatuan Chiny Malezja) or MCA [ONG Ka Ting]; Malezjan Indien Congress (Kongres Indie Malezja) or MIC [S. Samy VELLU]; Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]; Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]; Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]; Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [George CHAN Hong Nam]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi]; United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]; People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malezja) or PPP [M.Kayveas]; Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [William MAWAN]); opposition parties: Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif) or BA (consists of PAS and PKR); Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]; Islamic Party of Malezja (Parti Islam se Malezja) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]; People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismael]; Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG]
MalediwyMalediwy Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Abdul Majeed Abdul BARI]; Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (Maldivian People's Party) or DRP [Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM]; Islamic Democratic Party or IDP [Omar NASEER]; Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Mohamed NASHEED]; note - political parties were allowed to register w czerwiec 2005
MaliMali Alliance dla Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); African Solidarity dla Democracy and Niepodleglosc or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance dla Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed w grudzien 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance dla Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front dla Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress dla Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party dla Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party dla National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement dla Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally dla Democracy and Labor or RDT; Rally dla Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE]; Union dla Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union dla Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
MaltaMalta Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance dla Social Justice or AD [Harry VASSALLO]; Malta Labor Party or MLP [Alfred SANT]; Nationalist Party or PN [Lawrence GONZI]
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed w legislative balloting w recent years - Aelon Kein Ad Party [Michael KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]
MauretaniaMauretania Alternative or El-Badil; Centrist Reformists (independent moderate Islamists); Coalition dla Forces dla Democratic Change or CFCD (coalition of political parties including APP, Centrist Reformists (independent moderate Islamists), HATEM-PMUC, PUDS, RD, RFD, UFP); Democratic and Social Republican Party or PRDS; Democratic Renewal or RD; Mauretanian Party dla Unity and Change or HATEM-PMUC; Mithaq (coalition of independents and parties associated z the former regime including Alternative or El-Badil, PRDR, UDP, RDU); National Rally dla Freedom, Democracy and Equality or RNDLE; Popular Front or FP [Ch'bih Ould CHEIKH MALAININE]; Popular Progressive Alliance or APP [Messoud Ould BOULKHEIR]; Rally of Democratic Forces or RFD [Ahmed Ould DADDAH]; Rally dla Democracy and Unity or RDU [Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA]; Republican Party dla Democracy and Renewal or PRDR [Boullah Ould MOGUEYA] (formerly ruling Democratic and Social Republican Party or PRDS); Socialist and Democratic Unity Party or PUDS; Union dla Democracy and Progress or UDP [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]; Union of Democratic Centre or UCD; Union of the Forces dla Progress or UFP
MauritiusMauritius Alliance Sociale or AS [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM] (governing coalition - includes MLD, MMSM, MR, MSD, PMXD); Mauritian Labor Party or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM]; Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul BERENGER]; Mauritian Socialist Militant Movement or MMSM [Madan DOLLOO]; Militant Socialist Movement or MSM [Nando BODHA]; Mouvement Republicain or MR [Jayarama VALAYDEN]; Parti Mauricien Xavier Duval or PMXD [Xavier Luc DUVAL]; Rodrigues Movement or MR [Joseph (Nicholas) Von MALLY]; Rodrigues Peoples Organization or OPR [Serge CLAIR]
MajottaMajotta Democratic Front or FD [Youssouf MOUSSA]; Mahoran Popular Movement or MPM [Ahmed MADI]; Federation of Mahorans or UMP-RPR [Mansour KAMARDINE]; Force of the Rally and the Alliance dla Democracy or FRAP; Movement dla Department Status Majotta or MDM [Mouhoutar SALIM]; Renewed Communist Party of Majotta or MRC [Omar SIMBA]; Socialist Party or PS [Ibrahim ABUBACAR] (local branch of French Parti Socialiste); Union dla French Democracy or UDF [Henri JEAN-BAPTISTE]
MeksykMeksyk Convergence dla Democracy or CD [Luis MALDONADO Venegas]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Beatriz PAREDES]; Labor Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [German MARTINEZ Cazares]; New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA [Jorge Antonio KAHWAGI Macari]; Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Leonel COTA Montano]; Social Democratic and Peasant Alternative Party (Partido Alternativa Socialdemocrata y Campesina) or Alternativa [Alberto BEGNE Guerra]
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji no formal parties
MoldawiaMoldawia Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldawia or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Dumitru DIACOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladmir FILAT]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldawia Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Party dla Social Democracy or PDSM [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
MonakoMonako Union dla Monako or UPM (including National Union dla the Future of Monako or UNAM); Rally and Issues dla Monako or REM; Monako Together
MongoliaMongolia Citizens Will Party [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN] (also called Civil Will); Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Sanji BAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People's Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]


