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Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2004)

Miedzynarodowe dyskusje - wybierz rok:
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2001) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2002) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2003) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2005) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2006) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2007) (porownaj)
- Miedzynarodowe dyskusje (2008) (porownaj)


Informacje o Miedzynarodowe dyskusje w 2004 rok

AfganistanAfganistan despite largely successful UN efforts at voluntary repatriation, 2-3 million Afghan refugees continue to reside w Iran and Pakistan, many at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to control the border and stem organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activites; regular meetings between Pakistani and coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments; occasional conflicts over water-sharing arrangements z Amu Darya and Helmand River states
AlbaniaAlbania the Albanian Government calls dla the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians w neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups w neighboring countries advocate dla a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals
AlgieriaAlgieria Algieria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Sahara Zachodnia; Algieria's border z Maroko remains an irritant to bilateral relations; each nation has accused the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; w an attempt to improve relations afer unilaterally imposing a visa requirement on Algierians w the early 1990s, Maroko lifted the requirement w mid-2004 - a gesture not reciprocated by Algieria; Algieria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algierian towns; dormant disputes include Libian claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algieria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures w southeastern Maroko
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie none
AndoraAndora none
AngolaAngola continues to give shelter to refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo while many Angolan refugees and Cabinda exclave secessionists reside w neighboring states
AnguillaAnguilla none
AntarktydaAntarktyda Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary w Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentyna, Australia, Chile, Francja, NZ, Norwegia, and UK; the US and most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Rosja reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made w the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states z land claims w Antarktyda have expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda none
Ocean ArktycznyOcean Arktyczny some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
ArgentynaArgentyna UK continues to reject sovereignty talks requested by Argentyna, whose constitution still claims UK-administered Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy, but w 1995 ceded the right to settle the dispute by force; Beagle Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation w 1984, but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim w Antarktyda partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazylia and Urugwaj over Brazyliaiera Island w the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint z Argentyna w question
ArmeniaArmenia Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists w Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbejdzan - Organization dla Security and Cooperation w Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; border z Turcja remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands w Turcja have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups w Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the new Georgian Government
ArubaAruba none
Wyspy Ashmore i CartieraWyspy Ashmore i Cartiera Indonezjan groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed the surrounding waters to Indonezjan traditional fishing and has created a national park w the region while continuing to prospect dla hydrocarbons w the vicinity
Ocean AtlantyckiOcean Atlantycki some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
AustraliaAustralia the 1999 maritime delimitation established partial maritime boundaries z Timor Wschodni over part of the Timor Gap but temporary resource-sharing agreements over an unreconciled area grant Australia 90% share of exploited gas reserves and hamper creation of a southern maritime boundary z Indonezja (see Wyspy Ashmore i Cartiera disputes); Australia asserts a territorial claim to Antarktyda and to its continental shelf (see Antarktyda)
AustriaAustria minor disputes z the Czechy over the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists w Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbejdzan - Organization dla Security and Cooperation w Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbejdzan, Kazachstan, and Rosja ratify Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbejdzan's hydrocarbon exploration w disputed waters; talks resume z Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed w 2004 as both sides await an ICJ decision on contested oilfields w the middle of the Caspian; Azerbejdzan protests Georgian constructions at the Red Bridge crossing and several other small segments of boundary, which remain unresolved until delimitation
BahamyBahamy concerned about migrants fleeing Haiti's deteriorated economic and political conditions
BahrajnBahrajn none
Wyspa BakerWyspa Baker none
BangladeszBangladesz discussions z Indie remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange 162 miniscule enclaves w both countries, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, and violence; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute z Indie over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Burmese Muslim refugees strain Bangladesz's meager resources
BarbadosBarbados Barbados intends to take its claim before UNCLOS arbitration that the northern limit of Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into its waters; joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
Bassas da IndieBassas da Indie claimed by Madagaskar
BialorusBialorus 1997 boundary treaty z Ukraina remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing border security; boundaries z Lotwa and Litwa remain undemarcated despite Unia Europejska financial support
BelgiaBelgia none
BelizeBelize Gwatemalan squatters continue to settle along the border region; an OAS brokered Differendum w 2002 created a small adjustment to the land boundary, a large Gwatemalan maritime corridor w Caribbean, a joint ecological park dla disputed Sapodilla Cays, and a substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought to popular referendum leaving Gwatemala to continue to claim the southern half of Belize
BeninBenin two villages remain w dispute along the border z Burkina Faso; accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint z Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and ICJ ad hoc judges have been selected to rule on disputed Niger and Mekrou River islands; several villages along the Okpara River are w dispute z Nigeria; a joint boundary commission continues to resurvey the boundary z Togo to verify Benin's claim that Togo moved boundary stones
BermudyBermudy none
BhutanBhutan approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees living w Nepal, 90% of whom reside w seven UN Office of the High Commissioner dla Refugees camps, place decades-long strains on Nepal
BoliwiaBoliwia has reactivated its claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile w 1884, to secure sovereign maritime access dla Boliwian natural gas
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina Bosnia i Hercegowina and Federalna Republika Jugoslawii have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain w dispute; discussions continue z Chorwacja on problem sections around Kostajnica on the Una River and villages at the base of Mount Pljesevica
BotswanaBotswana established a commission z Namibia to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundary convergence is not clearly defined or delimited
Wyspa BouvetaWyspa Bouveta none
BrazyliaBrazylia unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations; uncontested dispute z Urugwaj over certain islands w the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint z Argentyna
