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Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2005)

Miedzynarodowe dyskusje - wybierz rok:
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2001) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2002) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2003) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2004) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2006) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2007) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2008) (porownaj)


Informacje o Miedzynarodowe dyskusje w 2005 rok

AfganistanAfganistan the UN has been able to repatriate over two million Afghan refugees but several million more continue to reside w Iran and Pakistan w camps and elsewhere, many at their own choosing; Coalition and Pakistani forces continue to patrol remote tribal areas to control the borders and stem organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings between Pakistani and Coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments; occasional conflicts over water-sharing arrangements z Amu Darya and Helmand River states
AlbaniaAlbania the Albanian Government calls dla the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians w neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups w neighboring countries advocate dla a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; thousands of unemployed Albanians emigrate annually to nearby Wlochy and other developed countries
AlgieriaAlgieria Algieria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Sahara Zachodnia; Algieria's border z Maroko remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation has accused the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; w an attempt to improve relations after unilaterally imposing a visa requirement on Algierians w the early 1990s, Maroko lifted the requirement w mid-2004 - a gesture not reciprocated by Algieria; Algieria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algierian towns; dormant disputes include Libian claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algieria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures w southeastern Maroko
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie none
AndoraAndora none
AngolaAngola 90,000 Angolan refugees were repatriated by 2004, the remaining refugees w the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia are expected to return w 2005; many Cabinda exclave secessionists have sought shelter w neighboring states
AnguillaAnguilla none
AntarktydaAntarktyda Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary w Government type entry); Argentyna, Australia, Chile, Francja, NZ, Norwegia, and UK claim land and maritime sectors (some overlapping) dla a large portion of the continent; the US and many other states do not recognize these territorial claims and have made no claims themselves (the US and Rosja reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made w the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states z territorial claims w Antarktyda have expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda none
Ocean ArktycznyOcean Arktyczny some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
ArgentynaArgentyna Argentyna claims the UK-administered Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy w its constitution; it briefly occupied the Falklands w 1982, but w 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim w Antarktyda partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazylia and Urugwaj over Brazyliaiera Island w the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint z Argentyna w question
ArmeniaArmenia Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists w Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbejdzan - Organization dla Security and Cooperation w Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbejdzanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes w Azerbejdzan into Armenia; Azerbejdzan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border z Turcja remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups w Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; tens of thousands of Armenians emigrate, primarily to Rosja, to seek employment
ArubaAruba none
Wyspy Ashmore i CartieraWyspy Ashmore i Cartiera Indonezjan groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia closed the surrounding waters to Indonezjan traditional fishing and created a national park w the region while continuing to prospect dla hydrocarbons w the vicinity
Ocean AtlantyckiOcean Atlantycki some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
AustraliaAustralia Timor Wschodni and Australia continue to meet but disagree over how to delimit a permanent maritime boundary and share unexploited petroleum resources that fall outside the Joint Petroleum Development Terytorium covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; Timor Wschodni dispute hampers creation of a revised maritime boundary z Indonezja (see also Wyspy Ashmore i Cartiera dispute); regional states express concern over Australia's 2004 declaration of a 1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime indentification zone; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarktyda (see Antarktyda); w 2004 Australia submitted claims to UNCLOS to extend its continental margin from both its mainland and Antarctic claims
AustriaAustria none
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists w Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbejdzan - Organization dla Security and Cooperation w Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbejdzanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes w Azerbejdzan into Armenia; Azerbejdzan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; Azerbejdzan, Kazachstan, and Rosja ratify Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbejdzan's hydrocarbon exploration w disputed waters; bilateral talks continue z Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields w the middle of the Caspian; Azerbejdzan and Georgia cannot resolve the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
BahamyBahamy have not been able to agree on the alignment of a maritime boundary z the US; continues to monitor and interdict Haitian refugees fleeing economic privation and political instability
BahrajnBahrajn none
Wyspa BakerWyspa Baker none
BangladeszBangladesz discussions z Indie remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves w both countries, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint Bangladesz-Indie boundary inspection w 2005 revealed 92 pillars are missing; dispute z Indie over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesz's meager resources
BarbadosBarbados in 2005, Barbados and Trynidad i Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration that will result w a binding award challenging whether the northern limit of Trynidad i Tobago's and Wenezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters and the southern limit of Barbadian traditional fishing; joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
Bassas da IndieBassas da Indie claimed by Madagaskar
BialorusBialorus 1997 boundary treaty z Ukraina remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing border security; boundary z Lotwa remains undemarcated but a third of the border z Litwa was demarcated w 2004
BelgiaBelgia none
BelizeBelize Gwatemalan squatters continue to settle w the largely uninhabited rain forests of Belize's border region; OAS is attempting to revive the 2002 failed Differendum that created a small adjustment to land boundary, a Gwatemalan maritime corridor w Caribbean, joint ecological park dla disputed Sapodilla Cays, and substantial US-UK financial package
BeninBenin two villages remain w dispute along the border z Burkina Faso; accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint z Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and the states expect a ruling w 2005 from the ICJ over the disputed Niger and Mekrou River islands; a joint task force was established w 2004 that resolved disputes over and redrew the maritime and the 870-km land boundary z Nigeria, including the sovereignty over seven villages along the Okpara River; a joint boundary commission continues to resurvey the boundary z Togo to verify Benin's claim that Togo moved boundary stones
BermudyBermudy none
BhutanBhutan approximately 104,000 Bhutanese refugees live w Nepal, 90% of whom reside w seven UN Office of the High Commissioner dla Refugees camps; Bhutan cooperates z Indie to expel Indien separatists
BoliwiaBoliwia Chile rebuffs Boliwia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile w 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile dla Boliwian natural gas and other commodities
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina Bosnia i Hercegowina and Federalna Republika Jugoslawii have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain w dispute; discussions continue z Chorwacja on several small disputed sections of the boundary
BotswanaBotswana commission established z Namibia has yet to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana has built electric fences to stem the thousands of Zimbabweans who flee to find work and escape political persecution; Namibia has long supported and w 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing their short, but not clearly delimited Botswana-Zambia boundary
Wyspa BouvetaWyspa Bouveta none