note: DP and Motherland Party formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) w 2003 and z cooperation from Civil Will and Republican parties contested czerwiec 2004 elections as single party; coalition was dissolved w grudzien 2004
CzarnogoraCzarnogora Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition dla European Czarnogora or DPS-SDP (bloc) [Milo DUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DUKANOVIC] and Social Democratic Party of SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]); Coalition SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC], People's Party of Czarnogora or NS [Predrag POPOVIC], and Democratic Serbian Party of Czarnogora or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARHDI]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSA]; Liberals and the Bosniak Party (bloc) [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] (includes Liberal Party of Czarnogora or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] and Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]); Movement dla Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; Serbian List (bloc) [Andrija MANDIC] (includes Party of Serb Radicals or SSR [Dusko SEKULIC], People's Socialist Party or NSS [Emilo LABUDOVIC], and Serbian People's Party of Czarnogora or SNS [Andrija MANDIC])
MontserratMontserrat Montserrat Democratic Party or MDP [Lowell LEWIS]; Movement dla Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Roselyn CASSELL-SEALY]; New People's Liberation Movement or NPLM [John A. OSBORNE]
MarokoMaroko Action Party or PA [Muhammad EL IDRISSI]; Alliance of Liberties or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]; Annahj Addimocrati or Annahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]; Avant Garde Social Democratic Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]; Citizen Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]; Citizen's Initiatives dla Development [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Konstytucjaal Union or UC [Mohamed ABIED]; Democratic and Niepodleglosc Party or PDI [Abdelwahed MAACH]; Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhor CHEKKAFI]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]; Front of Democratic Forces or FFD [Thami EL KHYARI]; Niepodleglosc Party (Istiqlal) or PI [Abbas el FASSI]; Justice and Development Party or PJD [Saad Eddine El OTHMANI]; Labor Party [Abdelkrim BENATIK]; Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Mustapha El MANSOURI]; National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]; Parti Al Ahd or Al Ahd [Najib EL OUAZZANI]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Party of Renewal and Equity or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]; Party of the Unified Socialist Left or GSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]; Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP
MozambikMozambik Front dla the Liberation of Mozambik (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambik National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
NamibiaNamibia Congress of Democrats or COD [Ben ULENGA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Jurie VILJOEN]; National Democratic Movement dla Change or NamDMC; National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Kuaima RIRUAKO]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Hidipo HAMUTENYA]; Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]; South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Rihupisa KANDANDO]; South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hifikepunye POHAMBA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB]
NauruNauru Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal); Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party; note - loose multiparty system
NepalNepal Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist-Leninist or CPN/UML [Madhav Kumar NEPAL]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Pashupati Shumsher RANA] (also called Rastriya Prajantra Party or RPP); Nepal Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party or NSP - Mandal [Bhadri Prasad MANDAL]; Nepal Sadbhavana Party - Ananda Devi [Ananda DEVI]; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]; People's Front Nepal (Amik Sherchan Group); People's Front Nepal (Chitra Bahadur Ale Group); People's Front Nepal (Chitra Bahadur K.C. Group); Rastriya Janashakti Party or RJP [Surya Bahadur THAPA] (split from RPP w marzec 2005); Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal (merged z People's Front Nepal or PFN w 2002); United Leftist Front or UFL [C.P. MAINALI]
HolandiaHolandia Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Jan Peter BALKENENDE]; Christian Union Party [Andre ROUVOET]; Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]; Green Left Party [Femke HALSEMA]; Labor Party or PvdA [Wouter BOS]; Party dla Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]; Party dla the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]; People's Party dla Freedom and Democracy (Liberal) or VVD [Mark RUTTE]; Reformed Political Party of SGP [Bas VAN DER VLIES]; Socialist Party [Jan MARIJNISSEN]; plus a few minor parties
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie Bonaire: Democratic Party of Bonaire or PDB [Jopi ABRAHAM]; Patriotic Union of Bonaire or UPB [Ramonsito BOOI]


Curacao: Ban Vota [Norbert GEORGE]; C-93 [Stanley BROWN]; Democratic Party of Curacao or DP [Errol HERNANDEZ]; E majoria [Aurelio PEDRO]; Forsa Korsou [Nelson NAVARRO]; Liste Ni'un Paso Atras [Nelson PIERRE]; Movemiento Patriotiko Korsou [Reginald LAK]; New Antilles Movement or MAN [Charles COOPER]; Partido Akshon Pa Prosperidat I Seguridat [Sonja BERKEMEYER]; Partido Laboral Krusada Popular or PLKP [Errol COVA]; Party dla the Restructured Antilles or PAR [Emily de JONGH-ELHAGE]; People's National Party or PNP [Ersilia DE LANNOOY]; Pidjin [Jasmin PINEDO]; Pueblo Soberano [Herman WIELS]; Workers' Liberation Front or FOL [Anthony GODETT]


