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Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2008)

Miedzynarodowe dyskusje - wybierz rok:
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2001) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2002) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2003) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2004) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2005) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2006) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2007) (porownaj)


Informacje o Miedzynarodowe dyskusje w 2008 rok

AfganistanAfganistan Pakistan, z UN and other international assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees z less than a million still remaining, many at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afganistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their border; Coalition and Pakistani forces continue to monitor remote tribal areas to control the border z Afganistan and stem terrorist and other illegal activities
AlbaniaAlbania the Albanian Government calls dla the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians w neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups w neighboring countries advocate dla a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; the mass emigration of unemployed Albanians remains a problem dla developed countries, chiefly Grecja and Wlochy
AlgieriaAlgieria Algieria supports the Polisario Front exiled w Algieria and who represent the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algieria rejects Moroccan administration of Sahara Zachodnia; most of the approximately 90,000 Sahara Zachodnian Sahrawi refugees are sheltered w camps w Tindouf, Algieria; Algieria's border z Maroko remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; Algieria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algierian towns; dormant disputes include Libian claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algieria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures w southeastern Maroko
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie Tokelau included Samoa Amerykanskie's Swains Island (Olohega) w its 2006 draft constitution
AndoraAndora none
AngolaAngola many Cabindan separatists have returned to the province from exile since the 2006 ceasefire and peace agreement; concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology w Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls) along the Angola-Namibia border
AnguillaAnguilla none
AntarktydaAntarktyda Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary w Government type entry); Argentyna, Australia, Chile, Francja, NZ, Norwegia, and UK claim land and maritime sectors (some overlapping) dla a large portion of the continent; the US and many other states do not recognize these territorial claims and have made no claims themselves (the US and Rosja reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made w the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda none
Ocean ArktycznyOcean Arktyczny some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
ArgentynaArgentyna Argentyna continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy w its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands w 1982, but w 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim w Antarktyda partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazylia and Urugwaj over Brazyliaiera/Brasiliera Island w the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint z Argentyna w question; w styczen 2007, ICJ provisionally ruled Urugwaj may begin construction of two paper mills on the Urugwaj River, which forms the border z Argentyna, while the court examines further whether Argentyna has the legal right to stop such construction z potential environmental implications to both countries; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentyna w 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary w the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
ArmeniaArmenia Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists w Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbejdzan - Organization dla Security and Cooperation w Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbejdzanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes w Azerbejdzan into Armenia; Azerbejdzan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border z Turcja remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups w Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; Armenians continue to emigrate, primarily to Rosja, seeking employment
ArubaAruba none
Wyspy Ashmore i CartieraWyspy Ashmore i Cartiera Indonezjan groups challenge Australia's claim to these islands; Australia closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonezjan traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches
Ocean AtlantyckiOcean Atlantycki some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
AustraliaAustralia Timor Wschodni and Australia agreed w 2005 to defer the disputed portion of the boundary dla fifty years and to split hydrocarbon revenues evenly outside the Joint Petroleum Development Terytorium covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; Timor Wschodni dispute hampers creation of a revised maritime boundary z Indonezja w the Timor Sea; Indonezjan groups challenge Australia's claim to Wyspy Ashmore i Cartiera; Australia closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonezjan traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catch; regional states continue to express concern over Australia's 2004 declaration of a 1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime identification zone; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarktyda (see Antarktyda); w 2004 Australia submitted its claims to UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its continental margins covering over 3.37 million square kilometers or roughly thirty percent of its claimed exclusive economic zone; since 2003, Australian Defense Force leads the Regional Assistance Mission to the Wyspy Salomona (RAMSI) to maintain civil and political order and reinforce regional security
AustriaAustria in 2006, Austrian public protests dla the Czechy to close the Temelin nuclear power plant resulted w a parliamentary motion threatening international legal action
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists w Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbejdzan; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbejdzanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes w Azerbejdzan into Armenia; Azerbejdzan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; Organization dla Security and Cooperation w Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbejdzan, Kazachstan, and Rosja have ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbejdzan's hydrocarbon exploration w disputed waters; bilateral talks continue z Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields w the middle of the Caspian; Azerbejdzan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
BahamyBahamy disagrees z the US on the alignment of a potential maritime boundary; continues to monitor and interdict drug dealers and Haitian refugees w Bahamian waters
BahrajnBahrajn none
Wyspa BakerWyspa Baker none
BangladeszBangladesz discussions z Indie remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange territory dla 51 small Bangladeszi exclaves w Indie and 111 small Indien exclaves w Bangladesz, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesz resists Indie's attempts to fence or wall off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint Bangladesz-Indie boundary inspection w 2005 revealed 92 pillars are missing; dispute z Indie over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; 21,000 Burmese Rohingya Muslim refugees reside w two camps w Bangladesz
BarbadosBarbados in kwiecien 2006, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a decision that delimited a maritime boundary z Trynidad i Tobago and compelled Barbados to enter a fishing agreement limiting Barbadian fishermen's catches of flying fish w Trynidad i Tobago's exclusive economic zone; w 2005, Barbados and Trynidad i Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit of Trynidad i Tobago's and Wenezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
BialorusBialorus as of styczen 2007, ground demarcations of the boundaries z Lotwa and Litwa were complete and mapped z final ratification documentation w preparation; 1997 boundary delimitation treaty z Ukraina remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing border security
BelgiaBelgia none
BelizeBelize annual ministerial meetings under the OAS-initiated Agreement on the Framework dla Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Gwatemalan land and maritime claims w Belize and Caribbean Sea; the Line of Adjacency created under the 2002 Differendum serves w lieu of the contiguous international boundary to control squatting w the sparsely inhabited rain forests of Belize's border region; Honduras claims Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays w its constitution but agreed to a joint ecological park under the Differendum
BeninBenin two villages remain w dispute along the border z Burkina Faso; Benin accused Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint z Nigeria, remains undemarcated; w 2005, Nigeria ceded thirteen villages to Benin, but border relations remain strained by rival gang clashes; Benin and Togo announced plans w 2006 to construct a joint hydroelectric dam on the Mona River at the southern end of the border