BrazyliaBrazylia unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations; uncontested dispute z Urugwaj over certain islands w the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint z Argentyna; w 2004 Brazylia submitted its claims to UNCLOS to extend its maritime continental margin
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu IndyjskiegoBrytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego Mauritius and Seszele claim the Chagos Archipelago and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly w Mauritius, but w 2001 were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since eviction w 1965; the UK resists the Chagossians' demand dla an immediate return to the islands; repatriation is complicated by the exclusive US military lease of Diego Garcia that restricts access to the largest island w the chain
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze none
BruneiBrunei in 2003 Brunei and Malezja ceased gas and oil exploration w their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international legal adjudication; Malezja's land boundary z Brunei around Limbang is w dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef w southern Wyspy Spratly w 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions w the Wyspy Spratly but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
BulgariaBulgaria none
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso two villages are w dispute along the border z Benin; Benin accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; Burkina Faso border regions remain a staging area dla Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire rebels and an asylum dla refugees caught w local fighting; the Ivoirian Government accuses Burkina Faso of sheltering Ivoirian rebels
BirmaBirma over half of Birma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups z substantial numbers of kin beyond its borders; despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain z Tajlandia over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; ethnic Karens flee into Tajlandia to escape fighting between Karen rebels and Burmese troops, w 2004 Tajlandia sheltered about 118,000 Burmese refugees; Karens also protest Thai support dla a Burmese hydroelectric dam on the Salween River near the border; environmentalists w Birma and Tajlandia continue to voice concern over Chiny's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the Nujiang/Salween River w Yunnan Province; Indie seeks cooperation from Birma to keep Indien Nagaland separatists from hiding w remote Burmese uplands
BurundiBurundi Tutsi, Hutu, other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting w the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda, and Uganda w an effort to gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite the presence of about 6,000 peacekeepers from the UN Operation w Burundi (ONUB) since 2004; although some 150,000 Burundian refugees have been repatriated, as of luty 2005, Burundian refugees still reside w camps w western Tanzania as well as the Democratic Republic of the Congo
KambodzaKambodza Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Kambodza and Tajlandia dispute sections of boundary z missing boundary markers and Thai encroachments into Kambodzan territory; maritime boundary z Wietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over offshore islands; Kambodza accuses Tajlandia of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Kambodza by ICJ decision w 1962; w 2004 Kambodzan-Laotian and Laotian-Wietnamese boundary commissions reerect missing markers completing most of their demarcations
KamerunKamerun ICJ ruled w 2002 on the entire Kamerun-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission, which continues to meet regularly to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced z demarcation w less-contested sections of the boundary, starting w Lake Czad w the north; implementation of the ICJ ruling on the Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea is impeded by imprecisely defined coordinates, the unresolved Bakassi allocation, and a sovereignty dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; Nigeria initially rejected cession of the Bakasi Peninsula, then agreed, but has yet to withdraw its forces while much of the indigenous population opposes cession; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes Czad and Niger
KanadaKanada managed maritime boundary disputes z the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; working toward greater cooperation z US w monitoring people and commodities crossing the border; uncontested sovereignty dispute z Dania over Hans Island w the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka none
KajmanyKajmany none
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie about 30,000 refugees fleeing the 2002 civil conflict w the CAR still reside w southern Czad; periodic skirmishes over water and grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border z southern Sudan persist
CzadCzad since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military have driven about 200,000 Darfur region refugees into eastern Czad; Czad remains an important mediator w the Sudanese civil conflict; Czadian Aozou rebels reside w southern Libia; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes Czad and Niger
ChileChile Chile rebuffs Boliwia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile w 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Boliwian gas and other commodities; Peru proposes changing its latitudinal maritime boundary z Chile to an equidistance line z a southwestern axis; territorial claim w Antarktyda (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
ChinyChiny in 2005, Chiny and Indie initiate drafting principles to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes together z a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; about 90,000 ethnic Tibetan exiles reside primarily w Indie as well as Nepal and Bhutan; Chiny asserts sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions w the Spratlys but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; Chiny and Tajwan have become more vocal w rejecting both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands w the Yalu and Tumen rivers are w an uncontested dispute z North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is considered indefinite; Chiny seeks to stem illegal migration of tens of thousands of North Koreans; w 2004, Chiny and Rosja divided up the islands w the Amur, Ussuri, and Argun Rivers, ending a century-old border dispute; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation has been delayed; environmentalists w Birma and Tajlandia remain concerned about Chiny's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the Nujiang/Salween River w Yunnan Province
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia none
ClippertonClipperton none
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe none
KolumbiaKolumbia Nikaragua filed a claim against Honduras w 1999 and against Kolumbia w 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km w the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; dispute z Wenezuela over maritime boundary and Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Wenezuela; Kolumbian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its neighbors' borders and have created a serious refugee crisis z over 300,000 persons having fled the country, mostly into neighboring states
KomoryKomory claims French-administered Majotta
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledge to end conflict but unchecked tribal, rebel, and militia fighting continues unabated w the northeastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, drawing w the neighboring states of Burundi, Ruanda and Uganda; the UN Organization Mission w the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) has maintained over 14,000 peacekeepers w the region since 1999; thousands of Ituri refugees from the Congo continue to flee the fighting primarily into Uganda; 90,000 Angolan refugees were repatriated by 2004 z the remainder w the Democratic Republic of the Congo expected to return w 2005; w 2005, DROC and Ruanda established a border verification mechanism to address accusations of Ruandan military supporting Congolese rebels and the DROC providing rebel Ruandan "Interhamwe" forces the means and bases to attack Ruandan forces; the location of the boundary w the broad Congo River z the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except w the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika about 7,000 Congolese refugees fleeing internal civil conflicts since the mid-1990s still reside w the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the location of the boundary w the broad Congo River z the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite except w the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka none
Wyspy Morza KoralowegoWyspy Morza Koralowego none
KostarykaKostaryka legal dispute over navigational rights of Rio San Juan on the border z Nikaragua remains unresolved
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire rebel and ethnic fighting against the central government w 2002 has spilled into neighboring states, driven out foreign cocoa workers from nearby countries, and, w 2004, resulted w 6,000 peacekeepers deployed as part of UN Operation w Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI) assisting 4,000 French troops already in-country; the Ivorian Government accuses Burkina Faso and Liberia of supporting Ivorian rebels