Saba: Saba Labor Party [Akilah LEVENSTONE]; Windward Islands People's Movement or WIPM [Ray HASSELL]


Sint Eustatius: Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius or DP-St. E [Julian WOODLEY]; Progressive Labor Party [Clyde VAN PUTTEN]; St. Eustatius Alliance [Ingrid HOUTMAN-WHITFIELD]


Sint Maarten: Democratic Party of Sint Maarten or DP-St. M [Sarah WESCOTT-WILLIAMS]; Freedom Slate of National Democratic Party [Theophilus PRIEST]; National Alliance or NA [William MARLIN]; People's Progressive Alliance or PPA [Gracita ARRINDELL]; St. Maarten People's Party [Johan LEONARD]; United People's Labor Party [Bienvenido RICHARDSON]


note: political parties are indigenous to each island
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia Alliance pour la Caledonie or APLC [Didier LE ROUX]; Caledonian Union or UC; Federation des Comites de Coordination des Independantistes or FCCI [Francois BURCK]; Front National or FN [Guy GEORGE]; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak or FULK [Ernest UNE]; Kanak Socialist Front dla National Liberation or FLNKS (includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, and UPM); Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA [Paul NEAOUTYINE and Elie POIGOUNE]; Rally dla Caledonia w the Republic (anti independence) or RPCR-UMP [Jacques LAFLEUR]; The Future Together or AE [Harold MARTIN]; Union Nationale pour l'Independance or UNI [Paul NEAOUTYINE]; note - may no longer exist, but Paul NEAOUTYINE has since become a president of Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA; Union Progressiste Melanesienne or UPM [Victor TUTUGORO]
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia ACT Nowa Zelandia [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS]; Maori Party [Whatarangi WINIATA]; National Party or NP [John KEY]; Nowa Zelandia First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; Nowa Zelandia Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]
NikaraguaNikaragua Alliance dla the Republic or APRE [Miguel LOPEZ Baldizon]; Alternative dla Change or AC [Orlando TARDENCILLA Espinoza]; Central American Unionist Party or PUCA [Blanca ROJAS]; Conservative Party or PC [Azalia AVILES Salmeron]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Anibal MARTINEZ Nunez, Pedro REYES Vallejos]; Independent Liberal Party dla National Unity or PLIUN [Carlos GUERRA Gallardo]; Liberal Konstytucjaalist Party or PLC [Jorge CASTILLO Quant]; Liberal Salvation Movement or MSL [Eliseo NUNEZ Hernandez]; New Liberal Party or PALI [Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel]; Nikaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Eduardo MONTEALEGRE]; Nikaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Dora Maria TELLEZ]
NigerNiger Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement dla a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Hama AMADOU]; Niger Social Democratic Party or PSDN; Nigerien Alliance dla Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party dla Autonomy or PNA-Alouma'a [Sanousi JACKOU]; Nigerien Party dla Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Issifou MAHAMADOU]; Nigerien Progressive Party or PPN-RDA [Abdoulaye DIORI]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP-jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Cheiffou AMADOU]
NigeriaNigeria Accord Party [Ikra Aliyu BILBIS]; Action Congress or AC [Hassan ZUMI]; Alliance dla Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Edwin UME-EZEOKE]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]; Democratic People's Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI]; Fresh Democratic Party [Chris OKOTIE]; Labor Party [Dan NWANYANWU]; Movement dla the Restoration and Defense of Democracy or MRDD [Mohammed Gambo JIMETA]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [vacant]; Peoples Progressive Alliance [Clement EBRI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [Mallam Selah JAMBO]
NiueNiue Alliance of Independents or AI; Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk none
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne Covenant Party [Benigno R. FITIAL]; Democratic Party [Dr. Carlos S. CAMACHO]; Republican Party [Juan S. REYES]
NorwegiaNorwegia Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Siv JENSEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
OmanOman none
PakistanPakistan Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged z PML); Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of maj 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan People's Party or PPP/S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDANI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]