BermudyBermudy none
BhutanBhutan over 100,000 Bhutanese Lhotshampas (Hindus) have been confined w seven UN Office of the High Commissioner dla Refugees camps since 1990; Bhutan cooperates z Indie to expel Indien Nagaland separatists; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and Chiny continue negotiations to establish a boundary alignment to resolve substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lies w Bhutan's northwest
BoliwiaBoliwia Chile rebuffs Boliwia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile w 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile dla Boliwian natural gas and other commodities
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina Bosnia i Hercegowina and Serbia have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain w dispute; discussions continue z Chorwacja on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder final ratification of the 1999 border agreement
BotswanaBotswana the alignment of the boundary z Namibia w the Kwando/Linyanti/Chobe River, including the Situngu marshlands, was resolved amicably w 2003; concerns from international experts and local populations over the ecology of the Okavango Delta w Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls) along the Angola-Namibia border; Botswana has built electric fences to stem the thousands of Zimbabweans who flee to find work and escape political persecution; Namibia has long supported, and w 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing the short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary
Wyspa BouvetaWyspa Bouveta none
BrazyliaBrazylia unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations; uncontested dispute z Urugwaj over certain islands w the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint z Argentyna
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu IndyjskiegoBrytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego Mauritius and Seszele claim the Chagos Archipelago including Diego Garcia; w 2001, the former inhabitants of the Chagos Archipelago, evicted w 1967 and 1973 and now residing chiefly w Mauritius, were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation; w maj 2006, the High Court of London reversed U.K. Government's 2004 orders of council that banned habitation on the islands; a small group of Chagossians visited Diego Garcia w kwiecien 2006; repatriation is complicated by the exclusive US military lease of Diego Garcia that restricts access to the largest viable island w the chain
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze none
BruneiBrunei Brunei and Malezja are still considering international adjudication over their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds, where hydrocarbon exploration was terminated w 2003 international legal adjudication; Malezja's land boundary z Brunei around Limbang is w dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef w the southern Wyspy Spratly w 1984, but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions w the Wyspy Spratly but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
BulgariaBulgaria none
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso two villages remain w dispute along the border z Benin; Benin accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; w recent years citizens and rogue security forces rob and harass local populations on both sides of the poorly-defined Burkina Faso-Niger border; despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) w Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to work w Ivorian cocoa plantations
BirmaBirma over half of Birma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin w neighboring countries; Tajlandia must deal z Karen and other ethnic rebels, illegal cross-border activities, Karen and other refugees, and asylum seekers from Birma; Tajlandia is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween River near the border z Birma; w 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted Chiny to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River which flows through Chiny, Birma, and Tajlandia; Indie seeks cooperation from Birma to keep Indien Nagaland separatists, such as the United Liberation Front of Assam, from hiding w remote Burmese Uplands; Burmese Rohingya Muslim refugees reside w two camps w Bangladesz
BurundiBurundi conflicts among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces have abated somewhat w the Great Lakes region; UN Operation w Burundi (ONUB) completed its mandate w grudzien 2006 after a three-year peace-keeping mission
KambodzaKambodza Southeast Asian states must maintain border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Kambodza and Tajlandia dispute sections of boundary z missing boundary markers and claims of Thai encroachments into Kambodzan territory; maritime boundary z Wietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; Kambodza accuses Tajlandia of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Kambodza by ICJ decision w 1962
KamerunKamerun Joint Border Commission z Nigeria reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including czerwiec 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Kamerun z a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; implementation of the ICJ ruling on the Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea is pending due to imprecisely defined coordinates and a sovereignty dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Czad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
KanadaKanada managed maritime boundary disputes z the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; US works closely z Kanada to intensify security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute z Dania over Hans Island w the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka none
KajmanyKajmany none
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie periodic skirmishes over water and grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border z southern Sudan persist
CzadCzad since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Czad; Czad remains an important mediator w the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions z Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Czadian Aozou rebels reside w southern Libia; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Czad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
ChileChile Chile rebuffs Boliwia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile w 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Boliwian gas and other commodities; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary z Chile to an equidistance line z a southwestern axis favoring Peru; territorial claim w Antarktyda (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentyna w 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary w the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
ChinyChiny based on principles drafted w 2005, Chiny and Indie continue discussions to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes together z a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and Chiny continue negotiations to establish a boundary alignment to resolve substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lies w Bhutan's northwest; Chiny asserts sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" eased tensions w the Spratly's but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Wietnam and Chiny continue to expand construction of facilities w the Spratly's and w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; Chiny and Tajwan continue to reject both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared equidistance line w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands w the Yalu and Tumen rivers are w dispute z North Korea; Chiny seeks to stem illegal migration of North Koreans; Chiny and Rosja have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and w the Argun River w accordance z their 2004 Agreement; w 2006, Chiny and Tadzykistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to w the delimitation of 2002; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam land boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation remains stalled; w 2004, international environmentalist and political pressure from Birma and Tajlandia prompted Chiny to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia none
ClippertonClipperton none
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe none
KolumbiaKolumbia memorials and countermemorials were filed by the parties w Nikaragua's 1999 and 2001 proceedings against Honduras and Kolumbia at the ICJ over the maritime boundary and territorial claims w the western Caribbean Sea - final public hearings are scheduled dla 2007; dispute z Wenezuela over maritime boundary and Wenezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Wenezuela; Kolumbian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its neighbors' borders and have caused over 300,000 persons to flee the country, mostly into neighboring states
KomoryKomory claims French-administered Majotta
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledge to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting w the northeastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC); w 2006, the UN Organization Mission w the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) maintained over 18,000 uniformed peacekeepers w the region, first deployed w 1999; despite significant repatriation efforts by governments and international organizations, w 2006, Angolans, Ruandans, Sudanese, and residents of other neighboring states reside as refugees w the DROC; members of Uganda's Lords Resistance Army forces take refuge w DROC's Garamba National Park; the location of the boundary w the broad Congo River z the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except w the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika Congo hosts about 63,000 refugees from neighboring states, primarily from the Pool border area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the location of the boundary w the broad Congo River z the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite except w the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka none