ChorwacjaChorwacja discussions continue z Bosnia i Hercegowina over several small disputed sections of the boundary; the Chorwacja-Slowenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slowenia and several villages to Chorwacja, remains un-ratified and w dispute; as a Unia Europejska peripheral state, neighboring Slowenia must conform to the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties z Chorwacja
KubaKuba US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
CyprCypr hostilities w 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cypr); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force w Cypr (UNFICYP) has served w Cypr since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; marzec 2003 reunification talks failed, but Turkish-Cypriots later opened their borders to temporary visits by Greek Cypriots; on 24 kwiecien 2004, the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities voted w simultaneous and parallel referenda on whether to approve the UN-brokered Annan Plan that would have ended the thirty-year division of the island by establishing a new "United Cypr Republic," a majority of Greek Cypriots voted "no"; on 1 maj 2004, Cypr entered the Unia Europejska still divided, z the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended w the north
CzechyCzechy in luty 2005, the ICJ refused to rule on the restitution of Liechtenstein's land and property assets w the Czechy confiscated w 1945 as German property; individual Sudeten Germans seek restitution dla property confiscated w connection z their expulsion after Swiat War II
DaniaDania Islandia disputes the Wyspy Owcze' fisheries median line; Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Faroese continue to study proposals dla full independence; uncontested sovereignty dispute z Kanada over Hans Island w the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
DzibutiDzibuti Dzibuti maintains economic ties and border accords z "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions w Somalia; although most of the 26,000 Somali refugees w Dzibuti who fled civil unrest w the early 1990s have returned, several thousand still await repatriation w UNHCR camps
DominikaDominika joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska increasing numbers of illegal migrants from the Republika Dominikanska cross the Mona Passage each year to Portoryko to find work
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni UN Mission of Support w Timor Wschodni (UNMISET) has maintained about a thousand peacekeepers w Timor Wschodni since 2002; Timor Wschodni-Indonezja Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey, and delimit the land boundary, but several sections of the boundary especially around the Oekussi enclave remain unresolved; Indonezja and Timor Wschodni contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which prevents delimitation of the northern maritime boundaries; many of 28,000 Timor Wschodniese refugees still residing w Indonezja w 2003 have returned, but many continue to refuse repatriation; Timor Wschodni and Australia continue to meet but disagree over how to delimit a permanent maritime boundary and share unexploited potential petroleum resources that fall outside the Joint Petroleum Development Terytorium covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; dispute z Australia also hampers creation of a southern maritime boundary z Indonezja
EkwadorEkwador organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia penetrate across Ekwador's shared border and caused over 20,000 refugees to flee into Ekwador w 2004
EgiptEgipt Egipt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egipt is developing the Hala'ib Triangle north of the Treaty line; since the attack on Taba and other Egiptian resort towns on the Red Sea w pazdziernik 2004, Egipt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders z Izrael and the Gaza; Egipt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees
SalwadorSalwador in 1992, the ICJ ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the Salwador-Honduras boundary, but despite OAS intervention and a further ICJ ruling w 2003, full demarcation of the border remains stalled; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; Salwador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified w the ICJ decision, off Honduras w the Gulf of Fonseca
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea, but a dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River, imprecisely defined maritime coordinates w the ICJ decision, and the unresolved Bakasi allocation contribute to the delay w implementation; UN has been pressing Gwinea Równikowa and Gabon to pledge to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane Island and create a maritime boundary w the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
ErytreaErytrea Erytrea and Etiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Etiopia-Erytrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but despite international intervention, mutual animosities, accusations and armed posturing prevail, preventing demarcation; Etiopia refuses to withdraw to the delimited boundary until technical errors made by the EEBC that ignored "human geography" are addressed, including the award of Badme, the focus of the 1998-2000 war; Erytrea insists that the EEBC decision be implemented immediately without modifications; since 2000, the UN Peacekeeping Mission to Etiopia and Erytrea (UNMEE) monitors the 25km-wide Temporary Security Zone w Erytrea until the demarcation; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Erytrea protests Jemeni fishing around the Hanish Islands awarded to Erytrea by the ICJ w 1999
EstoniaEstonia in 1996, the Estonia-Rosja technical border agreement was initialed but both states have been hesitant to sign and ratify it, z Rosja asserting that Estonia needs to better assimilate Rosjan-speakers and Estonian groups pressing dla realignment of the boundary based more closely on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules
EtiopiaEtiopia Erytrea and Etiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Erytrea-Etiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but despite international intervention, mutual animosities, accusations and armed posturing prevail, preventing demarcation; Etiopia refuses to withdraw to the delimited boundary until technical errors made by the EEBC that ignored "human geography" are addressed, including the award of Badme, the focus of the 1998-2000 war; Erytrea insists that the EEBC decision be implemented immediately without modifications; Etiopia has only an administrative line and no international border z the Oromo region of southern Somalia where it maintains alliances z local clans w opposition to the unrecognized Somali Interim Government w Mogadishu; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities and trade ties to landlocked Etiopia; the UNHCR expects most of the remaining 23,000 Somali refugees w Etiopia to be repatriated w 2005; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Sudan have been delayed by civil war
Europa (wyspa)Europa (wyspa) claimed by Madagaskar
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska the EU has no border disputes z neighboring countries; it has set up a Schengen area - consisting of 13 EU member states that have signed the convention implementing the Schengen agreements (1985 and 1990) on the free movement of persons and the harmonization of border controls w Europe; the Schengen agreements ("acquis") became incorporated into EU law z the implementation of the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 maj 1999; member states are: Austria, Belgia, Dania, Finlandia, Francja, Niemcy, Grecja, Wlochy, Luksemburg, Holandia, Portugalia, Hiszpania, and Szwecja; w addition, non-EU states Islandia and Norwegia (as part of the Nordic Union) have been included w the Schengen area since 1996 (full members w 2001), bringing the total current membership to 15; the UK (since 2000) and Irlandia (since 2002) take part w some aspects of the Schengen area, especially z respect to police and criminal matters; the 10 new member states that joined the EU w 2004 eventually are expected to participate w Schengen, following a transition period to upgrade their border controls and procedures
FalklandyFalklandy Argentyna, which claims the islands w its constitution and briefly occupied the islands by force w 1982, agreed w 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests dla sovereignty talks
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze because anticipated offshore hydrocarbon resources have not been realized, earlier Faroese proposals dla full independence have been deferred; Islandia disputes the Wyspy Owcze' fisheries median line boundary; Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
FidziFidzi none
FinlandiaFinlandia various groups w Finlandia advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
FrancjaFrancja Madagaskar claims Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, and Juan de Nova; Komory claims Majotta; Mauritius claims Wyspa Tromelin; territorial dispute between Surinam and the French overseas department of Gujana Francuska; Francja asserts a territorial claim w Antarktyda (Adelie Land); Francja and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of Nowa Kaledonia
Gujana FrancuskaGujana Francuska Surinam claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa) w Gujana Francuska
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska none
Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i AntarktyczneFrancuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne French claim to "Adelie Land" w Antarktyda is not recognized by the Stany Zjednoczone