note: political alliances w Pakistan can shift frequently
PalauPalau none
PanamaPanama Democratic Change or CD [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Hugo GUIRAUD]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Gisela CHUNG]; Panamenista Party or PA [Juan Carlos VARELA] (formerly the Arnulfista Party); Patriotic Union Party or PU (combination of the Liberal National Party or PLN and the Solidarity Party or PS)[Jose Raul MULINO and Anibal GALINDO]; Popular Party or PP [Rene ORILLAC] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC)
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea National Alliance Party or NA [Michael SOMARE]; Papua and Niugini Union Party or PANGU PATI [Andrew KUMBAKOR]; Papua-Nowa Gwinea Party or PNGP [Sir Mekere MORAUTA]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Michael OGIO]; People's Action Party or PAP [Gabriel KAPRIS]; United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA] (2007)
ParagwajParagwaj Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Jose A. ALDERETE]; Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Enrique GONZALEZ Quintana]; Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PQ [Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella]; Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Luis TORALES Kennedy]; Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Blas LLANO]; Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]


note: Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS on leave as party leader of the Colorado Party or ANR while serving as President of Paragwaj
PeruPeru Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva majoria, and Si Cumple); Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC (a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes); Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM; National Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Nacional) [Rafael REY]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN (a coalition of Partido Popular Cristiano and Partido Solidaridad Nacional) [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA); Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano) or PNP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; Union dla Peru (Union por el Peru) or UPP [Aldo ESTRADA Choque]
FilipinyFilipiny Genuine Opposition or GO (coalition of oppositon parties formed to contest the 2007 elections); Kabalikat Ng Malayang Pilipino or Kampi [Ronaldo PUNO]; Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista [Manuel VILLAR]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA]; Pwersa Ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA]
PitcairnPitcairn none
PolskaPolska Civic Platform or PO [Donald TUSK]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wojciech OLEJNICZAK]; Democratic Party or PD [Janusz ONYSZKIEWICZ]; German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Henryk KROLL]; Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]; League of Polish Families or LPR [Roman GIERTYCH]; Left and Democrats (LiD) (a coalition formed by the SLD, PD, SDPL, and UP) [Wojciech OLEJNICZAK]; Polish People's Party or PSL [Waldemar PAWLAK]; Samoobrona or SO [Andrzej LEPPER]; Social Democratic Party of Polska or SDPL [Marek BOROWSKI]; Union of Labor or UP [Andrzej SPYCHALSKI]
PortugaliaPortugalia Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Green Ecologist Party or PEV [leadership commission elected by members]; Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Luis Filipe MENEZES]; The Left Bloc or BE [Franciso Anacleto LOUCA]; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PEV and PCP)
PortorykoPortoryko National Democratic Party [Roberto PRATS]; National Republican Party of Portoryko [Dr. Tiody FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro ROSSELLO] (pro-US statehood); Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA] (pro-commonwealth); Puerto Rican Niepodleglosc Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] (pro-independence)
KatarKatar none
RumuniaRumunia Conservative Party or PC [Daniela POPA] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR); Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians w Rumunia or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Calin POPESCU-TARICEANU]; Rumunia Mare Party (Greater Rumunia Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mircea Dan GEOANA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy w Rumunia or PDSR)
RosjaRosja Agrarian Party [Vladimir PLOTNIKOV]; A Just Rosja or JR [Sergey MIRONOV] (formed from the merger of three small political parties: Rodina (Motherland), Pensioners Party, and Party of Life); Civic Force [Mikhail BARSHCHEVSKIY]; Communist Party of the Rosjan Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Democratic Party [Andrey BOGDANOV]; Green Party [Anatoliy PANFILOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Rosja or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Party of Rosja's Rebirth [Gennadiy SELEZNEV]; Patriots of Rosja [Gennadiy SEMIGIN]; Peace and Unity Party [Sazhi UMALATOVA]; People's Union [Sergey BABURIN]; Social Justice Party [Arkadiy GAYDAMAK]; Union of Right Forces or SPS [Nikita BELYKH]; United Rosja or UR [Boris Vyacheslavovich GRYZLOV]; Yabloko Party [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY]
RuandaRuanda Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Ruanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI]; Party dla Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Ruandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Saint-BarthelemySaint-Barthelemy Action-Equilibre-Transparence [Maxime DESOUCHES]; Ensemble pour Saint-Barthelemy [Benoit CHAUVIN]; Saint-Barth d'Abord! or SBA [Bruno MAGRAS]; Tous Unis pour Saint-Barthelemy [Karine MIOT-RICHARD]
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena none
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Vance AMORY]; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY]; People's Action Movement or PAM [Lindsay GRANT]; Saint Kitts i Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS]
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia National Alliance or NA [George ODLUM]; Saint Lucia Freedom Party or SFP [Martinus FRANCOIS]; Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenneth ANTHONY]; Sou Tout Apwe Fete Fini or STAFF [Christopher HUNTE]; United Workers Party or UWP [Sir John COMPTON]
Saint MartinSaint Martin Union Pour le Progres or UPP [Louis Constant FLEMING]; Rassemblement Responsabilite Reussite or RRR [Alain RICHARDSON]; Reussir Saint-Martin [Jean-Luc HAMLET]
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon Archipelago Tomorrow or AD affiliated z UDF/RPR list; Cap sur l'Avenir affiliated z PRG; Left Radical Party or PRG; Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR (now UMP); Saint-Pierre i Miquelon 2000/Avenir Miquelon or SPM 2000/AM; Socialist Party or PS; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny New Democratic Party or NDP [Arnhim EUSTACE]; Unity Labor Party or ULP [Ralph GONSALVES] (formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement dla National Unity or MNU)
SamoaSamoa Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA]; Samoa Christian Party or TCP [Tuala Tiresa MALIETOA]; Samoa Democratic United Party or SDUP [LE MAMEA Ropati]; Samoa Party or SP [Su'a Rimoni Ah CHONG]; Samoa Progressive Political Party or SPPP [Toeolesulusulu SIUEVA]
San MarinoSan Marino Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas w Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN [Glauco SANSOVINI]; New Socialist Party [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Pier Marino MENICUCCI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or AP [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Alberto CECCHETTI]; Socialists dla Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]; United Left
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca Force dla Change Democratic Movement or MDFM [Tome Soares da VERA CRUZ]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [[Patrice TROVOADA]; Movement dla the Liberation of Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Rafael BRANCO]; New Way Movement or NR; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Delfim NEVES]; Ue-Kedadji coalition; other small parties
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska none
SenegalSenegal African Party of Niepodleglosc [Majhemout DIOP]; And-Jef/African Party dla Democracy and Socialism or (AJ/PADS) [Landing SAVANE]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front dla Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Niepodleglosc and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; People's Labor Party or PTP [Elhadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union dla Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
SerbiaSerbia Coalition dla Sandzak or KZS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Ragmi MUSTAFA]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Union of the Valley or BDL [Skender DESTANI]; Force of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC]; League of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASTOR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement dla Democratic Progress of LPD [Jonuz MUSLIU]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Roma Party or RP [Srdjan SAJN]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), but Tomislav NIKOLIC is acting leader]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Union of Roma of Serbia or URS [Rajko DJURIC]
SeszeleSeszele Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Paul CHOW]; Seszele National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO); Seszele People's Progressive Front or SPPF [Francja Albert RENE, James MICHEL] (the governing party)
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone All People's Congress or APC [Ernest Bai KOROMA]; Peace and Liberation Party or PLP [Darlington MORRISON]; People's Movement dla Democratic Change or PMDC [Charles MARGAI]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [Solomon BEREWA]; numerous others
SingapurSingapur People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; Singapur Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong]; Singapur Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Workers' Party or WP [Sylvia LIM Swee Lian]