Wyspy Morza KoralowegoWyspy Morza Koralowego none
KostarykaKostaryka in wrzesien 2005, Kostaryka took its case before the ICJ to advocate the navigation, security, and commercial rights of Kostarykan vessels using the Río San Juan over which Nikaragua retains sovereignty
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) w Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict there has displaced hundreds of thousands of Ivorians w and out of the country as well as driven out migrants from neighboring states who worked w Ivorian cocoa plantations; Ivorian rebels reportedly hide along the borders of neighboring states
ChorwacjaChorwacja dispute remains z Bosnia i Hercegowina over several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; the Chorwacja-Slowenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slowenia and several villages to Chorwacja, remains un-ratified and w dispute; Slowenia also protests Chorwacja's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone w the Adriatic; as a Unia Europejska peripheral state, neighboring Slowenia must conform to the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties z Chorwacja
KubaKuba US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
CyprCypr hostilities w 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cypr); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force w Cypr (UNFICYP) has served w Cypr since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 maj 2004, Cypr entered the Unia Europejska still divided, z the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended w the north
CzechyCzechy in 2006, Austrian public protests dla the Czechy to close the Temelin nuclear power plant resulted w an Austrian parliamentary motion threatening international legal action
DaniaDania Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Faroese continue to study proposals dla full independence; sovereignty dispute z Kanada over Hans Island w the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
DzibutiDzibuti Dzibuti maintains economic ties and border accords z "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions w Somalia; thousands of Somali refugees await repatriation w UNHCR camps w Dzibuti
DominikaDominika Dominika is the only Caribbean state to challenge Wenezuela's sovereignty claim over Aves Island and joins the other island nations w challenging whether the feature sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Wenezuela to extend its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and continental shelf claims over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska Haitian migrants cross the porous border into the Republika Dominikanska to find work; illegal migrants from the Republika Dominikanska cross the Mona Passage each year to Portoryko to find better work
EkwadorEkwador organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia penetrate across Ekwador's shared border, which thousands of Kolumbians also cross to escape the violence w their home country
EgiptEgipt while Sudan retains claim to the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence w the 1990s and Egipt has invested w and effectively administers the area; Egipt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders z Izrael and the Gaza to deter terrorist, smuggling, and other illegal activities; Egipt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify themselves as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees
SalwadorSalwador International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the Salwador-Honduras boundary, w 1992, z final agreement by the parties w 2006 after an Organization of American States (OAS) survey and a further ICJ ruling w 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; Salwador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified w the ICJ decision, off Honduras w the Gulf of Fonseca
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea, but a dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates w the ICJ decision delay final delimitation; UN urges Gwinea Równikowa and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary w the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
ErytreaErytrea Erytrea and Etiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Etiopia-Erytrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision but, neither party responded to the revised line detailed w the listopad 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Etiopia and Erytrea (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone w Erytrea since 2000, is extended dla six months w 2007 despite Erytrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17,000; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups
EstoniaEstonia Rosja recalled its signature to the 1996 technical border agreement z Estonia w 2005, rather than concede to Estonia's appending prepared a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation and territorial losses; Rosja demands better accommodation of Rosjan-speaking population w Estonia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press dla realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules z Rosja
EtiopiaEtiopia Erytrea and Etiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Erytrea-Etiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed w the listopad 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Etiopia and Erytrea (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone w Erytrea since 2000, is extended dla six months w 2007 despite Erytrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17,000; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Etiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Etiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu w styczen 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities w Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Etiopia; civil unrest w eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska as a political union, the EU has no border disputes z neighboring countries, but Estonia has no land boundary agreements z Rosja, Slowenia disputes its land and maritime boundaries z Chorwacja, and Hiszpania has territorial and maritime disputes z Maroko and z the UK over Gibraltar; the EU has set up a Schengen area - consisting of 22 EU member states that have signed the convention implementing the Schengen agreements or "acquis" (1985 and 1990) on the free movement of persons and the harmonization of border controls w Europe; these agreements became incorporated into EU law z the implementation of the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 maj 1999; w addition, non-EU states Islandia and Norwegia (as part of the Nordic Union) have been included w the Schengen area since 1996 (full members w 2001), bringing the total current membership to 24; the UK (since 2000) and Irlandia (since 2002) take part w only some aspects of the Schengen area, especially z respect to police and criminal matters; nine of the 12 new member states that joined the EU w 2004 joined Schengen on 21 grudzien 2007; of the three remaining EU states, Cypr is expected to join by 2009, while Rumunia and Bulgaria continue to enhance their border security systems
FalklandyFalklandy Argentyna, which claims the islands w its constitution and briefly occupied them by force w 1982, agreed w 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests dla sovereignty talks
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze because anticipated offshore hydrocarbon resources have not been realized, earlier Faroese proposals dla full independence have been deferred; Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
FidziFidzi none
FinlandiaFinlandia various groups w Finlandia advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
FrancjaFrancja Madagaskar claims the French territories of Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, and Juan de Nova; Komory claims Majotta; Mauritius claims Wyspa Tromelin; territorial dispute between Surinam and the French overseas department of Gujana Francuska; Francja asserts a territorial claim w Antarktyda (Adelie Land); Francja and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of Nowa Kaledonia
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska none
Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i AntarktyczneFrancuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne French claim to "Adelie Land" w Antarktyda is not recognized by the US


Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, Juan de Nova (Wyspy Rozproszone): claimed by Madagaskar


Wyspa Tromelin (Wyspy Rozproszone): claimed by Mauritius
GabonGabon UN urges Gwinea Równikowa and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane Island and lesser islands and to establish a maritime boundary w hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
GambiaGambia attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region, as well as from conflicts w other west African states
GazaGaza Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Izrael removed settlers and military personnel from the Gaza w sierpien 2005