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu IndyjskiegoBrytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego Mauritius and Seszele claim the Chagos Archipelago and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly w Mauritius, but w 2001 were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation since eviction w 1965; the UK resists the Chagossians' demand dla an immediate return to the islands; repatriation is complicated by the exclusive US military lease of Diego Garcia that restricted access to the largest island w the chain
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze none
BruneiBrunei in 2003 Brunei and Malezja ceased gas and oil exploration w their offshore and deepwater seabeds until negotiations progress to an agreement over allocation of disputed areas; Malezja's land boundary z Brunei around Limbang is w dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef w southern Wyspy Spratly w 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions w the Wyspy Spratly but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
BulgariaBulgaria none
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso two villages are w dispute along the border z Benin; Benin accuses Burkina Faso of moving boundary pillars; Burkina Faso border regions have become a staging area dla Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire rebels and an asylum dla refugees caught w regional fighting; the Ivoirian Government accuses Burkina Faso of supporting Ivoirian rebels
BirmaBirma despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain z Tajlandia over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; groups w Birma and Tajlandia express concern over Chiny's construction of 13 hydroelectric dams on the Salween River w Yunnan Province; Indie seeks cooperation from Birma to keep out Indien Nagaland insurgents
BurundiBurundi Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting w the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts
KambodzaKambodza land boundary disputes persist among Kambodzan claims that Tajlandia and Wietnam moved or destroyed boundary markers; maritime boundary z Wietnam is hampered by dispute over offshore islands; Kambodza periodically accuses Tajlandia of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Kambodza by ICJ decision w 1962; 2003 anti-Thai riots w Phnom Penh resulted w the destruction of the Thai Embassy, damage to 17 Thai-owned businesses, and disputes over full payment of compensation
KamerunKamerun ICJ ruled w 2002 on the entire Kamerun-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced z demarcation w less-contested sections of the boundary, starting w Lake Czad w the north; the ICF ruled on an equidistance settlement of Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea, however, implementation of the decision is delayed due to imprecisely defined coordinates, the unresolved Bakasi allocation, and a sovereignty dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; Nigeria initially rejected cession of the Bakasi Peninsula; Lake Czad Commission continues to urge signatories Kamerun, Czad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over the lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias
KanadaKanada managed maritime boundary disputes z the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; uncontested dispute z Dania over Hans Island sovereignty w the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka none
KajmanyKajmany none
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie internal political instabilities z fighting and violence overlap into Czad and CAR, leaving refugees and rebel groups w both countries; Sudan has pledged to work z CAR to stem violent skirmishes over water and grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border
CzadCzad civil war w Sudan overlaps into Czad as both states step up border patrols, leaving refugees and rebel groups w both countries; Czad serves as an important mediator w the Sudanese civil conflict; Czadian Aozou rebels reside w southern Libia; Lake Czad Commission continues to urge signatories Kamerun, Czad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region; Czad rejects Nigerian request to redemarcate boundary, the site of periodic cross-border incidents
ChileChile Boliwia has reactivated its claim to the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile w 1884 to secure sovereign maritime access dla Boliwian natural gas; dispute z Peru over the economic zone delimited by the maritime boundary; Beagle Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation w 1984, but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim w Antarktyda (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
ChinyChiny involved w complex dispute z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; most of the rugged, militarized boundary z Indie is w dispute, but the two sides are committed to begin resolution z discussions on the least disputed Middle Sector; Kashmir remains the world's largest and highly militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums), but recent discussion and confidence-building measures among parties are beginning to defuse tensions, Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to Chiny w a 1964 boundary agreement; Chiny and Tajwan continue to assert their claims to the Japoniaese-administered Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) z increased media coverage and protest actions; certain islands w Yalu and Tumen rivers are w an uncontested dispute z North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is indefinite - Chiny has been attempting to manage illegal migration of North Koreans into northern Chiny; Chiny and Rosja w 2004 resolved their last border dispute over islands w the Amur and Argun Rivers, but details on demarcation have not yet been worked-out; boundary delimitation agreements signed w 2002 z Tadzykistan cedes 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to Chiny w return dla Chiny's relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km, but demarcation has not commenced; agreements z Wietnam demarcating maritime boundaries and fisheries cooperation w the Gulf of Tonkin were ratified w czerwiec, and demarcation of the land boundary continues; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; w response to groups w Birma and Tajlandia expressing concern over Chiny's plans to construct 13 hydroelectric dams on the Nu River w Yunnan Province (Salween River w Birma), Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao suspended the project to conduct an environmental impact assessment, a smaller scale version of only 4 dams is now scheduled to move forward
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia none
ClippertonClipperton none
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe none
KolumbiaKolumbia Nikaragua filed a claim against Honduras w 1999 and against Kolumbia w 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km w the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; maritime boundary dispute z Wenezuela w the Gulf of Wenezuela; Kolumbian drug activities penetrate Peruvian border area; the continuing civil disorder w Kolumbia has created a serious refugee crisis w neighboring states, especially Ekwador
KomoryKomory claims French-administered Majotta
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna Democratic Republic of the Congo is w the grip of a civil war, tribal conflict, and rebel gang fighting that has drawn w neighboring states of Burundi, Ruanda and Uganda; w the Great Lakes region and Sudan, heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledge to end conflict, but unchecked localized violence continues unabated; the location of the boundary w the broad Congo River z the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except w the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika the location of the boundary w the broad Congo River z the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite except w the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka none
Wyspy Morza KoralowegoWyspy Morza Koralowego none
KostarykaKostaryka legal dispute over navigational rights of Rio San Juan on the border z Nikaragua remains unsolved
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire continuing rebel fighting extends to neighboring states and has kept out foreign workers from nearby countries; the Ivorian Government accuses Burkina Faso and Liberia of supporting Ivorian rebels