note: SDA includes Singapur Justice Party or SJP, Singapur National Malay Organization or PKMS, Singapur People's Party or SPP
SlowacjaSlowacja Parties w the Parliament: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Pal CSAKY]; People's Party - Movement dla a Democratic Slowacja or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]; Parties outside the Parliament: Agrarian Party of the Provinces or ASV [Jozef VASKEBA]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter TATAR]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Hope or NADEJ [Alexandra NOVOTNA]; Left-wing Bloc or LB [Jozef KALMAN]; Mission 21 - New Christian Democracy or MISIA 21 [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement dla Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Ladislav KOZMON]; Prosperita Slovenska or PS [Frantisek A. ZVRSKOVEC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Vladimir DADO]; Slovak National Coalition or SLNKO [Vitazoslav MORIC]; Slovak People's Party or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Union of the Workers of Slowacja or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK]
SloweniaSlowenia Liberal Democracy of Slowenia or LDS [Katarina KRESAL]; New Slowenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slowenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slowenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Janez PODOBNIK]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD); ZARES [Gregor Golobic]
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona Association of Independent Members or AIM [Thomas CHAN]; Christian Alliance Wyspy Salomona or CASI [Edward RONIA]; LAFARI Party [John GARO]; National Party [Francis HILLY]; People's Alliance Party or PAP [Sir Allan KEMAKEZA]; Social Credit Party or SOCRED [Manasseh Damukana SOGAVARE]; Solomon First Party [David QUAN]; Wyspy Salomona Democratic Party [Gabriel SURI]; Wyspy Salomona Labor Party or SILP [Joses TUHANUKU]; Wyspy Salomona Liberal Party [Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU]; Wyspy Salomona Party dla Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Job D. TAUSINGA]; United Party [Sir Peter KENILOREA]