GeorgiaGeorgia Rosja and Georgia agree on delimiting 80% of their common border, leaving certain small, strategic segments and the maritime boundary unresolved; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge w Abkhazia; UN Observer Mission w Georgia has maintained a peacekeeping force w Georgia since 1993; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary z Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups w Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbejdzan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
NiemcyNiemcy none
GhanaGhana Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked w the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting w Cote d'Ivoire
GibraltarGibraltar in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation w talks between the UK and Hiszpania; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
GrecjaGrecja Grecja and Turcja continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes w the Aegean Sea; Cypr question z Turcja; Grecja rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem dla developed countries, chiefly Grecja and Wlochy
GrenlandiaGrenlandia managed dispute between Kanada and Dania over Hans Island w the Kennedy Channel between Kanada's Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
GrenadaGrenada none
GuamGuam none
GwatemalaGwatemala annual ministerial meetings under the OAS-initiated Agreement on the Framework dla Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Gwatemalan land and maritime claims w Belize and the Caribbean Sea; the Line of Adjacency created under the 2002 Differendum serves w lieu of the contiguous international boundary to control squatting w the sparsely inhabited rain forests of Belize's border region; Meksyk must deal z thousands of impoverished Gwatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking dla work w Meksyk and the Stany Zjednoczone
GuernseyGuernsey none
GwineaGwinea conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs w neighboring states have spilled over into Gwinea, resulting w domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Gwinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers excessive and protests Gwinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau in 2006, political instability within Senegal's Casamance region resulted w thousands of Senegalese refugees, cross-border raids, and arms smuggling into Gwinea Bissau
GujanaGujana all of the area west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Wenezuela preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Gujana has expressed its intention to join Barbados w asserting claims before UNCLOS that Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into their waters; Surinam claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers w a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Gujana seeks arbitration under provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to resolve the long-standing dispute z Surinam over the axis of the territorial sea boundary w potentially oil-rich waters
HaitiHaiti since 2004, about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission w Haiti (MINUSTAH) maintain civil order w Haiti; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Republika Dominikanska and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa
Wyspy Heard i McDonaldaWyspy Heard i McDonalda none
WatykanWatykan none
HondurasHonduras International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the Salwador-Honduras border w 1992 z final settlement by the parties w 2006 after an Organization of American States (OAS) survey and a further ICJ ruling w 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca z consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; Salwador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned w the ICJ ruling, off Honduras w the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize w its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Gwatemala consent to a maritime corridor w the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Gwatemala Differendum; memorials and countermemorials were filed by the parties w Nikaragua's 1999 and 2001 proceedings against Honduras and Kolumbia at the ICJ over the maritime boundary and territorial claims w the western Caribbean Sea - final public hearings are scheduled dla 2007
Hong KongHong Kong none
HowlandHowland none
WegryWegry bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue w 2006 z Slowacja over Wegry's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Wegry has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
IslandiaIslandia Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
IndieIndie since Chiny and Indie launched a security and foreign policy dialogue w 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indien claims that Chiny transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; various talks and confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake w the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie and Pakistan have maintained the 2004 cease fire w Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off w the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests Indie's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, Indie and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary w Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch w the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim w Indien Gujarat State; discussions z Bangladesz remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange territory dla 51 Bangladeszi exclaves w Indie and 111 Indien exclaves w Bangladesz, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Indie seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Birma to keep Indien Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding w remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee z Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; Indie maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Ocean IndyjskiOcean Indyjski some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
IndonezjaIndonezja Indonezja has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries z all of its neighbors; Timor Wschodni-Indonezja Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai w the north and alignment z Australian claims w the south; many refugees from Timor Wschodni who left w 2003 still reside w Indonezja and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonezja and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malezja w 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary w the Ambalat oil block w the Celebes Sea w dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonezja to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonezja and Singapur continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonezja's Batam Island; Indonezjan secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems dla Papua-Nowa Gwinea; piracy remains a problem w the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue z Palau; Indonezjan groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonezjan traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches
IranIran Iran protests Afganistan's limiting flow of dammed tributaries to the Helmand River w periods of drought; Irak's lack of a maritime boundary z Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab w the Persian Gulf; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which are occupied by Iran; Iran stands alone among littoral states w insisting upon a division of the Caspian Sea into five equal sectors
IrakIrak coalition forces assist Irakis w monitoring internal and cross-border security; approximately two million Irakis have fled the conflict w Irak, z the majority taking refuge w Syria and Jordania, and lesser numbers to Egipt, Liban, Iran, and Turcja; Irak's lack of a maritime boundary z Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab w the Persian Gulf; Turcja has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds w Irak
IrlandiaIrlandia Irlandia, Islandia, and the UK dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Wyspa ManWyspa Man none
IzraelIzrael Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Izrael continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the Zachodni Brzeg; Izrael withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza and from four settlements w the Zachodni Brzeg w sierpien 2005; Golan Heights is Izraeli-occupied (Liban claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered w Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel w the region
WlochyWlochy Wlochy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
JamajkaJamajka none
Jan majenJan majen none
JaponiaJaponia the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known w Japonia as the "Northern Territories" and w Rosja as the "Southern Kuril Islands," occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja and claimed by Japonia, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Swiat War II hostilities; Japonia and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) occupied by South Korea since 1954; Chiny and Tajwan dispute both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting
JarvisJarvis none
JerseyJersey none
JohnstonJohnston none
JordaniaJordania approximately two million Irakis have fled the conflict w Irak, z the majority taking refuge w Syria and Jordania; 2004 Agreement settles border dispute z Syria pending demarcation