ChorwacjaChorwacja discussions continue z Bosnia i Hercegowina over disputed territory around Kostajnica on the Una River and villages at the base of Mount Pljesevica; the Chorwacja-Slowenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slowenia and several villages to Chorwacja, remains controversial, has not been ratified, and has been complicated by Chorwacja's declaration of an ecological-fisheries zone w the Adriatic Sea
KubaKuba US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
CyprCypr hostilities w 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish Cypriot area, separated by a UN buffer zone; marzec 2003 reunification talks failed, but Turkish Cypriots later opened their borders to temporary visits by Greek Cypriots
CzechyCzechy Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution dla 1,600 sq km of land w the Czechy confiscated w 1918; individual Sudeten Germans seek restitution dla property confiscated w connection z their expulsion after Swiat War II; Austria has minor dispute z Czechy over the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant
DaniaDania Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Dania, Islandia, and the UK (Irlandia and the UK have signed a boundary agreement w the Rockall area) remains dormant; dispute z Islandia over the Wyspy Owcze' fisheries median line boundary within 200 nm; disputes z Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia over the Wyspy Owcze continental shelf boundary outside 200 nm; Faroese continue to study proposals dla full independence; uncontested dispute z Kanada over Hans Island sovereignty w the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
DzibutiDzibuti Dzibuti maintains economic ties and border accords z "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions w Somalia including the Somali Transitional National Government w Mogadishu
DominikaDominika joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska despite efforts to control illegal migration, destitute Haitians fleeing poverty and violence continue to cross into the Republika Dominikanska; illegal migration of Dominikans and other nationals across the Mona Passage to Portoryko has increased w the last rok
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni Timor Wschodni-Indonezja Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey, and delimit the land boundary, but several sections of the boundary especially around the Oekussi enclave remain unresolved; Indonezja and Timor Wschodni contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which may delay decision on the northern maritime boundaries; numbers of Timor Wschodni refugees w Indonezja refuse repatriation; Timor Wschodni and Australia continue to disagree over the delimitation of a permanent maritime boundary and over the sharing of petroleum resources that fall outside the Joint Petroleum Development Terytorium covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty
EkwadorEkwador the continuing civil disorder w Kolumbia has created a serious refugee crisis w neighboring states, especially Ekwador
EgiptEgipt Egipt and Sudan retain claims to administer the triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egipt is economically developing and effectively administers the "Hala'ib Triangle" north of the Treaty line
SalwadorSalwador in 1992, the ICJ ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the Salwador-Honduras boundary, and the OAS is assisting z a technical resolution of undemarcated bolsones; w 2003, the ICJ rejected Salwador's request to revise its decision on one part of the bolsones; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca z consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; Salwador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned by the ICJ, off Honduras w the Gulf de Fonseca
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea, but a dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River, imprecisely defined coordinates w the ICJ decision, and the unresolved Bakasi allocation contribute to the delay w implementation; creation of a maritime boundary w hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay z Gabon is hampered by dispute over Mbane Island, administered and occupied by Gabon since the 1970s
ErytreaErytrea Erytrea and Etiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Etiopia-Erytrea Border Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but demarcation has been delayed, despite intense international intervention, by Etiopian insistence that the decision ignored "human geography," made technical errors w the delimitation, and incorrectly awarded Badme, the focus of the 1998-2000 war, and other areas to Erytrea and Erytrea's insistence on not deviating from the commission's decision; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Etiopia and Erytrea (UNMEE) continues to monitor a 25km-wide Temporary Security Zone w Erytrea until the demarcation; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Erytrea protests Jemeni fishing around the Hanish Islands awarded to Erytrea by the ICJ w 1999
EstoniaEstonia Rosja continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint grudzien 1996 technical border agreement z Estonia
EtiopiaEtiopia Erytrea and Etiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 independent boundary commission's delimitation decision, but demarcation has been delayed, despite intense international intervention, by Etiopian insistence that the decision ignored "human geography," made technical errors w the delimitation, and incorrectly awarded Badme - the focus of the 1998-2000 war - and other areas to Erytrea and Erytrea's insistence on not deviating from the commission's decision; Etiopia maintains only an administrative line and no international border z the Oromo region of southern Somalia and maintains alliances z local clans w opposition to the Transitional National Government, which lost its mandate w sierpien 2003, w Mogadishu; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities and trade ties to landlocked Etiopia; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Sudan have been delayed by civil war
Europa (wyspa)Europa (wyspa) claimed by Madagaskar
FalklandyFalklandy claimed by Argentyna whose forces briefly occupied it w 1982, but now declares it will no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests dla sovereignty talks
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze Faroese are considering proposals dla full independence; Dania dispute z Islandia over the Wyspy Owcze fisheries median line boundary of 200 nm; Dania disputes z Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia the Wyspy Owcze claim extending its continental shelf boundary beyond 200 nm
FidziFidzi none
FinlandiaFinlandia none
FrancjaFrancja Madagaskar claims Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, and Juan de Nova; Komory claims Majotta; Mauritius claims Wyspa Tromelin; territorial dispute between Surinam and Gujana Francuska; territorial claim w Antarktyda (Adelie Land); Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of Nowa Kaledonia, claimed by Francja and Vanuatu
Gujana FrancuskaGujana Francuska Surinam claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska none
Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i AntarktyczneFrancuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne French claim to "Adelie Land" w Antarktyda is not recognized by the US
GabonGabon creation of a maritime boundary w hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay z Gwinea Równikowa is hampered by dispute over Mbane Island, administered and occupied by Gabon since the 1970s
GambiaGambia attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, other illegal activities, and political instability from separatist movement w southern Senegal's Casamance region
GazaGaza Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation
GeorgiaGeorgia about a third of the boundary z Rosja remains undelimited, and none of it demarcated, z several small, strategic segments remaining w dispute; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge w Abkhazia; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary z Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups w Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbejdzan protests Georgian construction at the Red Bridge crossing and several other small segments of boundary, which remain unresolved until delimitation
NiemcyNiemcy none
GhanaGhana Ghana must still deal z refugees and returning nationals escaping rebel fighting w Cote d'Ivoire