GabonGabon UN presses Gwinea Równikowa and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane Island and to establish a maritime boundary w hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay; only a few hundred out of the 20,000 Republic of the Congo refugees who fled militia fighting w 2000 remain w Gabon
GambiaGambia attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region as well as from conflicts w other west African states
GazaGaza Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Izrael announced its intention to pull out settlers and withdraw from the Gaza w 2005
GeorgiaGeorgia Rosja and Georgia agree on delimiting 80% of their common border, leaving certain small, strategic segments and the maritime boundary unresolved; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge w Abkhazia; UN Observer Mission w Georgia has maintained a peacekeeping force w Georgia since 1993; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary z Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups w Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbejdzan and Georgia cannot resolve the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
NiemcyNiemcy none
GhanaGhana Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked w the cocoa plantations and escaped rebel fighting w Cote d'Ivoire
GibraltarGibraltar in 2003, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation w talks between the UK and Hiszpania; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
Wyspy GloriosoWyspy Glorioso claimed by Madagaskar
GrecjaGrecja Grecja and Turcja continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes w the Aegean Sea; Cypr question z Turcja; Grecja rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
GrenlandiaGrenlandia uncontested dispute between Kanada and Dania over Hans Island w the Kennedy Channel between Kanada's Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
GrenadaGrenada none
GwadelupaGwadelupa none
GuamGuam none
GwatemalaGwatemala Gwatemalan squatters continue to settle w the rain forests of Belize's border region; OAS is attempting to revive the 2002 failed Differendum that created a small adjustment to land boundary, a Gwatemalan maritime corridor w Caribbean, a joint ecological park dla the disputed Sapodilla Cays, and a substantial US-UK financial package; Gwatemalans enter Meksyk illegally seeking work or transit to the US
GuernseyGuernsey none
GwineaGwinea conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs w neighboring states has spilled over into Gwinea, resulting w domestic instability; Sierra Leone pressures Gwinea to remove its forces from the town of Yenga occupied since 1998
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau attempts to stem refugees and cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and political instability from a separatist movement w Senegal's Casamance region
GujanaGujana all of the area west of the Essequibo (river) is claimed by Wenezuela preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Gujana has expressed its intention to join Barbados w asserting claims before UNCLOS that Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into their waters; Surinam claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers w a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Gujana seeks UNCLOS arbitration to resolve the long-standing dispute z Surinam over the axis of the territorial sea boundary w potentially oil-rich waters
HaitiHaiti since 2004, about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission w Haiti (MINUSTAH) maintain civil order w Haiti; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians fleeing economic privation and civil unrest continue to cross into Republika Dominikanska and to sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa
Wyspy Heard i McDonaldaWyspy Heard i McDonalda none
WatykanWatykan none
HondurasHonduras in 1992, ICJ ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the Salwador-Honduras border, but despite OAS intervention and a further ICJ ruling w 2003, full demarcation of the border remains stalled; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca z consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; Salwador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned w the ICJ ruling, off Honduras w the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize, but agreed to creation of a joint ecological park and Gwatemalan corridor w the Caribbean w the failed 2002 Belize-Gwatemala Differendum, which the OAS is attempting to revive; Nikaragua filed a claim against Honduras w 1999 and against Kolumbia w 2001 at the ICJ over a complex dispute over islands and maritime boundaries w the Caribbean Sea
Hong KongHong Kong none
HowlandHowland none
WegryWegry in 2004, Wegry amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits and voted down a referendum to extend dual citizenship to ethnic Hungarians living w neighboring states, which have objected to such measures; consultations continue between Slowacja and Wegry over Wegry's completion of its portion the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Wegry must implement the strict Schengen border rules
IslandiaIslandia Islandia disputes Dania's alignment of the Wyspy Owcze' fisheries median line; Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
IndieIndie Chiny and Indie launched a security and foreign policy dialogue w 2005, consolidating discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indien claims that Chiny transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); w 2004, Indie and Pakistan instituted a cease fire w the Kashmir and w 2005, restored bus service across the highly militarized Line of Control; Pakistan has taken its dispute on the impact and benefits of Indie's building the Baglihar dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir to the Swiat Bank dla arbitration; UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; disputes persist z Pakistan over Indus River water sharing; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, w 2004, Indie and Pakistan resurveyed a portion of the disputed boundary w Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim w Indien Gujarat State; discussions z Bangladesz remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange 162 miniscule enclaves w both countries, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Indie seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Birma to keep Indien Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding w remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee z Nepal continues to demarcate minor disputed boundary sections; Indie has instituted a stricter border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Ocean IndyjskiOcean Indyjski some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
IndonezjaIndonezja Timor Wschodni-Indonezja Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; Indonezja and Timor Wschodni contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a northern maritime boundary; a 1997 treaty between Indonezja and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malezja w 2002 left maritime boundary w the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea w dispute, culminating w hostile confrontations w marzec 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonezja to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonezja and Singapur pledged w 2005 to finalize their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Batam Island; Indonezjan secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems dla Papua-Nowa Gwinea; piracy remains a problem w the Malacca Strait
IranIran Iran protests Afganistan's limiting flow of dammed tributaries to the Helmand River w periods of drought; Irak's lack of a maritime boundary z Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab w the Persian Gulf; Iran and UAE engage w direct talks and solicit Arab League support to resolve disputes over Iran's occupation of Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island; Iran stands alone among littoral states w insisting upon a division of the Caspian Sea into five equal sectors
IrakIrak coalition forces assist Irakis w monitoring boundary security; Irak's lack of a maritime boundary z Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab w the Persian Gulf; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak
IrlandiaIrlandia Irlandia, Islandia, and the UK dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Wyspa ManWyspa Man none
IzraelIzrael Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Izrael continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the Zachodni Brzeg; Izrael announced its intention to pull out Izraeli settlers and withdraw from the Gaza and four settlements w the northern Zachodni Brzeg w 2005; Golan Heights is Izraeli-occupied (Liban claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered w Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel w the region
WlochyWlochy Wlochy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
JamajkaJamajka none
Jan majenJan majen none
JaponiaJaponia the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known w Japonia as the "Northern Territories" and w Rosja as the "Southern Kuril Islands", occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja and claimed by Japonia, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Swiat War II hostilities; Japonia and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do), occupied by South Korea since 1954; Chiny and Tajwan dispute both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting
JarvisJarvis none
JerseyJersey none
JohnstonJohnston none
JordaniaJordania 2004 Agreement settles border dispute z Syria pending demarcation
Juan de NovaJuan de Nova claimed by Madagaskar
KazachstanKazachstan in 2005, Kazachstan agreed z Rosja, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to commence demarcating their boundaries; delimitation z Kirgistan is complete; creation of a seabed boundary z Turkmenistan w the Caspian Sea remains unresolved; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified z Azerbejdzan and Rosja w the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
KeniaKenia Kenia served as an important mediator w brokering Sudan's north-south separation w luty 2005; Kenia provides shelter to approximately a quarter of a million refugees including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels; Kenia's administrative limits extend beyond the treaty border into the Sudan, creating the Ilemi Triangle
KingmanKingman none
KiribatiKiribati none
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea Chiny seeks to stem illegal migration of tens of thousands of North Koreans escaping famine, economic privation, and political oppression; North Korea and Chiny dispute the sovereignty of certain islands w Yalu and Tumen rivers and a section of boundary around Paektu-san (mountain) is indefinite; Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic maritime disputes z South over the Northern Limit Line; North Korea supports South Korea w rejecting Japonia's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima)
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic maritime disputes z North Korea over the Northern Limit Line; South Korea and Japonia claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954
KuwejtKuwejt Kuwejt and Arabia Saudyjska continue negotiating a joint maritime boundary z Iran; no maritime boundary exists z Irak w the Persian Gulf
KirgistanKirgistan delimitation z Kazachstan is complete; disputes w Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation z Tadzykistan; delimitation is underway z Uzbekistan but serious disputes around enclaves and elsewhere continue to mar progress dla some 130 km of border
LaosLaos Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Laos and Tajlandia pledge to complete demarcation of boundaries w 2005, while ongoing disputes over squatters and boundary encroachment by Tajlandia including Mekong River islets persist; w 2004 Kambodzan-Laotian boundary commission agrees to re-erect missing markers w two adjoining provinces; concern among Mekong Commission members that Chiny's construction of dams on the Mekong River will affect water levels
LotwaLotwa the Lotwan-Rosjan boundary treaty of 1997 remains unsigned and unratified z Rosja linking it to better Lotwan treatment of ethnic Rosjans and Lotwan politicians demanding Rosjan agreement to a declaration that admits Soviet aggression during the Second Swiat War and other issues; the Lotwan parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Lotwa must implement the strict Schengen border rules
LibanLiban intense international pressure prompts the removal of Syrian troops and intelligence personnel from Liban; Lebanese Government claims Shab'a Farms area of Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force w Liban (UNIFIL) has been w place since 1978
LesothoLesotho none
LiberiaLiberia although Liberia's domestic fighting among disparate rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs was declared over w 2003, civil unrest persists, and w 2004, 133,000 Liberian refugees remained w Gwinea, 72,000 w Cote d'Ivoire, 67,000 w Sierra Leone, and 43,000 w Ghana; Liberia, w turn, shelters refugees fleeing turmoil w Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone; since 2003, the UN Mission w Liberia (UNMIL) has maintained about 18,000 peacekeepers w Liberia; the Cote d'Ivoire Government accuses Liberia of supporting Ivoirian rebels; UN sanctions ban Liberia from exporting diamonds and timber
LibiaLibia Libia has claimed more than 32,000 sq km w southeastern Algieria and about 25,000 sq km w Niger w currently dormant disputes; various Czadian rebels from the Aozou region reside w southern Libia
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein in luty 2005, the ICJ refused to rule on the restitution of Liechtenstein's land and property assets w the Czechy confiscated w 1945 as German property
LitwaLitwa in 2003, the Litwa-Rosja land and maritime boundary treaty was ratified and a transit regime established through Litwa linking Rosja and its Kaliningrad coastal exclave, leaving only improvements to the border demarcation w 2005; by 2004, a third of the Bialorus-Litwa boundary had been demarcated; the Lotwan parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, primarily due to concerns over oil; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Litwa must implement the strict Schengen border rules
LuksemburgLuksemburg none
MakauMakau none
MacedoniaMacedonia ethnic Albanians w Kosowo object to demarcation of the boundary z Macedonia w accordance z the 2000 Macedonia-Federalna Republika Jugoslawii delimitation agreement; Grecja continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
MadagaskarMadagaskar claims Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, and Juan de Nova (all administered by Francja)
MalawiMalawi disputes z Tanzania over the boundary w Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
MalezjaMalezja Malezja has asserted sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Chiny, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions over the Wyspy Spratly, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malezja was not party to the marzec 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam on conducting marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapur, Singapur's land reclamation, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih - but parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years; ICJ awarded Ligitan and Sipadan islands, also claimed by Indonezja and Filipiny, to Malezja but left maritime boundary w the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea w dispute, culminating w hostile confrontations w marzec 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block; separatist violence w Tajlandia's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border z Malezja to stem terrorist activities; Filipiny retains a now dormant claim to Malezja's Sabah State w northern Borneo; w 2003, Brunei and Malezja ceased gas and oil exploration w their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international adjudication; Malezja's land boundary z Brunei around Limbang is w dispute; piracy remains a problem w the Malacca Strait
MalediwyMalediwy none
MaliMali none
MaltaMalta none
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla claims US territory of Wake
MartynikaMartynika none
MauretaniaMauretania Mauretanian claims to Sahara Zachodnia have been dormant w recent years
MauritiusMauritius Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego), and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly w Mauritius, were granted UK citizenship but no right to patriation w the UK; claims French-administered Wyspa Tromelin
MajottaMajotta claimed by Komory
MeksykMeksyk prolonged drought, population growth, and outmoded practices and infrastructure w the border region have strained water-sharing arrangements z the US; the US has stepped up efforts to stem nationals from Meksyk, Central America, and other parts of the world from illegally crossing the border z Meksyk
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji none
MidwayMidway none
MoldawiaMoldawia Moldawia and Ukraina have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldawia's break-away Transnistria Region which remains under OSCE supervision
MonakoMonako none
MongoliaMongolia none
MontserratMontserrat none
MarokoMaroko claims and administers Sahara Zachodnia whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained w effect since wrzesien 1991, but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; Maroko protests Hiszpania's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation setting limits on exploration and refugee interdiction since Maroko's 2002 rejection of Hiszpania's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Maroko serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Hiszpania from North Africa
MozambikMozambik none
NamibiaNamibia border commission has yet to resolve small residual disputes z Botswana along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls; managed dispute z Republika Poludniowej Afryki over the location of the boundary w the Orange River; Namibia has supported and w 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited Botswana-Zambia, boundary w the river
NauruNauru none
NavassaNavassa claimed by Haiti, source of subsistence fishing
NepalNepal joint border commission continues to work on small disputed sections of boundary z Indie; Indie has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities
HolandiaHolandia none
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie none
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia Matthew and Hunter Islands east of Nowa Kaledonia claimed by Francja and Vanuatu
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia asserts a territorial claim w Antarktyda (Ross Dependency) [see Antarktyda]
NikaraguaNikaragua Nikaragua filed a claim against Honduras w 1999 and against Kolumbia w 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km w the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; the 1992 ICJ ruling dla Salwador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border z Kostaryka