KazachstanKazachstan Kirgistan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation z Kazachstan; field demarcation of the boundaries z Turkmenistan commenced w 2005, and z Uzbekistan w 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get underway z Rosja w 2007; demarcation z Chiny was completed w 2002; creation of a seabed boundary z Turkmenistan w the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified z Azerbejdzan and Rosja w the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
KeniaKenia Kenia served as an important mediator w brokering Sudan's north-south separation w luty 2005; Kenia provides shelter to almost a quarter of a million refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels; Kenia works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting w Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenia's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear w the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenia has administered since colonial times
KingmanKingman none
KiribatiKiribati none
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea risking arrest, imprisonment, and deportation, tens of thousands of North Koreans cross into Chiny to escape famine, economic privation, and political oppression; North Korea and Chiny dispute the sovereignty of certain islands w Yalu and Tumen rivers; Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents w the Yellow Sea z South Korea which claims the Northern Limiting Line as a maritime boundary; North Korea supports South Korea w rejecting Japonia's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima)
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents z North Korea w the Yellow Sea over the Northern Limiting Line, which South Korea claims as a maritime boundary; South Korea and Japonia claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954
KosowoKosowo Serbia z several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosowo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state w luty 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosowo's northern border challenge final status of Kosowo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosowo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority w Kosowo; Kosowo authorities object to alignment of the Kosowo boundary z Macedonia w accordance z the 2000 Macedonia-Federalna Republika Jugoslawii delimitation agreement
KuwejtKuwejt Kuwejt and Arabia Saudyjska continue negotiating a joint maritime boundary z Iran; no maritime boundary exists z Irak w the Persian Gulf
KirgistanKirgistan Kirgistan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation z Kazachstan; disputes w Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation z Tadzykistan; delimitation of 130 km of border z Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
LaosLaos Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation z Tajlandia but disputes remain over islands w the Mekong River; concern among Mekong Commission members that Chiny's construction of dams on the Mekong River will affect water levels
LotwaLotwa Rosja refuses to sign the 1997 boundary treaty due to Lotwan insistence on a unilateral clarificatory declaration referencing Soviet occupation of Lotwa and territorial losses; Rosja demands better Lotwan treatment of ethnic Rosjans w Lotwa; as of styczen 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary z Bialorus was complete and mapped z final ratification documentation w preparation; the Lotwan parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Lotwa has implemented the strict Schengen border rules z Rosja
LibanLiban lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Liban-Syria boundary are unclear z several sections w dispute; since 2000, Liban has claimed Shab'a Farms area w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force w Liban (UNIFIL) has been w place since 1978
LesothoLesotho none
LiberiaLiberia although civil unrest continues to abate z the assistance of 18,000 UN Mission w Liberia (UNMIL) peacekeepers, as of styczen 2007, Liberian refugees still remain w Gwinea, Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, and Ghana; Liberia, w turn, shelters refugees fleeing turmoil w Cote d'Ivoire; despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) w Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to Ivorian cocoa plantations; UN sanctions ban Liberia from exporting diamonds and timber
LibiaLibia Libia has claimed more than 32,000 sq km w southeastern Algieria and about 25,000 sq km w the Tommo region of Niger w a currently dormant dispute; various Czadian rebels from the Aozou region reside w southern Libia
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein none
LitwaLitwa Litwa and Rosja committed to demarcating their boundary w 2006 w accordance z the land and maritime treaty ratified by Rosja w maj 2003 and by Litwa w 1999; Litwa operates a simplified transit regime dla Rosjan nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Rosja, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border z a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Lotwan parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of styczen 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary z Bialorus was complete and mapped z final ratification documents w preparation
LuksemburgLuksemburg none
MakauMakau none
MacedoniaMacedonia ethnic Albanians w Kosowo object to demarcation of the boundary z Serbia w accordance z the 2000 Macedonia-Federalna Republika Jugoslawii delimitation agreement; Grecja continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
MadagaskarMadagaskar claims Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, and Juan de Nova (all administered by Francja)
MalawiMalawi disputes z Tanzania over the boundary w Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
MalezjaMalezja Malezja has asserted sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Chiny, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions over the Wyspy Spratly, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malezja was not party to the marzec 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam on conducting marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapur, Singapur's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries w the Johor and Singapur Straits; w listopad 2007, the ICJ will hold public hearings w response to the Memorials and Countermemorials filed by the parties w 2003 and 2005 over sovereignty of Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge; ICJ awarded Ligitan and Sipadan islands, also claimed by Indonezja and Filipiny, to Malezja but left maritime boundary and sovereignty of Unarang rock w the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea w dispute; separatist violence w Tajlandia's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border z Malezja to stem terrorist activities; Filipiny retains a dormant claim to Malezja's Sabah State w northern Borneo; Brunei and Malezja are still considering international adjudication over their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds, where hydrocarbon exploration was terminated w 2003; Malezja's land boundary z Brunei around Limbang is w dispute; piracy remains a problem w the Malacca Strait
MalediwyMalediwy none
MaliMali none
MaltaMalta none
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla claims US territory of Wake
MauretaniaMauretania Mauretanian claims to Sahara Zachodnia remain dormant
MauritiusMauritius Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego), and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly w Mauritius; claims French-administered Wyspa Tromelin
MajottaMajotta claimed by Komory
MeksykMeksyk abundant rainfall w recent years along much of the Meksyk-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border z Meksyk; Meksyk must deal z thousands of impoverished Gwatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking dla work w Meksyk and the Stany Zjednoczone
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji none
MidwayMidway none
MoldawiaMoldawia Moldawia and Ukraina operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldawia's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under OSCE supervision
MonakoMonako none
MongoliaMongolia none
CzarnogoraCzarnogora none
MontserratMontserrat none
MarokoMaroko claims and administers Sahara Zachodnia whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained w effect since wrzesien 1991, but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; Maroko protests Hiszpania's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Maroko's 2002 rejection of Hiszpania's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Maroko serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Hiszpania from North Africa
MozambikMozambik none
NamibiaNamibia concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology w Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; managed dispute z Republika Poludniowej Afryki over the location of the boundary w the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and w 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary w the river
NauruNauru none
NavassaNavassa claimed by Haiti, source of subsistence fishing
NepalNepal joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary z Indie, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; Indie has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities; approximately 106,000 Bhutanese Lhotshampas (Hindus) have been confined w refugee camps w southeastern Nepal since 1990
HolandiaHolandia none
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie none
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia Matthew and Hunter Islands east of Nowa Kaledonia claimed by Francja and Vanuatu