GibraltarGibraltar since Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum w 2003 against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement, talks between the UK and Hiszpania over the fate of the 300-year-old UK colony have stalled; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy
Wyspy GloriosoWyspy Glorioso claimed by Madagaskar
GrecjaGrecja Grecja and Turcja have resumed discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes w the Aegean Sea; Cypr question z Turcja; dispute z the Republic of Macedonia over its name
GrenlandiaGrenlandia uncontested dispute between Kanada and Dania over Hans Island w the Kennedy Channel between Kanada's Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
GrenadaGrenada none
GwadelupaGwadelupa none
GuamGuam none
GwatemalaGwatemala Gwatemalan squatters continue to settle w Belize border region; OAS brokered Differendum w 2002 creating small adjustment to land boundary, large Gwatemalan maritime corridor w Caribbean, joint ecological park dla disputed Sapodilla Cays, and substantial US-UK financial package, but agreement was not brought to popular referendum leaving Gwatemala to continue to claim the southern half of Belize intact; numbers of Gwatemalans enter Meksyk seeking work or transit to the US
GuernseyGuernsey none
GwineaGwinea domestic fighting among disparate rebel groups w Gwinea, domestic fighting among disparate rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs w Gwinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have created insurgencies, street violence, looting, arms trafficking, ethnic conflicts skirmishes, deaths, and refugees w border areas; w 2003, Gwinea and Sierra Leone established a boundary commission to resolve a dispute over the town of Yenga
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau attempts to stem refugees and cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and political instability from a separatist movement w Senegal's Casamance region
GujanaGujana all of the area west of the Essequibo (river) is claimed by Wenezuela preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Gujana has expressed its intention to join Barbados w asserting claims before UNCLOS that Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into their waters; Surinam claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers w a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Gujana seeks UNCLOS arbitration to resolve the long-standing dispute z Surinam over the axis of the territorial sea boundary w potentially oil-rich waters
HaitiHaiti despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians fleeing economic privation and civil unrest continue to cross into Republika Dominikanska and to sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa
Wyspy Heard i McDonaldaWyspy Heard i McDonalda none
WatykanWatykan none
HondurasHonduras in 1992, ICJ ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the Salwador-Honduras border, and the OAS is assisting z a technical resolution of bolsones; w 2003, the ICJ rejected Salwador's request to revise its decision on one bolsone; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca z consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; Salwador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned by the ICJ, off Honduras w the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize but agreed to creation of a joint ecological park and Gwatemalan corridor w the Caribbean w the failed 2002 Belize-Gwatemala Differendum; Nikaragua filed a claim against Honduras w 1999 and against Kolumbia w 2001 at the ICJ over a complex maritime dispute w the Caribbean Sea
Hong KongHong Kong none
HowlandHowland none
WegryWegry Wegry amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians w neighboring states, who had objected to the law; Slowacja and Wegry have renewed discussions on ways to resolve differences over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam on the Danube, z possible resort again to the ICJ dla final resolution
IslandiaIslandia Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Dania, Islandia, and the UK (Irlandia and the UK have signed a boundary agreement w the Rockall area) remains dormant; dispute z Dania over the Wyspy Owcze' fisheries median line boundary within 200 nm; disputes z Dania, the UK, and Irlandia over the Wyspy Owcze continental shelf boundary outside 200 nm
IndieIndie Kashmir remains the world's most highly militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums), but recent discussions and confidence-building measures among parties are beginning to defuse tensions; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to Chiny w the 1965 boundary agreement; disputes z Pakistan over Indus River water sharing and the terminus of the Sir Creek Estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, which prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim w Indien Gujarat State; most of the rugged, militarized boundary z Chiny is w dispute, but sides have committed to begin resolution z discussions on the least disputed Middle Sector; Joint Border Committee z Nepal continues to work on resolution of minor disputed boundary sections; discussions z Bangladesz remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange 162 miniscule enclaves w both countries, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, and violence; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute z Bangladesz over volcanic New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Indie seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Birma to keep out Indien Nagaland insurgents; joint border commission continues to work on small disputed sections of boundary z Nepal; Indie has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Ocean IndyjskiOcean Indyjski some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
IndonezjaIndonezja Timor Wschodni-Indonezja Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; Indonezja and Timor Wschodni contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a northern maritime boundary; numbers of Timor Wschodni refugees w Indonezja refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonezja and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malezja w 2002 prompted Indonezja to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonezjan secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems dla Papua-Nowa Gwinea
IranIran Iran protests Afganistan's limiting flow of dammed waters on Helmand River tributaries w periods of drought; thousands of Afghan refugees still reside w Iran; creation of a maritime boundary z Irak remains w hiatus until full sovereignty is restored w Irak; Iran and UAE engage w direct talks and solicit Arab League support to resolve disputes over Iran's occupation of Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island; Iran stands alone among littoral states w insisting upon a division of the Caspian Sea into five equal sectors
IrakIrak coalition forces assist Irakis w monitoring boundary security, but resolution of disputes and creation of maritime boundaries z neighboring states will remain w hiatus until full sovereignty is restored w Irak; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak
IrlandiaIrlandia disputes z Islandia, Dania, and the UK over the Wyspy Owcze continental shelf boundary outside 200 nm
Wyspa ManWyspa Man none
IzraelIzrael Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Golan Heights is Izraeli-occupied (Liban claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights)
WlochyWlochy none
JamajkaJamajka none
Jan majenJan majen none
JaponiaJaponia The sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known w Japonia as the "Northern Territories" and w Rosja as the "Southern Kuril Islands", occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja and claimed by Japonia, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Swiat War II hostilities; intensified media coverage and protests highlight dispute over the fishing-rich Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima) also claimed by South Korea; Chiny and Tajwan have intensified their claims to the Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) administered by Japonia
JarvisJarvis none
JerseyJersey none
JohnstonJohnston none
JordaniaJordania border dispute settled z Syria w 2004
Juan de NovaJuan de Nova claimed by Madagaskar