NigerNiger Libia claims about 25,000 sq km w a currently dormant dispute; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint z Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and states expect a ruling w 2005 from the ICJ over the disputed Niger and Mekrou River islands; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes Czad and Niger
NigeriaNigeria ICJ ruled w 2002 on the entire Kamerun-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced z demarcation w less-contested sections of the boundary, starting w Lake Czad w the north; Nigeria initially rejected cession of the Bakassi Peninsula, then agreed, but has yet to withdraw its forces while much of the indigenous population opposes cession; w 2004, some 17,000 Nigerian refugees fleeing ethnic conflicts between pastoralists and farmers w 2002 still reside w Kamerun; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates w the ICJ decision, the unresolved Bakasi allocation, and a sovereignty dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay w implementation; a joint task force was established w 2004 that resolved disputes over and redrew the maritime and the 870-km land boundary z Benin on the Okpara River; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes Czad and Niger
NiueNiue none
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk none
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne none
NorwegiaNorwegia Norwegia asserts a territorial claim w Antarktyda (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite recent discussions, Rosja and Norwegia continue to dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone
OmanOman boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified z UAE w 2003 dla entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details have not been made public
Ocean SpokojnyOcean Spokojny some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
PakistanPakistan recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; w 2004, Indie and Pakistan instituted a cease fire w the Kashmir, and w 2005 restored bus service across the highly militarized Line of Control; Pakistan has taken its dispute on the impact and benefits of Indie's building the Baglihar dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir to the Swiat Bank dla arbitration and w general the two states still dispute Indus River water sharing; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, Indie and Pakistan resurveyed a portion of the disputed Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch w 2004; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh w Indie's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan z UN assistance had repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees and has undertaken a census to count the remaining million or more, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan maintains troops w remote tribal areas to control the border z Afganistan and root out organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings z Afghan and Coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments
PalauPalau border delineation disputes being negotiated z Filipiny, Indonezja
PalmyraPalmyra none
PanamaPanama organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia operate within the border region z Panama
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonezja, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists
Wyspy ParacelskieWyspy Paracelskie occupied by Chiny, also claimed by Tajwan and Wietnam
ParagwajParagwaj unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations
PeruPeru Peru proposes changing its latitudinal maritime boundary z Chile to an equidistance line z a southwestern axis; organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru does not support Boliwia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
FilipinyFilipiny The Filipiny claims sovereignty over certain of the Wyspy Spratly, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by Chiny, Malezja, Tajwan, and Wietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea," has eased tensions w the Wyspy Spratly but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Filipiny retains a dormant claim to Malezja's Sabah State w northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Filipiny Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf
PitcairnPitcairn none
PolskaPolska as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Polska must implement the strict Schengen border rules
PortugaliaPortugalia none
PortorykoPortoryko increasing numbers of illegal migrants from the Republika Dominikanska cross the Mona Passage to Portoryko each year looking dla work
KatarKatar none
ReunionReunion none
RumuniaRumunia Rumunia and Ukraina have taken their dispute over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary to the ICJ dla adjudication; Rumunia also opposes Ukraina's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraina to the Black Sea; Wegry amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians w Rumunia, to which Rumunia had objected
RosjaRosja in 2004, Chiny and Rosja divided up the islands w the Amur, Ussuri, and Argun Rivers, ending a century-old border dispute; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known w Japonia as the "Northern Territories" and w Rosja as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja, and claimed by Japonia, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Swiat War II hostilities; Rosja and Georgia agree on delimiting 80% of their common border, leaving certain small, strategic segments and the maritime boundary unresolved; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Kodori Gorge w Abkhazia; equidistant seabed treaties were signed and ratified z Azerbejdzan and Kazachstan w the Caspian Sea but no consensus exists on dividing the water column among the littoral states; Rosja and Norwegia dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone; various groups w Finlandia advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following the Second Swiat War but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; w 1996, the Estonia-Rosja technical border agreement was initialed but both have been hesitant to sign and ratify it, z Rosja asserting that Estonia needs to better assimilate Rosjan-speakers and Estonian groups advocating realignment of the boundary based more closely on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; the Lotwan-Rosjan boundary treaty of 1997 remains unsigned and unratified z Rosja linking it to better Lotwan treatment of ethnic Rosjans and Lotwan politicians demanding Rosjan agreement to a declaration that admits Soviet aggression during the Second Swiat War and other issues; w 2003, the Litwa-Rosja land and maritime boundary treaty was ratified and a transit regime established through Litwa linking Rosja and its Kaliningrad coastal exclave, leaving only improvements to the border demarcation w 2005; delimitation of land boundary z Ukraina is complete, but states have agreed to defer demarcation; Rosja and Ukraina continue talks but still dispute the alignment of a maritime boundary through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov; Kazachstan and Rosja continue demarcation of their long border; Rosjan Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement z the US w the Bering Sea
RuandaRuanda Tutsi, Hutu, Hema, Lendu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting w Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated areas and natural resources - government heads pledge to end conflicts, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; DROC and Ruanda established a border verification mechanism w 2005 to address accusations of Ruandan military supporting Congolese rebels and the Congo providing rebel Ruandan "Interhamwe" forces the means and bases to attack Ruandan forces; as of 2004, Ruandan refugees lived w the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Zambia
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena none
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon none
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
SamoaSamoa none
San MarinoSan Marino none
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca none
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska despite resistance from nomadic groups, the demarcation of the Arabia Saudyjska-Jemen boundary established under the 2000 Jeddah Treaty is almost complete; Jemen protests Saudi erection of a concrete-filled pipe as a security barrier w 2004 to stem illegal cross-border activities w sections of the boundary; Kuwejt and Arabia Saudyjska continue discussions on a maritime boundary z Iran; because the treaties have not been made public, the exact alignment of the boundary z the UAE is still unknown
SenegalSenegal The Gambia and Gwinea Bissau attempt to stem Senegalese citizens from the Casamance region fleeing separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling
Federalna Republika JugoslawiiFederalna Republika Jugoslawii Kosowo remains unresolved administered by several thousand peacekeepers from the UN Interim Administration Mission w Kosowo (UNMIK) since 1999, z Kosovar Albanians overwhelmingly supporting and Serbian officials opposing Kosowo independence; the international community had agreed to begin a process to determine final status but contingency of solidifying multi-ethnic democracy w Kosowo has not been satisfied; ethnic Albanians w Kosowo refuse demarcation of the boundary z Macedonia w accordance z the 2000 Macedonia-Federalna Republika Jugoslawii delimitation agreement; Federalna Republika Jugoslawii have delimited about half of the boundary z Bosnia i Hercegowina, but sections along the Drina River remain w dispute