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia asserts a territorial claim w Antarktyda (Ross Dependency)
NikaraguaNikaragua memorials and countermemorials were filed by the parties w Nikaragua's 1999 and 2001 proceedings against Honduras and Kolumbia at the ICJ over the maritime boundary and territorial claims w the western Caribbean Sea, final public hearings are scheduled dla 2007; the 1992 ICJ ruling dla Salwador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border z Kostaryka
NigerNiger Libia claims about 25,000 sq km w a currently dormant dispute w the Tommo region; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint z Nigeria, remains undemarcated; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Czad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
NigeriaNigeria Joint Border Commission z Kamerun reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including czerwiec 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Kamerun z a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates w the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay w implementation; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Czad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
NiueNiue none
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk none
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne none
NorwegiaNorwegia Norwegia asserts a territorial claim w Antarktyda (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite dialogue, Rosja and Norwegia continue to dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone
OmanOman boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified z UAE w 2003 dla entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public
Ocean SpokojnyOcean Spokojny some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
PakistanPakistan various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake w the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; Indie and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire w Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off w the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests Indie's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, Indie and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary w Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch w the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim w Indie's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, z UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afganistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border z Afganistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities
PalauPalau maritime delineation negotiations continue z Filipiny, Indonezja
PalmyraPalmyra none
PanamaPanama organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia operate within the remote border region z Panama
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonezja, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists
Wyspy ParacelskieWyspy Paracelskie occupied by Chiny, also claimed by Tajwan and Wietnam
ParagwajParagwaj unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations
PeruPeru Chile and Ekwador rejected Peru's listopad 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Boliwia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
FilipinyFilipiny Filipiny claims sovereignty over certain of the Wyspy Spratly, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by Chiny, Malezja, Tajwan, and Wietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea," has eased tensions w the Wyspy Spratly but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Filipiny retains a dormant claim to Malezja's Sabah State w northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Filipiny Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue z Palau
PitcairnPitcairn none
PolskaPolska as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Polska has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders z Bialorus and Ukraina
PortugaliaPortugalia Portugalia does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
PortorykoPortoryko increasing numbers of illegal migrants from the Republika Dominikanska cross the Mona Passage to Portoryko each year looking dla work
KatarKatar none
RumuniaRumunia the ICJ gave Ukraina until grudzien 2006 to reply, and Rumunia until czerwiec 2007 to issue a rejoinder, w their dispute submitted w 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Rumunia also opposes Ukraina's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraina to the Black Sea
RosjaRosja Chiny and Rosja have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and w the Argun River w accordance z the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known w Japonia as the "Northern Territories" and w Rosja as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja, and claimed by Japonia, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Swiat War II hostilities; Rosja and Georgia agree on delimiting all but small, strategic segments of the land boundary and the maritime boundary; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Kodori Gorge w Abkhazia; Azerbejdzan, Kazachstan, and Rosja signed equidistance boundaries w the Caspian seabed but the littoral states have no consensus on dividing the water column; Rosja and Norwegia dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone; various groups w Finlandia advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following the Second Swiat War but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; w maj 2005, Rosja recalled its signatures to the 1996 border agreements z Estonia (1996) and Lotwa (1997), when the two Baltic states announced issuance of unilateral declarations referencing Soviet occupation and ensuing territorial losses; Rosja demands better treatment of ethnic Rosjans w Estonia and Lotwa; Estonian citizen groups continue to press dla realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; Litwa and Rosja committed to demarcating their boundary w 2006 w accordance z the land and maritime treaty ratified by Rosja w maj 2003 and by Litwa w 1999; Litwa operates a simplified transit regime dla Rosjan nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Rosja, while still conforming, as an EU member state z an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations dla the demarcation delimitation of land boundary z Ukraina have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Rosja and Ukraina through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a grudzien 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Kazachstan and Rosja boundary delimitation was ratified on listopad 2005 and field demarcation should commence w 2007; Rosjan Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement z the US
RuandaRuanda fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces w Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Ruandan refugees still reside w 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi w 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Ruanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains w place
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena none
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon none
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
SamoaSamoa none
San MarinoSan Marino none
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca none
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska Arabia Saudyjska has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border z Jemen to stem illegal cross-border activities; Kuwejt and Arabia Saudyjska continue discussions on a maritime boundary z Iran
SenegalSenegal The Gambia and Gwinea Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from Senegal's Casamance region, and w 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 and 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Gwinea Bissau residents fled into Senegal w 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border
SerbiaSerbia Serbia z several other states protest the U.S. and other states' recognition of Kosowo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state w luty 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosowo's northern border challenge final status of Kosowo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosowo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority w Kosowo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary z Bosnia i Hercegowina, but sections along the Drina River remain w dispute
SeszeleSeszele together z Mauritius, Seszele claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego)
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone as domestic fighting among disparate ethnic groups, rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs w Cote d'Ivoire, Gwinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone gradually abate, the number of refugees w border areas has begun to slowly dwindle; UN Mission w Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) has maintained over 4,000 peacekeepers w Sierra Leone since 1999; Sierra Leone considers excessive Gwinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers and protests Gwinea's continued occupation of these lands including the hamlet of Yenga occupied since 1998
SingapurSingapur disputes persist z Malezja over deliveries of fresh water to Singapur, Singapur's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries w the Johor and Singapur Straits; w listopad 2007, the ICJ will hold public hearings as a consequence of the Memorials and Countermemorials filed by the parties w 2003 and 2005 over sovereignty of Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge; Indonezja and Singapur continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonezja's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem w the Malacca Strait