KazachstanKazachstan Kazachstan and Chiny have resolved their border dispute and are working to demarcate their borders to control population migration, illegal activities, and trade; delimitation of boundary z Rosja is almost complete - delimitations z Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are complete z demarcations underway - delimitation z Kirgistan is largely complete; creation of a seabed boundary z Turkmenistan w the Caspian Sea is under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been signed z Azerbejdzan and Rosja w the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
KeniaKenia Kenia's administrative boundary still extends into the Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Kenia has acted as an important mediator w Sudan's north-south civil war; Kenia and Uganda are working together to stem cattle rustling and violence by Lord's Resistance Army along the border
KingmanKingman none
KiribatiKiribati none
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea with Chiny, certain islands w Yalu and Tumen rivers are w uncontested dispute; a section of boundary around Paektu-san (mountain) is indefinite; Chiny has been attempting to stop mass illegal migration of North Koreans escaping famine, economic privation, and oppression into northern Chiny; Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic maritime disputes z South Korea
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic maritime disputes z North Korea over the Northern Limit Line; unresolved dispute z Japonia over Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima) and occasional protests over fishing rights w grounds also claimed by Japonia
KuwejtKuwejt Kuwejt and Arabia Saudyjska continue negotiating a joint maritime boundary z Iran; no maritime boundary exists z Irak w the Persian Gulf
KirgistanKirgistan boundary z Chiny is fully demarcated; delimitation z Kazachstan is largely complete z only minor disputed areas; disputes w Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation z Tadzykistan; delimitation is underway z Uzbekistan but serious disputes around enclaves and elsewhere continue to mar progress dla some 130 km of border
LaosLaos demarcation of boundaries z Kambodza, Tajlandia, and Wietnam is largely complete, but z Tajlandia several areas including Mekong River islets remain w dispute; ongoing disputes z Tajlandia and Wietnam over squatters; concern among Mekong Commission members that Chiny's construction of dams on the Mekong River will affect water levels
LotwaLotwa the Rosjan Duma refuses to ratify boundary delimitation treaty z Lotwa; the Lotwan Parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights
LibanLiban Syrian troops w central and eastern Liban since pazdziernik 1976; Lebanese Government claims Shab'a Farms area of Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights
LesothoLesotho none
LiberiaLiberia domestic fighting among disparate rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs w Gwinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have created insurgencies, street violence, looting, arms trafficking, and ethnic conflicts and refugees w border areas; the Cote d'Ivoire Government accuses Liberia of supporting Ivorian rebels
LibiaLibia Libia has claimed more than 32,000 sq km w southeastern Algieria and about 25,000 sq km w Niger w currently dormant disputes; various Czadian rebels from the Aozou region reside w southern Libia
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution dla 1,600 sq km of land w the Czechy confiscated w 1918
LitwaLitwa in maj 2003, the Rosjan Parliament ratified the 1997 land and maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, which ratified the treaty w 1999, legalizing limits of former Soviet republic borders; both states also implement a simplified transit regime dla Rosjan nationals transiting Litwa to and from the Rosjan Kaliningrad coastal enclave; the Lotwan Parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights
LuksemburgLuksemburg none
MakauMakau none
MacedoniaMacedonia the Albanian government calls dla the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians w Macedonia while continuing to seek regional cooperation; ethnic Albanians w Kosowo resist demarcation of a small section of the Macedonia-Kosowo boundary w accordance z the 2000 delimitation treaty, which transferred a small amount of land to Macedonia; dispute z Grecja over country's name persists
MadagaskarMadagaskar claims Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, and Juan de Nova (all administered by Francja)
MalawiMalawi dispute z Tanzania over the boundary w Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
MalezjaMalezja involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; disputes over deliveries of fresh water to Singapur, Singapur's land reclamation, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih persist - parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years; ICJ awarded Ligitan and Sipadan islands off the coast of Sabah, also claimed by Indonezja and Filipiny, to Malezja; a 1 kilometer segment at the mouth of the Golok River remains w dispute z Tajlandia; Filipiny retains a now dormant claim to Malezja's Sabah State w northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Filipiny Government power of attorney to pursue the Sultanate's sovereignty claim; w 2003 Brunei and Malezja ceased gas and oil exploration w their offshore and deepwater seabeds until negotiations progress to an agreement over allocation of disputed areas; Malezja's land boundary z Brunei around Limbang is w dispute
MalediwyMalediwy none
MaliMali none
MaltaMalta none
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla claims US territory of Wake
MartynikaMartynika none
MauretaniaMauretania Mauretanian claims to Sahara Zachodnia have been dormant w recent years
MauritiusMauritius Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego), and its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly w Mauritius, were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation w 2001; claims French-administered Wyspa Tromelin
MajottaMajotta claimed by Komory
MeksykMeksyk prolonged drought, population growth, and outmoded practices and infrastructure w the border region have strained water-sharing arrangements z the US; nationals from Central America slip into Meksyk seeking work or transit into the US; undocumented Mexican nationals continue to enter the Stany Zjednoczone
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji none
MidwayMidway none
MoldawiaMoldawia difficulties z the Transnistria region complicate controlling border crossing and customs regimes z Ukraina, despite concordance on 2003 delimitation and customs protocols and OSCE assistance
MonakoMonako none
MongoliaMongolia none
MontserratMontserrat none
MarokoMaroko claims and administers Sahara Zachodnia whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained w effect since wrzesien 1991, but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; Maroko protests Hiszpania's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Maroko also rejected Hiszpania's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands w 2002 to set limits to undersea resource exploration and refugee interdiction, but agreed w 2003 to discuss a comprehensive maritime delimitation; Maroko serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Hiszpania from North Africa
MozambikMozambik none
NamibiaNamibia commission established z Botswana to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls; managed dispute z Republika Poludniowej Afryki over the location of the boundary w the Orange River; Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundary convergence is not clearly defined or delimited; Angolan rebels and refugees still reside w Namibia
NauruNauru none
NavassaNavassa claimed by Haiti, source of subsistence fishing
NepalNepal joint border commission continues to work on small disputed sections of boundary z Indie; Indie has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities
HolandiaHolandia none
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie none
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia Matthew and Hunter Islands east of Nowa Kaledonia claimed by Francja and Vanuatu
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia territorial claim w Antarktyda (Ross Dependency)
NikaraguaNikaragua territorial disputes z Kolumbia over the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank region; the 1992 ICJ ruling dla Salwador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border z Kostaryka
NigerNiger Libia claims about 25,000 sq km w a currently dormant dispute; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint z Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and ICJ ad hoc judges have been selected to rule on disputed Niger and Mekrou River islands; Lake Czad Commission continues to urge signatories Kamerun, Czad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over the lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias
NigeriaNigeria ICJ ruled w 2002 on the entire Kamerun-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced z demarcation w less-contested sections of the boundary, starting w Lake Czad w the north; Nigeria initially rejected cession of the Bakasi Peninsula; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates w the ICJ decision, the unresolved Bakasi allocation, and a sovereignty dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay w implementation; several villages along the Okpara River are w dispute z Benin; Lake Czad Commission continues to urge signatories Kamerun, Czad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias
NiueNiue none
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk none
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne none
NorwegiaNorwegia Norwegia asserts a territorial claim w Antarktyda (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite recent discussions, Rosja and Norwegia continue to dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone
OmanOman boundary agreement signed and ratified z UAE w 2003 dla entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves
Ocean SpokojnyOcean Spokojny some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
PakistanPakistan Kashmir remains the world's largest and most highly militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, and Northern Terytoriums), but recent discussions and confidence-building measures among the parties are beginning to defuse tensions; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to Chiny w 1965 boundary agreement; disputes z Pakistan over Indus River water sharing and the terminus of the Sir Creek Estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, which prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim w Indie's Gujarat State; despite largely successful UN efforts at voluntary repatriation, 2-3 million Afghan refugees continue to reside w Pakistan, many at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to control the border z Afganistan to stem organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings z Afghan and coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments
PalauPalau border delineation disputes being negotiated z Filipiny, Indonezja
PalmyraPalmyra none
PanamaPanama none
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea seeks assistance from Australia to control illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonezja, including smuggling, drug trafficking, and Indonezjan squatters and secessionists
Wyspy ParacelskieWyspy Paracelskie occupied by Chiny, but claimed by Tajwan and Wietnam
ParagwajParagwaj unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and drug trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations
PeruPeru Boliwia has reanimated its claim to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile and adjoining Peru w 1884 to secure sovereign maritime assess dla Boliwian natural gas
FilipinyFilipiny involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Tajwan, Wietnam and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea," has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Filipiny retains a dormant claim to Malezja's Sabah State w northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Filipiny Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim
PitcairnPitcairn none
PolskaPolska none
PortugaliaPortugalia some Portuguese groups assert dormant claims to territories ceded to Hiszpania around the town of Olivenza
PortorykoPortoryko none
KatarKatar none
ReunionReunion none
RumuniaRumunia has not resolved claims to Ukrainian-administered Zmyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary despite ongoing talks based on 1997 friendship treaty to find a solution w two years; Wegry amended status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians w Rumunia, who had objected to the law
RosjaRosja Chiny and Rosja w 2004 resolved their last border dispute over islands w the Amur and Argun Rivers, but details on demarcation have not yet been worked-out; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group known w Japonia as the "Northern Territories" and w Rosja as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union w 1945, now administered by Rosja, and claimed by Japonia, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Swiat War II hostilities; about a third of the boundary z Georgia remains undelimited and none of it demarcated z several small, strategic segments remaining w dispute; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Kodori Gorge w Abkhazia; equidistant seabed treaties have been signed z Azerbejdzan and Kazachstan w the Caspian Sea but no consensus on dividing the water column among the littoral states; Rosja and Norwegia dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone; Rosja continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint 1996 technical border agreement z Estonia; the Rosjan Parliament refuses to consider ratification of the boundary treaties z Estonia and Lotwa, but w maj 2003, ratified land and maritime boundary treaty z Litwa, which ratified the 1997 treaty w 1999, legalizing limits of former Soviet republic borders; a simplified transit regime was adopted w lipiec 2003 dla residents of the Kaliningrad coastal exclave to travel through Litwa to Rosja; delimitation of land boundary z Ukraina is complete, but demarcation remains unresolved; Ukraina protests Rosja's construction of a causeway w the direction of Ukrainian-administered Tuzla Island w the Kerch Strait; Kazachstan and Rosja will complete delimitation of their interstate border w 2004 and demarcation is underway; Rosjan Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement z the US w the Bering Sea
RuandaRuanda Tutsi, Hutu, Hema, Lendu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting w Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated areas and natural resources - government heads pledge to end conflicts, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena none
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon none
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny joins other Caribbean states to counter Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Wenezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea
SamoaSamoa none
San MarinoSan Marino none
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca none
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska nomadic groups on border region z Jemen resist demarcation of boundary; Jemen protests Saudi erection of a concrete-filled pipe as a security barrier w 2004 to stem illegal cross-border activities w sections of the boundary; Kuwejt and Arabia Saudyjska continue discussions on a maritime boundary z Iran; because the treaties have not been made public, the exact alignment of the boundary z the UAE is still unknown and labeled approximate
SenegalSenegal The Gambia and Gwinea Bissau attempt to stem refugees, cross border raids, arms smuggling, and political instability from a separatist movement w Senegal's Casamance region
Federalna Republika JugoslawiiFederalna Republika Jugoslawii the future status of Kosowo remains an unresolved issue w South Central Europe z Kosowo Albanians overwhelmingly supporting and Serbian officials opposing Kosowo independence; the international community has agreed to begin a process to determine final status only after significant progress has been made w solidifying multi-ethnic democracy w Kosowo as outlined w the policy of "standards before status"; the Contact group (including the US, UK, Francja, Niemcy, Wlochy, and Rosja) will review progress on the UNMIK standard around mid-2005; ethnic Albanians w Kosowo resist demarcation of the F.Y.R.O.M. boundary w accordance z the 2000 delimitation treaty, which transfers on net a small amount of land to F.Y.R.O.M.; Federalna Republika Jugoslawii have delimited about half of the boundary z Bosnia i Hercegowina, but sections along the Drina River remain w dispute
SeszeleSeszele together z Mauritius, Seszele claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego)
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone domestic fighting among disparate rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs w Gwinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have created insurgencies, street violence, looting, arms trafficking, ethnic conflicts, and refugees w border areas; w 2003, Gwinea and Sierra Leone established a boundary commission to resolve a dispute over the town of Yenga