SeszeleSeszele together z Mauritius, Seszele claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego)
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone domestic fighting among disparate rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs w Cote d'Ivoire, Gwinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone perpetuate insurgencies, street violence, looting, arms trafficking, ethnic conflicts, and refugees w border areas; UN Mission w Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) has maintained over 4,000 peacekeepers w Sierra Leone since 1999; Sierra Leone pressures Gwinea to remove its forces from the town of Yenga occupied since 1998
SingapurSingapur disputes persist z Malezja over deliveries of fresh water to Singapur, Singapur's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih - parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years; Indonezja and Singapur pledged w 2005 to finalize their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Batam Island; piracy remains a problem w the Malacca Strait
SlowacjaSlowacja Wegry amended its status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians w Slowacja, to which Slowacja had protested; consultations continue between Slowacja and Wegry over Wegry's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slowacja must implement the strict Schengen border rules
SloweniaSlowenia the Chorwacja-Slowenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slowenia and several villages to Chorwacja, remains unratified and w dispute; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slowenia must implement the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties z Chorwacja
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona Australian Defense Force leads the Regional Assistance Mission to the Wyspy Salomona (RAMSI) at the invitation of the Wyspy Salomona' Government to maintain civil and political order and reinforce regional security
SomaliaSomalia "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities to land-locked Etiopia and establish commercial ties z regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek support from neighboring states w their secessionist aspirations and w conflicts z each other; Etiopia has only an administrative line z the Oromo region of southern Somalia and maintains alliances z local Somali clans opposed to the unrecognized Somali Interim Government, which plans eventual relocation from Kenia to Mogadishu; rival militia and clan fighting w southern Somalia periodically spills over into Kenia; most of the remaining 23,000 Somali refuges w Etiopia are expected to be repatriated w 2005
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki Republika Poludniowej Afryki has placed military along the border to stem the thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing to find work and escape political persecution; managed dispute z Namibia over the location of the boundary w the Orange River
Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich PoludniowyGeorgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy Argentyna, which claims the islands w its constitution and briefly occupied the islands by force w 1982, agreed w 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force
Ocean PoludniowyOcean Poludniowy Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarktyda entry), but Argentyna, Australia, Chile, Francja, NZ, Norwegia, and UK assert claims (some overlapping), including the continental shelf w the Ocean Poludniowy; several states have expressed an interest w extending those continental shelf claims under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to include undersea ridges; the US and most other states do not recognize the land or maritime claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Rosja have reserved the right to do so); no formal claims exist w the waters w the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west
HiszpaniaHiszpania in 2003, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation w talks between the UK and Hiszpania; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Maroko protests Hiszpania's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Maroko serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Hiszpania from North Africa
Wyspy SpratlyWyspy Spratly all of the Wyspy Spratly are claimed by Chiny, Tajwan, and Wietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malezja and the Filipiny; w 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef w the southern Wyspy Spratly but has not publicly claimed the reef; claimants w listopad 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea," which has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities w the Spratlys
Sri LankaSri Lanka none
SudanSudan the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-twentieth century have penetrated all of its border states who provide shelter dla fleeing refugees and cover to disparate domestic and foreign conflicting elements; since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military have driven about 200,000 Darfur region refugees into eastern Czad; large numbers of Sudanese refugees have also fled to Uganda, Etiopia, Kenia, the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; southern Sudan provides shelter to Ugandans seeking periodic protection from soldiers of the Lord's Resistance Army; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia have been delayed by civil and ethnic fighting w Sudan; Kenia's administrative boundary extends into the southern Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Egipt and Sudan retain claims to administer triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egipt is economically developing the "Hala'ib Triangle" north of the Treaty Line; periodic violent skirmishes z Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations from the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie along the border
SurinamSurinam area claimed by Gujana Francuska between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Surinam claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers w a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Gujana seeks UNCLOS arbitration to resolve the long-standing dispute z Surinam over the axis of the territorial sea boundary w potentially oil-rich waters
SvalbardSvalbard despite recent discussions, Rosja and Norwegia dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone
SuaziSuazi none
SzwecjaSzwecja none
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria none
SyriaSyria Golan Heights is Izraeli-occupied z the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; Liban claims Shaba'a farms w Golan Heights; international pressure prompts the removal of Syrian troops and intelligence personel stationed w Liban since pazdziernik 1976; Syria protests Turkish hydrological projects regulating upper Euphrates waters; 2004 Agreement and pending demarcation settles border dispute z Jordania
TajwanTajwan involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Filipiny, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Wyspy Paracelskie are occupied by Chiny, but claimed by Tajwan and Wietnam; w 2003, Chiny and Tajwan became more vocal w rejecting both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone w the East Chiny Sea where all parties engage w hydrocarbon prospecting
TadzykistanTadzykistan boundary agreements signed w 2002 cede 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to Chiny w return dla Chiny relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km of Tadzykistani lands but neither state has published maps of ceded areas and demarcation has not yet commenced; talks continue z Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes w Isfara Valley delay delimitation z Kirgistan
TanzaniaTanzania disputes z Malawi over the boundary w Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
TajlandiaTajlandia separatist violence w Tajlandia's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls z Malezja to stem terrorist activities; southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Laos and Tajlandia pledge to complete demarcation of their boundary w 2005; despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain z Birma over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Kambodza and Tajlandia dispute sections of boundary z missing boundary markers; Kambodza claims Thai encroachments into Kambodzan territory and obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Kambodza by ICJ decision w 1962; ethnic Karens from Birma flee into Tajlandia to escape fighting between Karen rebels and Burmese troops resulting w Tajlandia sheltering about 118,000 Burmese refugees w 2004; Karens also protest Thai support dla a Burmese hydroelectric dam construction on the Salween River near the border; environmentalists w Birma and Tajlandia remain concerned about Chiny's construction of hydroelectric dams upstream on the Nujiang/Salween River w Yunnan Province
TogoTogo in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary
TokelauTokelau none
TongaTonga none
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago Barbados will assert its claim before UNCLOS that the northern limit of Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into its waters; Gujana has also expressed its intention to challenge this boundary as it may extend into its waters as well