note: w general, Wyspy Salomona politics is characterized by fluid coalitions
SomaliaSomalia none
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]; African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]; Democratic Alliance or DA [Helen ZILLE]; Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]; New National Party or NNP; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Motsoko PHEKO]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
HiszpaniaHiszpania Aragonese Party or CHA [Bizen FUSTER]; Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Inigo URKULLU]; Basque Solidarity or EA [Begona ERRAZTI]; Canarian Coalition or CC [Jose Torres STINGA] (a coalition of five parties); Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Anxo Manuel QUINTANA Gonzalez]; Initiative dla Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan SAURA i Laporta]; Navarra yes or Na Bai [Uxue BARKOS Berruezo] (a coalition of four Navarran parties); Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Josep-Lluis CAROD-ROVIRA]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO]; United Left or IU [Gaspar LLAMAZARES Trigo] (a coalition of parties including the PCE and other small parties)
Sri LankaSri Lanka All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [G.PONNAMBALAM]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CWC [Arumugam THONDAMAN]; Communist Party or CP [D. GUNASEKERA]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRAN]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Somawansa AMARASINGHE]; Lanka Sama Samaja Party or LSSP [Tissa VITHARANA]; Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (People's United Front) or MEP [D. GUNAWARDENE]; National Heritage Party or JHU [Ellawala METHANANDA]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [Ferial ASHRAFF]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [D. SIDHARTHAN]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Mahinda RAJAPAKSA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [Selvam ADAIKALANATHAN]; Tamil National Alliance or TNA [R. SAMPANTHAN]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [V. ANANDASANGAREE]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Up-country People's Front or UPF [P. CHANDRASEKARAN]
SudanSudan National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva majardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]; note - all political parties listed above w the Government of National Unity
SurinamSurinam Alternative-1 or A-1 (a coalition of Amazone Party of Surinam or APS [Kenneth VAN GENDEREN], Democrats of the 21st Century or D-21 [Soewarto MOESTADJA], Nieuw Surinam or NS [Radjen Nanan PANDAY], Political Wing of the FAL or PVF [Jiwan SITAL], Trefpunt 2000 or T-2000 [Arti JESSURUN]); General Interior Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire BOUTERSE]; New Front dla Democracy and Development or NF (a coalition which includes A-Combination or A-Com, Democratic Alternative 1991 or DA-91, an independent, business-oriented party [Winston JESSURUN], National Party Surinam or NPS [Ronald VENETIAAN], United Reform Party or VHP [Ramdien SARDJOE], Pertjaja Luhur or PL [Salam Paul SOMOHARDJO], Surinamse Labor Party or SPA [Siegfried GILDS]); Party dla Democracy and Development w Unity or DOE [Marten SCHALKWIJK]; People's Alliance dla Progress or VVV (a coalition of Democratic National Platform 2000 or DNP-2000 [Jules WIJDENBOSCH], Grassroots Party dla Renewal and Democracy or BVD [Tjan GOBARDHAN], Party dla National Unity and Solidarity of the Highest Order or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA], Party dla Progression, Justice, and Perseverance or PPRS [Renee KAIMAN], Pendawalima or PL [Raymond SAPOEN]); Progressive Laborers and Farmers Union or PALU [Jim HOK]; Progressive Political Party or PPP [Surinder MUNGRA]; Seeka [Paul ABENA]; Union of Progressive Surinamrs or UPS [Sheoradj PANDAY]
SuaziSuazi the status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the new (2006) Konstytucja and currently being debated - the following are considered political associations; African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Stanley MAUNDZISA, president]; Imbokodvo National Movement or INM; Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]
SzwecjaSzwecja Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Environment Party the Greens [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Jan BJORKLUND]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Mona SAHLIN]
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria Green Party (Gruene Partei der Schweiz or Gruene, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Ruth GENNER]; Christian Democratic People's Party (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Democratico-Cristiano Popolare Svizzero or PDC, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Christophe DARBELLAY]; Radical Free Democratic Party (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz or FDP, Parti Radical-Democratique Suisse or PRD, Partitio Liberal-Radicale Svizzero or PLR) [Fulvio PELLI]; Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialist Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Hans-Juerg FEHR]; Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica de Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Ueli MAURER]; and other minor parties
SyriaSyria legal parties: National Progressive Front or NPF [President Bashar al-ASAD, Dr. Suleiman QADDAH] (includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party [President Bashar al-ASAD]; Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallah Nasr Al-DIN]; Syrian Arab Socialist Union or ASU [Safwan QUDSI]; Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yusuf Rashid FAYSAL]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSU]; Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL])


opposition parties not legally recognized:: Arab Democratic Socialist Union Party [Hasan Abdul AZIM]; Arab Socialist Movement; Democratic Ba'th Party [Ibrahim MAHKOS]; People's Democratic Party [Riad al TURK]; Revolutionary Workers' Party [Abdul Hafeez al HAFEZ]