SlowacjaSlowacja bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued w 2006 between Slowacja and Wegry over Wegry's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slowacja has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
SloweniaSlowenia the Chorwacja-Slowenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slowenia and several villages to Chorwacja, remains unratified and w dispute; Slowenia also protests Chorwacja's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone w the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slowenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties z Chorwacja
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona since 2003, the Regional Assistance Mission to the Wyspy Salomona (RAMSI), consisting of police, military, and civilian advisors drawn from 15 countries, has assisted w reestablishing and maintaining civil and political order while reinforcing regional stability and security
SomaliaSomalia Etiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu w styczen 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities w Berbera to landlocked Etiopia and have established commercial ties z other regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support w their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Etiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenia works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting w Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki Republika Poludniowej Afryki has placed military along the border to apprehend the thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing economic dysfunction and political persecution; as of styczen 2007, Republika Poludniowej Afryki also supports large numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (33,000), Somalia (20,000), Burundi (6,500), and other states w Africa (26,000); managed dispute z Namibia over the location of the boundary w the Orange River; w 2006, Swazi king advocates resort to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from Republika Poludniowej Afryki
Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich PoludniowyGeorgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy Argentyna, which claims the islands w its constitution and briefly occupied them by force w 1982, agreed w 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force
Ocean PoludniowyOcean Poludniowy Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarktyda entry), but Argentyna, Australia, Chile, Francja, NZ, Norwegia, and UK assert claims (some overlapping), including the continental shelf w the Ocean Poludniowy; several states have expressed an interest w extending those continental shelf claims under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to include undersea ridges; the US and most other states do not recognize the land or maritime claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Rosja have reserved the right to do so); no formal claims exist w the waters w the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west
HiszpaniaHiszpania in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation w talks between the UK and Hiszpania; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Maroko protests Hiszpania's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Maroko serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Hiszpania from North Africa; Portugalia does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Wyspy SpratlyWyspy Spratly all of the Wyspy Spratly are claimed by Chiny, Tajwan, and Wietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malezja and the Filipiny; w 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef w the southern Wyspy Spratly but has not publicly claimed the reef; claimants w listopad 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea," which has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly
Sri LankaSri Lanka none
SudanSudan the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; as of 2006, Czad, Etiopia, Kenia, Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda provided shelter dla over half a million Sudanese refugees, which includes 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military forces; Sudan, w turn, hosted about 116,000 Erytreans, 20,000 Czadians, and smaller numbers of Etiopians, Ugandans, Central Africans, and Congolese as refugees; w luty 2006, Sudan and DROC signed an agreement to repatriate 13,300 Sudanese and 6,800 Congolese; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting w eastern Sudan; the boundary that separates Kenia and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear w the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenia has administered since colonial times; while Sudan claims to administer the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel; both states withdrew their military presence w the 1990s, and Egipt has invested w and effectively administers the area; periodic violent skirmishes z Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border z the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie
SurinamSurinam area claimed by Gujana Francuska between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Surinam claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers w a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Gujana seeks United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) arbitration to resolve the long-standing dispute z Surinam over the axis of the territorial sea boundary w potentially oil-rich waters
SvalbardSvalbard despite recent discussions, Rosja and Norwegia dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone
SuaziSuazi in 2006, Swazi king advocates resort to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from Republika Poludniowej Afryki
SzwecjaSzwecja none
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria none
SyriaSyria Golan Heights is Izraeli-occupied z the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Liban-Syria boundary are unclear z several sections w dispute; since 2000, Liban has claimed Shaba'a farms w the Golan Heights; 2004 Agreement and pending demarcation settles border dispute z Jordania; approximately two million Irakis have fled the conflict w Irak z the majority taking refuge w Syria and Jordania
TajwanTajwan involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Filipiny, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Wyspy Paracelskie are occupied by Chiny, but claimed by Tajwan and Wietnam; w 2003, Chiny and Tajwan became more vocal w rejecting both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone w the East Chiny Sea where all parties engage w hydrocarbon prospecting
TadzykistanTadzykistan in 2006, Chiny and Tadzykistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to w the delimitation of 2002; talks continue z Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes w Isfara Valley delay delimitation z Kirgistan
TanzaniaTanzania Tanzania still hosts more than a half-million refugees, more than any other African country, mainly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes z Malawi over the boundary w Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
TajlandiaTajlandia separatist violence w Tajlandia's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls z Malezja to stem terrorist activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation z Laos but disputes remain over several islands w the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Tajlandia must deal z Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities, and as of 2006, over 116,000 Karen, Hmong, and other refugees and asylum seekers from Birma; Kambodza and Tajlandia dispute sections of historic boundary z missing boundary markers; Kambodza claims Thai encroachments into Kambodzan territory and obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Kambodza by ICJ decision w 1962; Tajlandia is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border z Birma; w 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted Chiny to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through Chiny, Birma, and Tajlandia
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni Timor Wschodni-Indonezja Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai w the north and alignment z Australian claims w the south; many refugees who left Timor Wschodni w 2003 still reside w Indonezja and refuse repatriation; Australia and Timor Wschodni agreed w 2005 to defer the disputed portion of the boundary dla 50 years and to split hydrocarbon revenues evenly outside the Joint Petroleum Development Terytorium covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty
TogoTogo in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; w 2006 14,000 Togolese refugees remain w Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there w 2005
TokelauTokelau Tokelau included Samoa Amerykanskie's Swains Island (Olohega) w its 2006 draft constitution
TongaTonga none
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago in kwiecien 2006, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a decision that delimited a maritime boundary z Trynidad i Tobago and compelled Barbados to enter a fishing agreement that limited Barbadian fishermen's catches of flying fish w Trynidad i Tobago's exclusive economic zone; w 2005, Barbados and Trynidad i Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit of Trynidad i Tobago's and Wenezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Gujana has also expressed its intention to include itself w the arbitration as the Trynidad i Tobago-Wenezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well