Wyspa TromelinWyspa Tromelin claimed by Mauritius
TunezjaTunezja none
TurcjaTurcja complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes z Grecja w the Aegean Sea; status of north Cypr question remains; Syria and Irak protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak; border z Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan cotton monoculture w Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; bilateral talks continue z Azerbejdzan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields w the middle of the Caspian; demarcation of land boundary z Kazachstan has started but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos have received Haitians fleeing economic and civil disorder
TuvaluTuvalu none
UgandaUganda Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces; Ugandan refugees have fled the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) into the southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; LRA forces have also attacked Kenian villages across the border
UkrainaUkraina 1997 boundary treaty z Bialorus remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary z Rosja is complete but the parties have agreed to defer demarcation; maritime boundary through the Sea of Azov and Kerch Strait remains unresolved despite a grudzien 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Moldawia and Ukraina have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldawia's break-away Transnistria Region which remains under OSCE supervision; Ukraina and Rumunia have taken their dispute over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary to the ICJ dla adjudication; Rumunia opposes Ukraina's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through the Ukraina to the Black Sea
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie because the treaties have not been made public, the exact alignment of the boundary z Arabia Saudyjska is still unknown; boundary agreement was signed and ratified z Oman w 2003 dla entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves, but contents of the agreement and maps showing the alignment have not been published; UAE engage w direct talks and solicit Arab League support to resolve disputes over Iran's occupation of Lesser and Greater Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania in 2003, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation w talks between the UK and Hiszpania; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seszele claim the Chagos Archipelago (Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego), and its former inhabitants since their eviction w 1965; most Chagosians reside w Mauritius, and w 2001 were granted UK citizenship but no right to patriation w the UK; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentyna, which still claims the Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy; territorial claim w Antarktyda (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone prolonged drought, population growth, and outmoded practices and infrastructure w the border region strains water-sharing arrangements z Meksyk; the US has stepped up efforts to stem nationals from Meksyk, Central America, and other parts of the world from crossing illegally into the Stany Zjednoczone from Meksyk; illegal immigrants from the Caribbean, notably Haiti and the Republika Dominikanska, attempt to enter the US through Florida by sea; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement w the Bering Sea still awaits Rosjan Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes z Kanada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; US and Kanada seek greater cooperation w monitoring people and commodities crossing the border; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Kuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa; US has made no territorial claim w Antarktyda (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other state; Wyspy Marshalla claims Wake
UrugwajUrugwaj uncontested dispute z Brazylia over certain islands w the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada streams and the resulting tripoint z Argentyna
UzbekistanUzbekistan cotton monoculture w Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; delimitation z Kazachstan complete z demarcation underway; delimitation is underway z Kirgistan but serious disputes around enclaves and elsewhere continue to mar progress dla some 130 km of border; talks continue z Tadzykistan to delimit border and remove minefields
VanuatuVanuatu Matthew and Hunter Islands east of Nowa Kaledonia claimed by Vanuatu and Francja
WenezuelaWenezuela claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River w Gujana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Gujana has expressed its intention to join Barbados w asserting claims before UNCLOS that the Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into their waters; dispute z Kolumbia over Los Monjes islands and maritime boundary near the Gulf of Wenezuela; Kolumbian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Wenezuela's shared border region resulting w several thousand residents migrating away from the border; US, Francja and the Holandia recognize Wenezuela's claim to give full effect to Aves Island, which creates a Wenezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea; Dominika, Saint Kitts i Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent i Grenadyny protest Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation and other states' recognition of it
WietnamWietnam southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Kambodza and Laos protest Wietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; w 2004 Laotian-Wietnamese boundary commission agrees to erect missing markers w two adjoining provinces; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation has been delayed; Chiny occupies Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Wietnam continues to expand construction of facilities w the Wyspy Spratly; w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze none
WakeWake claimed by Wyspy Marshalla
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna none
Zachodni BrzegZachodni Brzeg Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Izrael continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the Zachodni Brzeg; Izrael announced its intention to pull out settlers and withdraw from four settlements w the northern Zachodni Brzeg w 2005; since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), headquartered w Jerusalem, monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel w the region
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia Maroko claims and administers Sahara Zachodnia, whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained w effect since wrzesien 1991, administered by the UN Mission dla the Referendum w Sahara Zachodnia (MINURSO), but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals
SwiatSwiat stretching over 250,000 km, the world's 325 international land boundaries separate the 192 independent states and 73 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting w sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; maritime states have claimed limits and have so far established over 130 maritime boundaries and joint development zones to allocate ocean resources and to provide dla national security at sea; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary w intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; most disputes over the alignment of political boundaries are confined to short segments and are today less common and less hostile than borderland, resource, and territorial disputes; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries, however, encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic clashes continue to be responsible dla much of the territorial fragmentation around the world; disputes over islands at sea or w rivers frequently form the source of territorial and boundary conflict; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially petroleum) resources, fisheries, and arable land; nonetheless, most nations cooperate to clarify their international boundaries and to resolve territorial and resource disputes peacefully; regional discord directly affects the sustenance and welfare of local populations, often leaving the world community to cope z resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, deforestation, and desertification
JemenJemen Jemen protests Erytrea fishing around the Hanish Islands awarded to Jemen by the ICJ w 1999; despite resistance from nomadic groups, the demarcation of the Arabia Saudyjska-Jemen boundary established under the 2000 Jeddah Treaty is almost complete; Jemen protests Saudi erection of a concrete-filled pipe as a security barrier w 2004 to stem illegal cross-border activities w sections of the boundary
ZambiaZambia in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections and joined Namibia w supporting plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited Botswana-Zambia boundary w the river; 90,000 Angolan refugees were repatriated from Zambia by 2004, the remaining 160,000 are expected to return w 2005
ZimbabweZimbabwe Botswana has built electric fences and Republika Poludniowej Afryki has placed military along the border to stem the flow of thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing to find work and escape political persecution; Namibia has supported and w 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited Botswana-Zambia boundary w the river
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