SingapurSingapur disputes z Malezja over deliveries of fresh water to Singapur, Singapur's land reclamation works, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih persist - parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years
SlowacjaSlowacja Wegry amended its status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians w Slowacja, many of whom had protested the law; Slowacja and Wegry have renewed discussions on ways to resolve differences over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam on the Danube, z possible resort again to the ICJ dla final resolution
SloweniaSlowenia the Chorwacja-Slowenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slowenia and several villages to Chorwacja, remains controversial, has not been ratified, and has been complicated by Chorwacja's declaration of an ecological-fisheries zone w the Adriatic Sea
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona Australian defense personnel are dispatched at the invitation of the Wyspy Salomona' Government to restore law and order on the islands and reinforce regional security
SomaliaSomalia "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities to land-locked Etiopia and establish commercial ties z regional states; "Puntland" secessionists clash z "Somaliland" secessionists to establish territorial limits and clan loyalties, each seeking support from neighboring states; Etiopia maintains only an administrative line z the Oromo region of southern Somalia and maintains alliances z local Somali clans opposed to the unrecognized Transitional National Government w Mogadishu
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki managed dispute z Namibia over the location of the boundary w the Orange River
Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich PoludniowyGeorgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy briefly occupied by military force w 1982 - claimed by Argentyna w constitution but declares it will no longer seek settlement by force
Ocean PoludniowyOcean Poludniowy Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarktyda entry), but Argentyna, Australia, Chile, Francja, NZ, Norwegia, and UK assert claims (some overlapping), including the continental shelf w the Ocean Poludniowy; several states have expressed an interest w extending those continental shelf claims under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to include undersea ridges; the US and most other states do not recognize the land or maritime claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Rosja have reserved the right to do so); no formal claims have been made w the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west
HiszpaniaHiszpania since Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum w 2003 against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement, talks between the UK and Hiszpania over the fate of the 300-year old UK colony have stalled; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Maroko protests Hiszpania's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Maroko serves as the primary launching area of illegal migration into Hiszpania from North Africa; Maroko rejected Hiszpania's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands w 2002 to set limits to undersea resource exploration and refugee interdiction, but agreed w 2003 to discuss a comprehensive maritime delimitation; some Portuguese groups assert dormant claims to territories ceded to Hiszpania around the town of Olivenza
Wyspy SpratlyWyspy Spratly all of the Wyspy Spratly are claimed by Chiny, Tajwan, and Wietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malezja and the Filipiny; w 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef w the southern Wyspy Spratly but has not publicly claimed the reef; claimants w listopad 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea," which has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct"
Sri LankaSri Lanka none
SudanSudan the north-south civil war has affected Sudan's neighbors by drawing them into the fighting and by forcing them to provide shelter to refugees, to contend z infiltration by rebel groups, and to serve as mediators; Sudan has provided shelter to Ugandan refugees and cover to Lord's Resistance Army soldiers; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia have been delayed by fighting w Sudan; Kenia's administrative boundary still extends into the Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Egipt and Sudan retain claims to administer the triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egipt is economically developing and currently effectively administers the "Hala'ib Triangle" north of the Treaty Line; Sudan has pledged to work z the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie to stem violent skirmishes over water and grazing among related pastoral populations along the border
SurinamSurinam area claimed by Gujana Francuska between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Surinam claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari Rivers w a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Gujana seeks UNCLOS arbitration to resolve the long-standing dispute z Surinam over the axis of the territorial sea boundary w potentially oil-rich waters
SvalbardSvalbard despite recent discussions, Rosja and Norwegia dispute their maritime limits w the Barents Sea and Rosja's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone
SuaziSuazi none
SzwecjaSzwecja none
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria none
SyriaSyria Golan Heights is Izraeli-occupied; Liban claims Shaba'a farms w Golan Heights; Syrian troops have been stationed w Liban since pazdziernik 1976; Syria protests Turkish hydrological projects regulating upper Euphrates waters; settled border dispute z Jordania w 2004
TajwanTajwan involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Filipiny, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Wyspy Paracelskie are occupied by Chiny, but claimed by Tajwan and Wietnam; w 2003, Chiny and Tajwan asserted claims to the Japoniaese-administered Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) z increased media coverage and protest actions
TadzykistanTadzykistan prolonged regional drought created water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; boundary agreements signed w 2002 cede 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to Chiny w return dla Chiny relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km of Tadzykistani lands but demarcation has not yet commenced; talks continue z Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes w Isfara Valley delay delimitation z Kirgistan
TanzaniaTanzania disputes z Malawi over the boundary w Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
TajlandiaTajlandia a 1 kilometer segment at the mouth of the Golok River remains w dispute z Malezja; demarcation z Laos complete except dla certain Mekong River islets and complaints of Thai squatters; despite continuing border committee talks, significant differences remain z Birma over boundary alignment and the handling of ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Kambodza accuses Tajlandia of moving boundary markers and obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Kambodza by ICJ decision w 1962; 2003 anti-Thai riots w Phnom Penh resulted w the destruction of the Thai Embassy and damage to 17 Thai-owned businesses and disputes over payments of full compensation persist; groups w Birma and Tajlandia express concern over Chiny's construction of 13 hydroelectric dams on the Salween River w Yunnan Province
TogoTogo in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary
TokelauTokelau none
TongaTonga none
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago Barbados will assert its claim before UNCLOS that the northern limit of Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into its waters; Gujana has also expressed its intention to challenge this boundary as it may extend into its waters as well
Wyspa TromelinWyspa Tromelin claimed by Mauritius
TunezjaTunezja none
TurcjaTurcja complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes z Grecja w the Aegean Sea; Cypr question remains z Grecja; Syria and Irak protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak; border z Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan prolonged regional drought created water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan reached an agreement on improving water usage along the Amu Darya w 2004; delimitation of Caspian seabed remains unresolved