Kurdish parties (considered illegal): Kurdish Democratic Front [Abdul Hamid DARWISH] (includes four parties); Kurdish Coordination [Abdul Hakim BASHAR] (includes Azadi Party [Kheirudin MURAD], Future Party [Masha'l TAMMO], Yekity Party [Hasam SALE])


other parties: Nahda Party [Abdul Aziz al MISLET]; Syrian Democratic Party [Mustafa QALAAJI]
TajwanTajwan Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Frank HSIEH or HSIEH Chang-ting] (acting); Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [WU Po-hsiung]; Non-Partisan Solidarity Union or NPSU [CHANG Po-ya]; People First Party or PFP [James SOONG]
TadzykistanTadzykistan Agrarian Party of Tadzykistan or APT [Amir KARAKULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned pazdziernik 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimzon BOBOYEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tadzykistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Abdualim GHAFFOROV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
TanzaniaTanzania Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
TajlandiaTajlandia Democrat Party or DP (Prachathipat Party) [ABHISIT Wetchachiwa] (ABHISIT Vejjajiva); Matchima Thippatai (Middle Way Party) [ANONGWAN Therpsuthin]; Motherland Party (Peua Pandin Party) [SUWIT Khunkitti]; People Power Party (Palang Prachachon Party) or PPP [SAMAK Sunthorawet] (SAMAK Sundaravej); Royalist People's Party (Pracharaj) [SANOH Thienthong]; Ruam Jai Thai Party (Thai Unity Party) [CHETTA Thanacharo]; Thai Nation Party or TNP (Chat Thai Party) [BARNHARN SILPA-ARCHA]
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni Democratic Party or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; National Congress dla Timorese Reconstruction or CNRT [Xanana GUSMAO]; National Democratic Union of Timorese Resistance or UNDERTIM [Cornelio DA Conceicao GAMA]; National Unity Party or PUN [Fernanda BORGES]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor Wschodni or FRETILIN [Mari ALKATIRI]; Social Democratic Association of Timor or ASDT [Francisco Xavier do AMARAL]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mario CARRASCALAO]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors or KOTA [Manuel TILMAN] (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes)
TogoTogo Action Committee dla Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party dla Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally dla the Support dla Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact dla Renewal or PSR; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces dla a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
TokelauTokelau none
TongaTonga People's Democratic Party [Tesina FUKO]
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago Congress of the People [Winston DOOKERAN]; Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active w Tobago); Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Gerald YETMING] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND); Movement dla National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS]; National Alliance dla Reconstruction or NAR [Dr. Carson CHARLES]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]
TunezjaTunezja Al-Tajdid Movement [Ahmed IBRAHIM]; Konstytucjaal Democratic Rally Party (Rassemblement Konstytucjanel Democratique) or RCD (official ruling party) [President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI]; Democratic Forum dla Labor and Liberties or FDTL [Mustapha Ben JAFAAR]; Green Party dla Progress or PVP [Mongi KHAMASSI]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mondher THABET]; Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]; Progressive Democratic Party [Maya JERIBI]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]
TurcjaTurcja Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) or Anavatan [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic Society Party or DTP [Nurettin DEMIRTAS]; Felicity Party or SP [Recai KUTAN] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Movement Party); People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party or DYP [Mehmet AGAR] (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party); Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN]


note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turcja had on 1 grudzien 2004
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT


note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or w foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been National Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDMT) and the United Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (UDPT); NDMT was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHMURADOV until his arrest and imprisonment w the wake of the 25 listopad 2002 assassination attempt on President NYYAZOW
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Floyd SEYMOUR]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Michael Eugene MISICK]
TuvaluTuvalu there are no political parties but members of Parliament usually align themselves w informal groupings
UgandaUganda Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum dla Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]