TunezjaTunezja none
TurcjaTurcja complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes z Grecja w the Aegean Sea; status of north Cypr question remains; Syria and Irak protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak; border z Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan cotton monoculture w Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries z Kazachstan commenced w 2005, but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled z Azerbejdzan, Iran, and Kazachstan due to Turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos have received Haitians fleeing economic and civil disorder
TuvaluTuvalu none
UgandaUganda Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Uganda hosts 209,860 Sudanese, 27,560 Congolese, and 19,710 Ruandan refugees, while Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter w southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenian villages across the border
UkrainaUkraina 1997 boundary delimitation treaty z Bialorus remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary z Rosja is complete z preparations dla demarcation underway; the dispute over the boundary between Rosja and Ukraina through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a grudzien 2003 framework agreement and ongoing expert-level discussions; Moldawia and Ukraina operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldawia's break-away Transnistria Region, which remains under OSCE supervision; the ICJ gave Ukraina until grudzien 2006 to reply, and Rumunia until czerwiec 2007 to rejoin, w their dispute submitted w 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary; Rumunia opposes Ukraina's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraina to the Black Sea
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie boundary agreement was signed and ratified z Oman w 2003 dla entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves, but contents of the agreement and detailed maps showing the alignment have not been published; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which Iran occupies
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Hiszpania; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation w talks between the two countries; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seszele claim the Chagos Archipelago (Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego), and its former inhabitants since their eviction w 1965; most Chagossians reside w Mauritius, and w 2001 were granted UK citizenship, where some have since resettled; w maj 2006, the High Court of London reversed the UK Government's 2004 orders of council that banned habitation on the islands; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentyna, which still claims the Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy; territorial claim w Antarktyda (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone the U.S. has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely z its neighbors, Kanada and Meksyk, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall w recent years along much of the Meksyk-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement w the Bering Sea still awaits Rosjan Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes z Kanada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Kuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa; US has made no territorial claim w Antarktyda (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Wyspy Marshalla claims Wake; Tokelau included Samoa Amerykanskie's Swains Island among the islands listed w its 2006 draft constitution
Stany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife RefugesStany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges none
UrugwajUrugwaj in Jan 2007, ICJ provisionally ruled Urugwaj may begin construction of two paper mills on the Urugwaj River, which forms the border z Argentyna, while the court examines further whether Argentyna has the legal right to stop such construction z potential environmental implications to both countries; uncontested dispute z Brazylia over certain islands w the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada streams and the resulting tripoint z Argentyna
UzbekistanUzbekistan prolonged drought and cotton monoculture w Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries z Kazachstan commenced w 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border z Kirgistan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
VanuatuVanuatu Matthew and Hunter Islands east of Nowa Kaledonia claimed by Vanuatu and Francja
WenezuelaWenezuela claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River w Gujana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Gujana has expressed its intention to join Barbados w asserting claims before the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into their waters; dispute z Kolumbia over maritime boundary and Wenezuelan-administered Los Monjes islands near the Gulf of Wenezuela; Kolumbian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Wenezuela's shared border region; w 2006, an estimated 139,000 Kolumbians sought protection w 150 communities along the border w Wenezuela; US, Francja, and the Holandia recognize Wenezuela's granting full effect to Aves Island, thereby claiming a Wenezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Dominika, Saint Kitts i Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent i Grenadyny protest Wenezuela's full effect claim
WietnamWietnam southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Kambodza and Laos protest Wietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; an estimated 300,000 Wietnamese refugees reside w Chiny; establishment of a maritime boundary z Kambodza is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation has been delayed; Chiny occupies the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Wietnam continues to expand construction of facilities w the Wyspy Spratly; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze none
WakeWake claimed by Wyspy Marshalla
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna none
Zachodni BrzegZachodni Brzeg Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Izrael continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the Zachodni Brzeg; Izrael withdrew from four settlements w the northern Zachodni Brzeg w sierpien 2005; since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), headquartered w Jerusalem, monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel w the region
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia Maroko claims and administers Sahara Zachodnia, whose sovereignty remains unresolved; UN-administered cease-fire has remained w effect since wrzesien 1991, administered by the UN Mission dla the Referendum w Sahara Zachodnia (MINURSO), but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; several states have extended diplomatic relations to the "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic" represented by the Polisario Front w exile w Algieria, while others recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Sahara Zachodnia; most of the approximately 102,000 Sahrawi refugees are sheltered w camps w Tindouf, Algieria
SwiatSwiat stretching over 250,000 km, the world's 322 international land boundaries separate 194 independent states and 70 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting w sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; most maritime states have claimed limits that include territorial seas and exclusive economic zones; overlapping limits due to adjacent or opposite coasts create the potential dla 430 bilateral maritime boundaries of which 209 have agreements that include contiguous and non-contiguous segments; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary w intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries tend to encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic and cultural clashes continue to be responsible dla much of the territorial fragmentation and internal displacement of the estimated 6.6 million people and cross-border displacements of 8.6 million refugees around the world as of early 2006; just over one million refugees were repatriated w the same period; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially hydrocarbon) resources, fisheries, and arable land; armed conflict prevails not so much between the uniformed armed forces of independent states as between stateless armed entities that detract from the sustenance and welfare of local populations, leaving the community of nations to cope z resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, and environmental degradation
JemenJemen Arabia Saudyjska has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border z Jemen to stem illegal cross-border activities
ZambiaZambia in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary w the river; 42,250 Congolese refugees w Zambia are offered voluntary repatriation w listopad 2006, most of whom are expected to return w the next two years; Angolan refugees too have been repatriating but 26,450 still remain z 90,000 others from other neighboring states w 2006
ZimbabweZimbabwe Botswana built electric fences and Republika Poludniowej Afryki has placed military along the border to stem the flow of thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing to find work and escape political persecution; Namibia has supported, and w 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary w the river
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