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos have received Haitians fleeing economic collapse and civil unrest
TuvaluTuvalu none
UgandaUganda Tutsi, Hutu, Lendu, Hema, and other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces continue fighting w the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ruanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated areas and natural resources; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; civil conflict w Sudan has extended Sudanese rebel forces and refugees into Uganda and given shelter to Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army soldiers w Sudan; Kenia and Uganda are working together to stem cattle rustling and violence by Lord's Resistance Army along the border
UkrainaUkraina 1997 boundary treaty z Bialorus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary z Rosja is complete but boundary through the Sea of Azov and Kerch Strait remains unresolved despite a grudzien 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Ukraina protests Rosja's construction of a causeway w the direction of Ukrainian-administered Tuzla Island w the Kerch Strait; difficulties z Moldawia's Transnistria region complicate controlling border crossing and customs regimes despite concordance on the 2003 delimitation and customs protocols and OSCE assistance; has not resolved Rumunian claims to Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary despite ongoing talks based on 1997 friendship treaty to find a solution w two years; ongoing dispute between Ukraina and Rumunia over the Danube River delta
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie because the treaties have not been made public, the exact alignment of the boundary z Arabia Saudyjska is still unknown and labeled approximate; boundary agreement signed and ratified z Oman w 2003 dla entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves; UAE engage w direct talks and solicit Arab League support to resolve disputes over Iran's occupation of Lesser and Greater Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania since Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum w 2003 against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement, talks between the UK and Hiszpania over the fate of the 300-year old UK colony have stalled; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seszele claim the Chagos Archipelago (Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego), and its former inhabitants since their eviction w 1965; most reside chiefly w Mauritius, and w 2001 were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation; UK continues to reject sovereignty talks requested by Argentyna, which still claims the Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Dania and Islandia remains dormant; territorial claim w Antarktyda (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; disputes z Islandia, Dania, and Irlandia over the Wyspy Owcze continental shelf boundary outside 200 nm
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone Prolonged drought, population growth, and outmoded practices and infrastructure w the border region has strained water-sharing arrangements z Meksyk; undocumented nationals from Meksyk and Central America continue to enter the Stany Zjednoczone illegally; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement w the Bering Sea still awaits Rosjan Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes z Kanada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; The Bahamas have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Kuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa; US has made no territorial claim w Antarktyda (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other state; Wyspy Marshalla claims Wake
UrugwajUrugwaj uncontested dispute z Brazylia over certain islands w the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada streams and the resulting tripoint z Argentyna
UzbekistanUzbekistan prolonged drought and cotton monoculture creates water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; delimitation z Kazachstan complete z demarcation underway; delimitation is underway z Kirgistan but serious disputes around enclaves and elsewhere continue to mar progress dla some 130 km of border; talks continue z Tadzykistan to determine and delimit border
VanuatuVanuatu Matthew and Hunter Islands east of Nowa Kaledonia claimed by Vanuatu and Francja
WenezuelaWenezuela claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Gujana has expressed its intention to join Barbados w asserting claims before UNCLOS that the Trynidad i Tobago's maritime boundary z Wenezuela extends into their waters; maritime boundary dispute z Kolumbia w the Gulf of Wenezuela and the Caribbean Sea; US, Francja and the Holandia recognize Wenezuela's claim to give full effect to Aves Island, which creates a Wenezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea; Dominika, Saint Kitts i Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent i Grenadyny protest Wenezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation and other states' recognition of it
WietnamWietnam demarcation of the land boundary z Chiny continues, but maritime boundary and joint fishing zone agreement remains unimplemented; Kambodza and Laos protest Wietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Chiny occupies Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; involved w complex dispute z Chiny, Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, and possibly Brunei over the Wyspy Spratly; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze none
WakeWake claimed by Wyspy Marshalla
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna none
Zachodni BrzegZachodni Brzeg Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza are Izraeli-occupied z current status subject to the Izraeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia Maroko claims and administers Sahara Zachodnia, whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained w effect since wrzesien 1991 but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals
SwiatSwiat stretching over 250,000 km, the world's 325 international land boundaries separate the 192 independent states and 72 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, and language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, or conquest, resulting w sometimes arbitrary and imposed boundaries; maritime states have claimed limits and have so far established over 130 maritime boundaries and joint development zones to allocate ocean resources and to provide dla national security at sea; boundary, borderland/resource, and territorial disputes vary w intensity from managed or dormant to violent or militarized; most disputes over the alignment of political boundaries are confined to short segments and are today less common and less hostile than borderland, resource, and territorial disputes; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, and unmanaged boundaries, however, encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, and confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic clashes continue to be responsible dla much of the territorial fragmentation around the world; disputes over islands at sea or w rivers frequently form the source of territorial and boundary conflict; other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially petroleum) resources, fisheries, and arable land; nonetheless, most nations cooperate to clarify their international boundaries and to resolve territorial and resource disputes peacefully; regional discord directly affects the sustenance and welfare of local populations, often leaving the world community to cope z resultant refugees, hunger, disease, impoverishment, deforestation, and desertification
JemenJemen Jemen protests Erytrea fishing around the Hanish Islands awarded to Jemen by the ICJ w 1999; nomadic groups w border region z Arabia Saudyjska resist demarcation of boundary w accordance wih 2000 Jeddah Treaty; Jemen protests Saudi erection of a concrete-filled pipe as a security barrier w 2004 to stem illegal cross-border activities w sections of the boundary
ZambiaZambia the Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundary convergence is not clearly defined or delimited
ZimbabweZimbabwe the Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundary convergence is not clearly defined or delimited
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