note: a national referendum w lipiec 2005 opened the way dla Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
UkrainaUkraina Christian Democratic Union [Volodymyr STRETOVYCH]; Communist Party of Ukraina or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]; European Party of Ukraina [Mykola KATERYNCHUK]; Fatherland Party (Batkivshchyna) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]; Forward Ukraina! [Viktor MUSIYAKA]; Labor Party of Ukraina [Mykola SYROTA]; People's Union Our Ukraina [Vyacheslav KYRYLENKO]; Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH]; Party of the Defenders of the Fatherland [Yuriy Karmazin]; People's Movement of Ukraina (Rukh) [Borys TARASYUK]; People's Party [Volodymyr LYTVYN]; PORA! (It's Time!) party [Vladyslav KASKIV]; Progressive Socialist Party [Natalya VITRENKO]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Party of Regions [Viktor YANUKOVYCH]; Republican Party [Yuriy BOYKO]; Sobor [Anatoliy MATVIYENKO]; Social Democratic Party [Yevhen KORNICHUK]; Social Democratic Party (United) or SDPU(o) [Yuriy ZAHORODNIY]; Socialist Party of Ukraina or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ]; Ukrainian People's Party [Yuriy KOSTENKO]; Viche [Inna BOHOSLOVSKA]
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie none
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania Conservative [David CAMERON]; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party [Gordon BROWN]; Liberal Democrats [Nick CLEGG]; Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Ieuan Wyn JONES]; Scottish National Party or SNP [Alex SALMOND]; Sinn Fein (Northern Irlandia) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Irlandia) [Mark DURKAN]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Sir Reg EMPEY]
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone Democratic Party [Howard DEAN]; Green Party; Libertarian Party [William (Bill) REDPATH]; Republican Party [Robert M. (Mike) DUNCAN]
UrugwajUrugwaj Broad Front Coalition (Frente Amplio) (formerly known as the Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or EP-FA); Colorado Party [Julio Maria SANGUINETTI]; Independent Party (Partido Independiente) [Pablo MIERES]; Movement of Popular Participation or MPP [Jose MUJICA]; National Party or Blanco [Jorge LARRANAGA]; New Sector/Space Coalition (Nuevo Espacio) [Rafael MICHELINI]; Urugwajan Assembly or Asamblea Urugwaj [Danilo ASTORI]
UzbekistanUzbekistan Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TASHMUHAMMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]
VanuatuVanuatu Jon Frum Movement [Song KEASPAI]; Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]; National United Party or NUP [Hem LINI]; Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]; Vanua'aku Pati (Our Land Party) or VP [Edward NATAPEI]; Vanuatu Greens Party or VGP [Moana CARCASSES]; Vanuatu Republican Party or VRP [Maxime Carlot KORMAN]
WenezuelaWenezuela A New Time or UNT [Manuel ROSALES]; Christian Democrats or COPEI [Cesar PEREZ Vivas]; Communist Party of Wenezuela or PCV [Jeronimo CARRERA]; Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS Allup]; Fatherland dla All or PPT [Jose ALBORNOZ]; Justice First [Julio BORGES]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Hector MUJICA]; United Socialist Party of Wenezuela or PSUV [Hugo CHAVEZ]; Wenezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS Romer]; We Can or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA]
WietnamWietnam Communist Party of Wietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH]; other parties proscribed
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHARDS]; Republican Party [Gary SPRAUVE]
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna Lua Kae Tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG; Rally dla the Republic or RPR (UMP) [Clovis LOGOLOGOFOLAU]; Socialist Party or PS; Taumu'a Lelei [Soane Muni UHILA]; Union Populaire Locale or UPL [Falakiko GATA]; Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF
JemenJemen General People's Congress or GPC [Abdul-Kader BAJAMMAL]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Mohammed Abdullah AL-YADOUMI (acting)]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdal Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Jemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]; note - there are at least seven more active political parties
ZambiaZambia All Peoples Congress Party [Winright NGONDO]; Forum dla Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE]; Movement dla Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Levy MWANAWASA]; National Democratic Focus or NDF; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Party of Unity dla Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]; Reform Party [Nevers MUMBA]; United Democratic Alliance or UDA; United Liberal Party or ULP [Sakwiba SIKOTA]; United National Niepodleglosc Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]; United Party dla National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Langton SICHONE]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]
ZimbabweZimbabwe African National Party or ANP [Egipt DZINEMUNHENZVA]; Movement dla Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI, anti-Senate faction; Arthur MUTAMBARA, pro-Senate faction]; Peace Action is Freedom dla All or PAFA; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; United People's Party or UPP [Daniel SHUMBA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Agrippa MADLELA]; Zimbabwe Youth w Alliance or ZIYA
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